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Plainweave

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Plainweave

  1. 1. PRIYANK GOYAL’S LECTURES ON FABRIC STRUCTURE Copyrights Reserved with Priyank Goyal , pg2000in@gmail.com, pg2000in.googlepages.com PLAIN WEAVE Structure It plain weave, each weft thread (filling) passes alternatively over and under each ways yarn in a square pattern. Alternative names It is also known as tabby, homespun or taffeta weave. Manufacture On the loom, the plain weave requires only two healed shafts. Manufacturing On the loom, plain weave requires only two harnesses. Each weft yarn goes alternately under and over the warp yarns across the width of the fabric. Create PDF with GO2PDF for free, if you wish to remove this line, click here to buy Virtual PDF Printer
  2. 2. PRIYANK GOYAL’S LECTURES ON FABRIC STRUCTURE Copyrights Reserved with Priyank Goyal , pg2000in@gmail.com, pg2000in.googlepages.com Appearance It has a flat appearance. There are no distinct designs. However these may be produced if yarns have contrasting colours or thicknesses. Properties It is easily produced. This is the most made weave in the world. It is relatively inexpensive. Other Names Tabby, Calico, alpaca and taffeta Variations of Plain weave 1. Square plain weave In such weaves, warp and weft are present in equal amounts, or in other words, warp cover factor is equal to the weft cover factor. These are used as surgical dressings, dairy cloths, muslin dress fabrics, parachute fabrics, handkerchief fabrics, fabrics for shoes and tents, sheeting fabrics; canvas for transport covers and fabric for use as ribbons in type writers or computers. 2. Warp-faced plain weave In these fabrics, warp cover factor is greater than that of weft cover factor. This is normally achieved by having more ends than picks per cm. the warp crimp is also high in these fabrics, while weft crimp is low. Thus very faint lines across the width of the fabrics are produced. A typical fabric in this group is poplin. A typical construction for a polyester/ cotton poplin shirtings is 50x25; Create PDF with GO2PDF for free, if you wish to remove this line, click here to buy Virtual PDF Printer
  3. 3. PRIYANK GOYAL’S LECTURES ON FABRIC STRUCTURE Copyrights Reserved with Priyank Goyal , pg2000in@gmail.com, pg2000in.googlepages.com 16 tex x 16 tex; 14% x 93% giving a weight of 130g/m2 and a cover factor of 20.0+9.7 = 29.7. WEFT-FACED PLAIN WEAVES This is not a popular group of fabrics as it is normally produced with more than ends per cm, the rate of production in the loom will be greatly reduced. The most popular fabric in this group is the limbric, which is used for dress prints. ORNAMENTATION OF PLAIN CLOTH The appearance of a plain fabric can be changed in many ways. 1. The use of colour In the warp direction, colour stripes are produced along the length of the fabric. In the filling direction, colour stripes are produced across the width of the fabric. When used in both warp and weft directions, a check effect is produced. 2. Changing yarn court Stripes and check effects can be produced by using different yarn count in one or both directions. 3. Changing the yarn twist Using combinations of different twist levels and directions in the warp or weft, different effects can be produced is the fabric due to the changes in the orientations of the fibers as shown. Create PDF with GO2PDF for free, if you wish to remove this line, click here to buy Virtual PDF Printer
  4. 4. PRIYANK GOYAL’S LECTURES ON FABRIC STRUCTURE Copyrights Reserved with Priyank Goyal , pg2000in@gmail.com, pg2000in.googlepages.com 4. Different Finishing treatment Treatments such as dyeing mercerizing with caustic soda or coating can change the characteristics of plain fabric. 5. Any combination of the above VOILE AND CREPE FABRICS These are specialized types of plain weave fabrics. These fabrics are produced using highly twisted two fold yarns. with the doubling twist in the same direction as that of single yarn. For voile yarn the tex twist factor is generally between 5000 and 7000, while for crepe yarn, it is nearer to 9000. Voilers are used in lightweight, semi-opaque fabrics for dress saris and light filters. Crepes are used dress, blouses and support bandages. Samples of some of the plain weaves. PLAIN WEAVE DERIVATIVES Create PDF with GO2PDF for free, if you wish to remove this line, click here to buy Virtual PDF Printer
  5. 5. PRIYANK GOYAL’S LECTURES ON FABRIC STRUCTURE Copyrights Reserved with Priyank Goyal , pg2000in@gmail.com, pg2000in.googlepages.com This group of structure comprise different simple weaves which are all extensions of the plain weave and can be produced on two heald shafts. RIB AND CORD EFFECT PRODUCED IN PLAIN WEAVE Ribs refer to the lives in horizontal direction like =á whereas cord refers to the lines running in vertical direction ¦L¦L¦LThere are many ways to produce rib and cords, some of these methods are as follows: (1) By using different counts of warp and wefts By using different counts of threads, ribbed or corded effects can be produced throughout the fabric. The ribs or cords will be is the direction of coarsest threads. The figure illustrates an example of cloth woven from comparatively fine warp and coarse weft which develop a series of ribs lying in the direction of weft and known as warp ribs. If we take coarse warp and fine weft, the ribs would be called the weft ribs. Create PDF with GO2PDF for free, if you wish to remove this line, click here to buy Virtual PDF Printer
  6. 6. PRIYANK GOYAL’S LECTURES ON FABRIC STRUCTURE Copyrights Reserved with Priyank Goyal , pg2000in@gmail.com, pg2000in.googlepages.com (2) By using tension difference within warps and wefts Rib formation can be also be done by taking two series of warp threads. One series of warp threads is at higher tension than the other. Only one system of coarse and soft weft is used. During weaving the warp thread from higher tension beams are held taut. Thus during weaving they are prevented from bending, as shown: This causes weft to form prominent ribs on both sides of the cloth. The slack warp threads freely bend over and under picks of weft to bind these firmly in position. (3) By using two series of both warp and weft In this the warp series comprise two counts of yarn, one fine and strong, which is held at greater tension during weaving, and the other coarse and soft, which is held at a lesser degree of tension. The weft series also comprise two Create PDF with GO2PDF for free, if you wish to remove this line, click here to buy Virtual PDF Printer
  7. 7. PRIYANK GOYAL’S LECTURES ON FABRIC STRUCTURE Copyrights Reserved with Priyank Goyal , pg2000in@gmail.com, pg2000in.googlepages.com counts of yarn one fine and strong and the other very coarse and strong. When coarse picks are inserted, all medium warp threads only are raised to form ribs, and when fine picks are inserted, all fine warp threads only are raised, it causes deep furrows (dents) as shown in figure. (4) BY USING NORMAL WARP AND WEFT Here we make use of the principle of fabric structure which says that “The relative prominence of threads diminishes in proporation to the amount of bending performed by them in the cloth.” Here the ribs or cords may be formed by causing two or more threads of one series (i.e. either warp or weft) to lie closely side by side, so as to virtually constitute a coarse thread composed of several strands not twisted together, and interveaving such groups of threads with separate threads of other side. Create PDF with GO2PDF for free, if you wish to remove this line, click here to buy Virtual PDF Printer
  8. 8. PRIYANK GOYAL’S LECTURES ON FABRIC STRUCTURE Copyrights Reserved with Priyank Goyal , pg2000in@gmail.com, pg2000in.googlepages.com Ribs Simple ribs in the direction of weft may be formed by separating alternate warp threads (as in calico plain weave) and inserting two or more picks of the weft in the same warp shed. Figures shown below are designs for this class of rib weaves containing two, there, four and six picks respectively in each warp shed: Cords Similarly simple cords in the direction of warp may be formed by raising warp threads in uniform group of two or more threads. Figure given below are the designs for chords in which three, four and six warp threads respectively are Create PDF with GO2PDF for free, if you wish to remove this line, click here to buy Virtual PDF Printer
  9. 9. PRIYANK GOYAL’S LECTURES ON FABRIC STRUCTURE Copyrights Reserved with Priyank Goyal , pg2000in@gmail.com, pg2000in.googlepages.com grouped together. As the horizontal and vertical lines produced in the above two cases are regular in size so these are known as regular warp and weft ribs respectively Figures given below represent irregular or variegated chords which are unequal in size. Similarly irregular ribs can be produced by turning these figures to sides. Create PDF with GO2PDF for free, if you wish to remove this line, click here to buy Virtual PDF Printer
  10. 10. PRIYANK GOYAL’S LECTURES ON FABRIC STRUCTURE Copyrights Reserved with Priyank Goyal , pg2000in@gmail.com, pg2000in.googlepages.com Summary plain weave Rib variation 1. Structuring process – Variation of plain weave – Plain weave loomset up – Different from plain weave due to warp/filling fabric yarn count unbalanced by process of packing of yarn in one direction, or by combining large and small yarns in the weave. Large yarns produce a rib or bump which may run along the warp or filling directions. 2. Identifying the weave – Look for lengthwise cords or cross-wise ribs – Scratch the fabric surface with finger nails to detect ridges. 3. Performance Characteristics compared to plain weave fabrics – More subject to yarn slippage and raveling. – Less abrasion resistant. – Softer. – Crisper – if crisper yarn is used. 4. Common fibres characterized by Identifying characteristics • Light weight fabrics that are opaque with filament yarns tissue-faille, taffetta. Create PDF with GO2PDF for free, if you wish to remove this line, click here to buy Virtual PDF Printer
  11. 11. PRIYANK GOYAL’S LECTURES ON FABRIC STRUCTURE Copyrights Reserved with Priyank Goyal , pg2000in@gmail.com, pg2000in.googlepages.com • Light weight fabrics that are translucent with spun yarns-dimity. • Medium – to-heavy weight fabrics that are opaque with filament warp and filament or spun filling : taffeta, faille, repp, ottoman, silk broad cloth. • Medium weight fabrics that are opaque with spun warp and filling yarns: cotton/wool broad cloth, poplin, gross grain, ottoman, Bedford cord. MAT HOPSACK OR BASKET WEAVES Simple matt weaves are those in which groups of two or more adjacent warp threads and picks interlace with each others so as to produce a chequred or dice effect as represented in designs below: The simplest of there weaves is known as two-and-two and four-end matt weaves as indicated in figure, in which warp threads and picks interweave in pairs throughout the fabric, on the principle of plain weaves. Create PDF with GO2PDF for free, if you wish to remove this line, click here to buy Virtual PDF Printer
  12. 12. PRIYANK GOYAL’S LECTURES ON FABRIC STRUCTURE Copyrights Reserved with Priyank Goyal , pg2000in@gmail.com, pg2000in.googlepages.com Variegated or irregular matt weaves are developed by combining irregular groups of warp and weft threads on indicated in Figures P,Q, R, S and T P = 5/3 matt irregular Q = Examples of fancy basket which in combination of warp and weft Rib. 3/1, 1/3 fancy basket R = Centre stiched Hopsack Derivative S = Barley corn Hopsack. T = Stitched Hoprack-stitching is done every where except centre. P Q S Create PDF with GO2PDF for free, if you wish to remove this line, click here to buy Virtual PDF Printer
  13. 13. PRIYANK GOYAL’S LECTURES ON FABRIC STRUCTURE Copyrights Reserved with Priyank Goyal , pg2000in@gmail.com, pg2000in.googlepages.com Further extension of Hopsack Weaves (Variegated Hopsack) The purpose of modifying Hopsack Weaves is to make the surface more firm and to get more variety of patterns. 1. Self Stictched hopsack weaves. In this weave one end is (or pair of ends) stitched down to give fancy appearance to fabric. How to make a self stitched Hopsack Let us take a 3-and-3 hopsack. It is represented as We see that it is divided into four parts. To make it self T A Create PDF with GO2PDF for free, if you wish to remove this line, click here to buy Virtual PDF Printer
  14. 14. PRIYANK GOYAL’S LECTURES ON FABRIC STRUCTURE Copyrights Reserved with Priyank Goyal , pg2000in@gmail.com, pg2000in.googlepages.com stitched , reverse the working of the centre of each small square , that is where weft is up, make it down and where warp is up make it weft up as shown in the given figure: We can also modify the hopsack by another method. Again we take the same weave as A and reverse the float at one corner of each small square to get the required weave as shown below: Barley Corn Weaves: The Barley Corn weaves are modified hopsack weaves which employ cross twill in their designs. The cross-twill in the designs gives a considerable degree of firmness to a cloth as compared with ordinary hopsacks of similar sizes. R Create PDF with GO2PDF for free, if you wish to remove this line, click here to buy Virtual PDF Printer
  15. 15. PRIYANK GOYAL’S LECTURES ON FABRIC STRUCTURE Copyrights Reserved with Priyank Goyal , pg2000in@gmail.com, pg2000in.googlepages.com R is an example of Barley Corn Hopsack in 4-and-4 Hopsack. Stitched Hopsacks Stitched Hopsacks are used to impart firmness to large weaves by the introduction of plain stitching threads. In Design below the plain threads are introduced only in the warp , so that the float in the weft sections of the design are broken. This is known as Hopsack with Single Line Stitch. Similarly we can make Hopsack with Double line Stitch in which certain threads of both series interweave plain to produce similar warp and weft sections as given below: Create PDF with GO2PDF for free, if you wish to remove this line, click here to buy Virtual PDF Printer
  16. 16. PRIYANK GOYAL’S LECTURES ON FABRIC STRUCTURE Copyrights Reserved with Priyank Goyal , pg2000in@gmail.com, pg2000in.googlepages.com SUMMARY PLAIN WEAVE – BASKET VARIATION Structuring Process Paired or grouped warp and/or filling yarns interlaced in 1/1 repeat, common pattern include 2/2, 4/4, 2/1. Performance characteristics • Compared to plan weave, fabrics tend to have o Softer drape o Softer hand o More wrinkle resistance o More ventilation o More shrinking o More yarn slippage o Less abrasion resistance Common fabrics classified by Identifying characteristics • Light weight, transparent, sheer, unbalanced: dimity (also ribweave) Create PDF with GO2PDF for free, if you wish to remove this line, click here to buy Virtual PDF Printer
  17. 17. PRIYANK GOYAL’S LECTURES ON FABRIC STRUCTURE Copyrights Reserved with Priyank Goyal , pg2000in@gmail.com, pg2000in.googlepages.com • Medium weight, opaque, balanced look, soft hand-oxford cloth, chambray, sail cloth. • Heavy weight, operque, balanced look, soft hand: Hopsack, monk’s cloth. • Heavy weight, opaque, balanced look, crisp hand: duck canvas. Create PDF with GO2PDF for free, if you wish to remove this line, click here to buy Virtual PDF Printer

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