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GENERATION OPEN 
An International Look at the 
Coming Revolution in Education 
Nicole Allen (@txtbks) 
Director of Open Ed...
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
2014 theme is “Generation Open” 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
http://www.openaccessweek.org
WHAT IS 
GENERATION 
OPEN? 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
Image CC BY-SA from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ 
File:Encyclopaedia_Britannica_1...
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
http://www.wikipedia.org
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
Image CC BY by woodleywonderworks https://www.flickr.com/ 
photos/wwworks/38941738...
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
http://berlin.craigslist.de/
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Telefonbog_ubt-1.JPG 
(CC BY)
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
“LEFTOVER 
PARADIGMS” 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
Openness is about 
removing barriers 
(cost, access, use rights, formats) 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
The “ah ha!” moment 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
Source http://www.amazon.com/Linear-Algebra-Its- 
Applications-Edition/dp/00301056...
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
Source http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-13-368
$1,207 
(€931) 
Average student budget for 
books and supplies for the 
2013-2014 academic year 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www....
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
GENERATION OPEN & 
CHANGING PARADIGMS 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
Paradigm 1 
A publisher is necessary to 
disseminate knowledge 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
How knowledge used to be 
disseminated… 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ 
File:...
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Illuminated.bible.arp.jpg
Printing press made it possible to 
create books more efficiently 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
http://en.wikip...
But selling physical books requires 
infrastructure and support – which is 
why publishers were essential 
@txtbks | #OERd...
Paradigm 1 
A publisher is necessary to 
disseminate knowledge* 
Everyone can share knowledge 
with the whole world, insta...
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
Source http://www.slugbooks.com/ (CC BY-NC)
* Publishers still have important 
roles to play, but no longer do 
they offer the unique service of 
distributing knowled...
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
http://www.nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp? 
pims_id=5741&org=DUE
“Transferability and dissemination 
are critical aspects for projects 
developing instructional materials” 
@txtbks | #OER...
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/
Free archive of articles reporting 
results of research funded by the 
U.S. government’s National 
Institutes of Health (N...
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
http://www.doleta.gov/taaccct/
• $2 billion grant program to 
develop job training programs 
• All materials must be licensed 
Creative Commons Attributi...
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
http://ec.europa.eu/programmes/erasmus-plus/ 
documents/erasmus-plus-programme-gui...
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
Paradigm 2 
Online education works just like 
face to face education 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
The Medieval Lecture 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ 
File:Laurentius_de_Voltolina_...
The Modern Lecture 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File: 
5th_Floor_Lecture_Hal...
The MOOC? 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
© Inside Higher Ed https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/ 
stratedgy/big-mooc-data
“A study of edX student habits… 
found that certificate-earning 
students generally stop watching 
videos longer than 6 to...
Paradigm 2 
Online education works just like 
face to face education 
Online education is a new 
environment with new rule...
“The Polo Analogy” 
(Dr. David Wiley @opencontent) 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
Polo ≠ Water Polo 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Polo_players.jpg 
(publi...
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/one-dimensional- 
motion/acceleration_...
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
http://oli.cmu.edu/courses/free-open/introductory-psychology- 
course-details/
• Free online open 
courses with built-in 
analytics 
• Use data to identify 
problems and improve 
the content 
• 100K+ s...
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
Source http://pm4id.org/
• Professor took a project 
management open 
textbook and had 
students adapt it as part 
of their course 
@txtbks | #OERd...
Paradigm 3 
The way to make money on 
educational materials is to sell 
access 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
http://www.coursesmart.com/college-physics/eugenia-etkina- 
michael-gentile-alan-v...
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
http://www.coursesmart.com/college-physics/eugenia-etkina- 
michael-gentile-alan-v...
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
Image © from http://www.cnn.com/2013/06/28/showbiz/ 
heat-director-buddy-cop/
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
http://www.digitalbookworld.com/2013/students-still-not- 
taking-to-e-textbooks-ne...
Only 6% of U.S. higher 
education students report 
using a digital textbook as 
their main material (2013) 
@txtbks | #OER...
Paradigm 3 
The way to make money on 
educational materials is to sell 
access 
Restricting access to content in 
order to...
Openness enables 
everything the digital 
environment makes possible. 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
• Free online 
• Free PDF 
• Free ePub 
• Print $49.73 
• Instructor can adapt 
and distribute 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.s...
• Free online 
• Free PDF 
• Free ePub 
• Print $49.73 
• Instructor can adapt 
and distribute 
Non-profit project that pa...
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
Startup company that 
curates Wikipedia content 
into textbooks, and offers 
basic versions for free and 
premium versions...
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 
http://utahopentextbooks.org/2012/01/25/114/
• State-sponsored project 
to customize and use 
open textbooks instead of 
traditional texts. 
• Cut costs 50% while 
mai...
Students can’t learn from 
materials they can’t afford 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
2 in 3 
U.S. higher education students say they 
decided against buying a textbook 
because the cost is too high 
@txtbks ...
Percentage of Students Passing With C or Better 
Developmental Math Results" 
Percentage passing with C or better 
70.00% ...
BECOMING 
GENERATION OPEN 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
Openness spreads 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
What barriers are you facing? 
What paradigms are causing 
those barriers? 
How can you help others have 
an “ah ha!” mome...
Is openness inevitable? 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
Openness is inevitable if 
we make it inevitable 
@txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
GENERATION OPEN 
An International Look at the 
Coming Revolution in Education 
Nicole Allen (@txtbks) 
Director of Open Ed...
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#OERde14 Keynote: "Generation Open: An International Look at the Coming Revolution in Education"

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We live at a time of transition between the disconnected, analog past to the wired, digital future. Nowhere is the tension between these two worlds more obvious than in education, where schools and universities hold onto centuries-old paradigms at the same time they seek to harness today’s technology. Many of these paradigms — for example, the traditional lecture-style course that we often see replicated in MOOCs — create unnecessary limitations and barriers that hold back the transformational power of technology in education. Openness is the key to overcoming these barriers and unleashing all that is possible in the digital environment. Teachers, learners, researchers, and policymakers around the world are awakening to this potential, creating a new generation that will define the future of education. I’m part of Generation Open, are you?

Published in: Education
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#OERde14 Keynote: "Generation Open: An International Look at the Coming Revolution in Education"

  1. 1. GENERATION OPEN An International Look at the Coming Revolution in Education Nicole Allen (@txtbks) Director of Open Education, SPARC #OERde14 | September 13, 2014 Except where otherwise noted… ! @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  2. 2. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  3. 3. 2014 theme is “Generation Open” @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://www.openaccessweek.org
  4. 4. WHAT IS GENERATION OPEN? @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  5. 5. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org Image CC BY-SA from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ File:Encyclopaedia_Britannica_15_with_2002.jpg
  6. 6. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://www.wikipedia.org
  7. 7. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org Image CC BY by woodleywonderworks https://www.flickr.com/ photos/wwworks/3894173886/
  8. 8. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://berlin.craigslist.de/
  9. 9. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Telefonbog_ubt-1.JPG (CC BY)
  10. 10. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  11. 11. “LEFTOVER PARADIGMS” @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  12. 12. Openness is about removing barriers (cost, access, use rights, formats) @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  13. 13. The “ah ha!” moment @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  14. 14. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org Source http://www.amazon.com/Linear-Algebra-Its- Applications-Edition/dp/0030105676
  15. 15. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  16. 16. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  17. 17. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org Source http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-13-368
  18. 18. $1,207 (€931) Average student budget for books and supplies for the 2013-2014 academic year @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org Source http://trends.collegeboard.org/college-pricing/ figures-tables/average-estimated-undergraduate-budgets- 2013-14
  19. 19. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  20. 20. GENERATION OPEN & CHANGING PARADIGMS @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  21. 21. Paradigm 1 A publisher is necessary to disseminate knowledge @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  22. 22. How knowledge used to be disseminated… @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:Ancientlibraryalex.jpg (CC PD)
  23. 23. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Illuminated.bible.arp.jpg
  24. 24. Printing press made it possible to create books more efficiently @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Illuminated.bible.arp.jpg
  25. 25. But selling physical books requires infrastructure and support – which is why publishers were essential @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://www.harvard.com/about/warehouse/
  26. 26. Paradigm 1 A publisher is necessary to disseminate knowledge* Everyone can share knowledge with the whole world, instantly and at virtually no cost @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  27. 27. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org Source http://www.slugbooks.com/ (CC BY-NC)
  28. 28. * Publishers still have important roles to play, but no longer do they offer the unique service of distributing knowledge @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  29. 29. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://www.nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp? pims_id=5741&org=DUE
  30. 30. “Transferability and dissemination are critical aspects for projects developing instructional materials” @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://www.nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp? pims_id=5741&org=DUE
  31. 31. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/
  32. 32. Free archive of articles reporting results of research funded by the U.S. government’s National Institutes of Health (NIH) @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/
  33. 33. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://www.doleta.gov/taaccct/
  34. 34. • $2 billion grant program to develop job training programs • All materials must be licensed Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 and posted in a public repository @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://www.doleta.gov/taaccct/
  35. 35. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://ec.europa.eu/programmes/erasmus-plus/ documents/erasmus-plus-programme-guide_en.pdf
  36. 36. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  37. 37. Paradigm 2 Online education works just like face to face education @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  38. 38. The Medieval Lecture @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ File:Laurentius_de_Voltolina_001.jpg (public domain)
  39. 39. The Modern Lecture @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File: 5th_Floor_Lecture_Hall.jpg (CC BY-SA)
  40. 40. The MOOC? @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  41. 41. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org © Inside Higher Ed https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/ stratedgy/big-mooc-data
  42. 42. “A study of edX student habits… found that certificate-earning students generally stop watching videos longer than 6 to 9 minutes.” @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/ SB10001424052702303759604579093400834738972
  43. 43. Paradigm 2 Online education works just like face to face education Online education is a new environment with new rules, and boundless potential to innovate @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  44. 44. “The Polo Analogy” (Dr. David Wiley @opencontent) @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  45. 45. Polo ≠ Water Polo @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Polo_players.jpg (public domain) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:WaterPolo.JPG (CC BY-SA)
  46. 46. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/one-dimensional- motion/acceleration_tutorial/v/acceleration
  47. 47. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://oli.cmu.edu/courses/free-open/introductory-psychology- course-details/
  48. 48. • Free online open courses with built-in analytics • Use data to identify problems and improve the content • 100K+ students used in place of textbooks @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://oli.cmu.edu/courses/free-open/introductory-psychology- course-details/
  49. 49. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org Source http://pm4id.org/
  50. 50. • Professor took a project management open textbook and had students adapt it as part of their course @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org Source http://pm4id.org/
  51. 51. Paradigm 3 The way to make money on educational materials is to sell access @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  52. 52. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://www.coursesmart.com/college-physics/eugenia-etkina- michael-gentile-alan-van-heuvelen/dp/ 9780321864925 eTextbook
  53. 53. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://www.coursesmart.com/college-physics/eugenia-etkina- michael-gentile-alan-van-heuvelen/dp/ 9780321864925 eTextbook
  54. 54. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org Image © from http://www.cnn.com/2013/06/28/showbiz/ heat-director-buddy-cop/
  55. 55. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://www.digitalbookworld.com/2013/students-still-not- taking-to-e-textbooks-new-data-show/
  56. 56. Only 6% of U.S. higher education students report using a digital textbook as their main material (2013) @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://www.digitalbookworld.com/2013/students-still-not- taking-to-e-textbooks-new-data-show/
  57. 57. Paradigm 3 The way to make money on educational materials is to sell access Restricting access to content in order to sell it cuts off possibilities for innovation @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  58. 58. Openness enables everything the digital environment makes possible. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  59. 59. • Free online • Free PDF • Free ePub • Print $49.73 • Instructor can adapt and distribute @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org https://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics
  60. 60. • Free online • Free PDF • Free ePub • Print $49.73 • Instructor can adapt and distribute Non-profit project that pays authors via grants, and generates revenue through supporting products @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org https://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics
  61. 61. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  62. 62. Startup company that curates Wikipedia content into textbooks, and offers basic versions for free and premium versions for $19.99 @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://www.boundless.com
  63. 63. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://utahopentextbooks.org/2012/01/25/114/
  64. 64. • State-sponsored project to customize and use open textbooks instead of traditional texts. • Cut costs 50% while maintaining the same test scores. @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org http://utahopentextbooks.org/2012/01/25/114/
  65. 65. Students can’t learn from materials they can’t afford @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  66. 66. 2 in 3 U.S. higher education students say they decided against buying a textbook because the cost is too high @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org Source http://www.uspirg.org/reports/usp/fixing-broken-textbook- market
  67. 67. Percentage of Students Passing With C or Better Developmental Math Results" Percentage passing with C or better 70.00% 60.00% Supporting Adoption @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org 48.40% 60.18% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Spring 2011 No OER Spring 2013 All OER n=2,842 Adapted from slides by David Wiley available under CC BY at http://www.slideshare.net/ opencontent
  68. 68. BECOMING GENERATION OPEN @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  69. 69. Openness spreads @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  70. 70. What barriers are you facing? What paradigms are causing those barriers? How can you help others have an “ah ha!” moment? @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  71. 71. Is openness inevitable? @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  72. 72. Openness is inevitable if we make it inevitable @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org
  73. 73. GENERATION OPEN An International Look at the Coming Revolution in Education Nicole Allen (@txtbks) Director of Open Education, SPARC #OERde14 | September 13, 2014 Except where otherwise noted… ! @txtbks | #OERde14 | www.sparc.arl.org

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