23 session-johnson tiggs


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Presentation at the 2014 Texas Statewide Independent Living Conference in Corpus Christi, Texas - Deafness, Diversity and Delivery: How to Serve Persons who are deaf or hard of hearing by Johnson & Tiggs

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23 session-johnson tiggs

  1. 1. “Deafness, Diversity and Delivery: How to Serve Persons who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing” Susie Tiggs, M.Ed. Theresa Johnson, M.Ed.
  2. 2. Session Overview • Define the population • Cultural issues • Communication • Independent living needs • Access-home and community • Technology • It’s the law!
  3. 3. Two Views on Deafness Defines deafness in terms of deficit, hearing loss, compared to hearing norms • Respects, values, and supports the language and culture of deaf people Medical Difference
  4. 4. Defining Deaf people by what they CAN’T do
  5. 5. Understanding Differences • Generally….. “Deaf” with uppercase “D” refers to a cultural construct “deaf” with lowercase “d” refers to the lack of hearing without touching upon cultural status 5
  6. 6. “Deaf”initions HARD OF HEARING Hearing is limited, but may be amplified for ordinary life experiences. DEAF Sound has no meaning for ordinary life purposes. 6
  7. 7. • Oral Deaf-generally use speech and residual hearing to communicate. May use manual communication as a supplement but do not identify with Deaf community • Late-Deafened— Mixed views on age of onset, but generally used for individuals who have lost their hearing during their teenage years or older. Do not identify with Deaf community as a rule. 7
  8. 8. Categories of Hearing Loss Normal Hearing Can hear soft conversations Moderate to severe 56 to 70 decibel loss Will miss 100% of speech information without amplification Minimal loss 16 to 25 decibel loss Will have trouble hearing faint or distant speech Severe 71 to 90 decibel loss Can only hear loud noises at close distances Mild 25 to 40 decibel loss Will miss up to 50% of a group discussion Profound 91 decibel loss and above Depends solely on vision instead of hearing for processing information Moderate 41 to 55 decibel loss Conversation over 5 feet away may not be understood 8
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. Deaf Culture • Disability vs. culture • Deaf / dumb • ASL as native language • TTY / relay/vp/technology • Name signs 10
  11. 11. Deaf Culture, cont. • Saying goodbye • Introductions • Role of Deaf schools/programs • Deaf “grapevine” 11
  12. 12. Hard of Hearing Culture • HLAA (Hearing Loss Assoc of America) • ALDA (Association of Late-Deafened Adults) • Young vs Older • Hearing aids fix the problem • Persons who are HH know what they need?? • Speaking/Listening/environmental factors
  13. 13. Communication • Sign language systems • Manual/visual support systems • Oral Communication/lip reading • Symbols/gesture • Factors which affect language acquisition • Tips for better communication
  14. 14. Modes of Communication • American Sign Language • Pidgin Sign Language/Contact SL • Signed English • Signing Exact English • Cued Speech • Oral • Communication Books/symbols/pictures • Gesture 14
  15. 15. Definition of ASL ASL is a natural, visual-gestural language which has evolved to meet the linguistic needs of its users, and therefore it is a language fully accessible to deaf individuals. Eric Drasgow, Council for Exceptional Children, 1998 15
  16. 16. Some Features of ASL • Signing space • Non-manual signals • Directionality • Number Systems • Role Shift 16
  17. 17. Definition of Signed English Signed English is a reasonable manual parallel to English. It is an educational tool meant to be used while you speak in order to incorporate speech development and aided listening skills. 17
  18. 18. Some Features of Signed English • Signed in English word order • Can be conceptual or literal • Initializes signs for synonyms 18
  19. 19. Definition of SEE Signing Exact English is a sign language system that represents literal English, to make visible everything that is not heard. SEE supplements hearing and speechreading. 19
  20. 20. Features of Signing Exact English • Signed as English is spoken or written • A sign is translated to only one English equivalent 20
  21. 21. Definition of Oral Interpreting The interpreter “mouths” the words spoken for the Deaf or Hard of Hearing student. Sign language may sometimes be used as a filler 21
  22. 22. Cued Speech Transliteration Cued Speech Transliteration is a visual method of communication that utilizes hand cues in order to provide spoken information that is ambiguous through lip reading alone. 22
  23. 23. Communication Books A tool used to facilitate a student’s expressive and receptive language which can be used as a communication aid with both non signing and signing partners. 23
  24. 24. Features of a Communication Book • Typically organized by grammatical categories/topics • Best custom designed for individual students’ needs • Should be accompanied with print representation or signed representation 24
  25. 25. Tips for better Communication • Lighting • Environmental sound • Face to face • Look at the person not the interpreter • Don’t exaggerate facial expressions • Repeat/rephrase • Write or gesture
  26. 26. Less Obvious Background Noise Sources: Air conditioning or heating units Traffic noises, lawn mower outside an office Other people talking nearby, cubicle chatter Static on a phone line Refrigerators, projector fans, vending machine humming Telephones ringing , copier running People coughing, moving in their chairs, rustling papers
  27. 27. Use of Interpreters • Certification/Qualifications • Cost • Role of interpreters • Ethical expectations
  28. 28. Independent Living Needs • Assistance with housing or understanding the process, lease agreement or other paperwork • Assistance with accessing the community-how to request services from physician, dentist, bank, etc • Assistance with purchases, such as vehicle, furniture, insurance, food • Assistance with employment-how to access community job-search resources, interview • Assistance with accessing technology, i.e. STAP, VP
  29. 29. Technology • Hearing Aids • Cochlear Implants • Amplified phones • Video phones/facetime/skype • CART/C-print/Typewell (on site and remote) • Loop and FM systems • Ubi-duo
  30. 30. It’s the Law! • ADA • Title IV – Telecommunications Relay Services • Title IV of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 mandated a nationwide system of telecommunications relay services to make the telephone network accessible to people who are deaf or hard of hearing or who have speech impairments. Title IV of the ADA added Section 225 to the Communications Act of 1934. • Statute: 47 U.S.C. § 255 available at http://www.fcc.gov/cgb/dro/title4.html Regulations: 47 C.F.R. §§ 64.601 - 64.606 available at http://www.fcc.gov/cgb/dro/4regs.html
  31. 31. Discussion • Specific issues or challenges in serving individuals who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing • Resources and materials
  32. 32. Resources • ercod@tsd.state.tx.us • Texasdhhresources.org/ • ESC11.net • Pepnet.org • Gallaudetuniversity.edu • Dhhtexastransition.org • Nad.org • DARS@state.tx.us/deafhard of hearing services
  33. 33. Thank you • Susie Tiggs • stiggs@esc11.net • Theresa Johnson • Theresa.johnson@tsd.state.tx.us