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Local adaptation versus inbreeding depression in marginal
populations of a Mediterranean alpine plant: are they worthy
of ...
• Genetically
impoverished
populations
• Inbreeding depression
• Maladaptation
• Not necessarily
depauperate for variation...
Mediterranean alpine environments: highly vulnerable to
global warming
Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Dis...
Experimental gene flow between populations:
• assessment of inbreeding depression and geneflow of
adaptive/maladaptive val...
Experimental gene flow between populations:
• assessment of inbreeding depression and geneflow of
adaptive/maladaptive val...
Aim:
• To assess whether marginal populations at the lowest elevation of
Mediterranean alpine plants are locally adapted/m...
• Circum-mediterranean alpine chamaephyte
• Central System at the lowest latitude of the
distibution range:
• Sierra de Bé...
Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions
• Central population
• Marginal populations
Guadarr...
Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions
Central population
from same
mountain range
Margina...
Experimental design:
• Ex situ sowing experiment
at optimum conditions in
growth chamber and
greenhouse environment
(mothe...
Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions
Ex situ germination
experiment
F1<F2, F3
F1=F2, F3
...
Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions
Ex situ germination experiment
RUI AGI CAM SES NAJM...
Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions
In situ germination
experiment
F1<F3 F1>F2
F1=F2,F3...
Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions
In situ germination experiment
RUI AGI CAM SES NAJM...
Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions
In situ germination experiment
RUI AGI CAM SES NAJM...
Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions
RUI AGI CAM SES NAJMOR
F1
F2
F3
F1>F2F1<F3 F1=F2,F3...
Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions
RUI AGI CAM SES NAJMOR
F1
F2
F3
F1>F2F1<F3 F1=F2,F3...
Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions
RUI AGI CAM SES NAJMOR
F1
F2
F3
F1>F2F1<F3 F1=F2,F3...
Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions
RUI AGI CAM SES NAJMOR
F1
F2
F3
F1>F2F1<F3 F1=F2,F3...
Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions
RUI AGI CAM SES NAJMOR
F1
F2
F3
• Seedling survival...
Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions
Marginal populations
Central populations
F1F2
F3
Li...
Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions
• Some evidence of central populations providing ge...
Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions
Marginal populations
Central populations
F1F2
F3
Ge...
Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions
Conclusions
1. High incidence of inbreeding depress...
Local adaptation versus inbreeding depression in marginal
populations of a Mediterranean alpine plant: are they
worthy of ...
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Local adaptation vs inbreeding depression in marginal populations of a Mediterranean alpine plant

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Presented at the ESEB congress in Lausanne in 2015. Silene ciliata populations were studied at marginal and central populations. The effect of genetic flux from other populations was studied.

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Local adaptation vs inbreeding depression in marginal populations of a Mediterranean alpine plant

  1. 1. Local adaptation versus inbreeding depression in marginal populations of a Mediterranean alpine plant: are they worthy of conservation in a context of climate change? Morente-López, J., García-Fernández, A., Lara-Romero, C., Rubio-Teso, M.L., Ruiz, R., Sánchez, A., Iriondo, J.M. Área de Biodiversidad y Conservación, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, E-28933 Móstoles, Madrid, Spain.
  2. 2. • Genetically impoverished populations • Inbreeding depression • Maladaptation • Not necessarily depauperate for variation in ecologically relevant traits. • Locally adapted Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Marginal populations: • grow under suboptimal environmental conditions • great fluctuations and high probability of extinction Soulé (1973) ? Kawecki, T. J. 2008. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 39:321–342. Soulé M. 1973. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Sys. 4:165-187 Lande R. 1994. Evolution 48: 1460–1469. Whitlock MC. 2003. Genetics 164: 767–779. Lande (1994), Whitlock (2003) Kawecki (2008)
  3. 3. Mediterranean alpine environments: highly vulnerable to global warming Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Marginal populations Central populations temperature rainfall
  4. 4. Experimental gene flow between populations: • assessment of inbreeding depression and geneflow of adaptive/maladaptive value • management tool to assist marginal populations Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Marginal populations Central populations central – marginal geneflow: • Genetic diversity (Holt & Gomulkiewicz, 1997) • Maladaptive alleles or gene combinations (Kirkpatrick & Barton, 1997) Holt RD, Gomulkiewicz R. 1997. Am Nat 149:563-572 Kirkpatrick M, Barton NH. 1997. Am Nat 150:1-23
  5. 5. Experimental gene flow between populations: • assessment of inbreeding depression and geneflow of adaptive/maladaptive value • management tool to assist marginal populations Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Marginal populations Central populations marginal-marginal geneflow • Genetic diversity & adaptive alleles or gene combinations (Sexton et al. 2011) Sexton JP, Strauss SY, Rice KJ. 2011. PNAS 108:11704-11709
  6. 6. Aim: • To assess whether marginal populations at the lowest elevation of Mediterranean alpine plants are locally adapted/maladapted to the environmental conditions that will prevail with global warming Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions
  7. 7. • Circum-mediterranean alpine chamaephyte • Central System at the lowest latitude of the distibution range: • Sierra de Béjar • Sierra de Gredos • Sierra de Guadarrama • Elevation range: 1900 – 2500 m Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Silene ciliata Pourret
  8. 8. Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions • Central population • Marginal populations GuadarramaGredosBéjar Central vs. marginal populations (Giménez-Benavides et al. 2011) Giménez-Benavides, L., Albert, M.J., Iriondo, J.M. & Escudero, A. Ecography (2011) 34:85-93
  9. 9. Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Central population from same mountain range Marginal population Marginal population from same mountain range X 6 marginal populations F1 F2 F3 Experimental design: • Seeds obtained in common garden conditions from artificial crossings simulating different types of geneflow
  10. 10. Experimental design: • Ex situ sowing experiment at optimum conditions in growth chamber and greenhouse environment (mother plant x type of cross x block x pop. = 8640 seeds). • In situ sowing experiment at the locations of the 6 marginal populations (mother plant x type of cross x block x pop. = 24000 seeds) Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions
  11. 11. Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Ex situ germination experiment F1<F2, F3 F1=F2, F3 Germination = geneflowi + populationj + (geneflow x population)ij + motherplantk(j)
  12. 12. Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Ex situ germination experiment RUI AGI CAM SES NAJMOR F1<F2,F3F1<F2,F3 F1=F2,F3 F1=F2,F3F1=F2,F3 Inbreeding depression No inbreeding depression F1<F2,F3 Inbreeding depression F1 F2 F3 GuadarramaGredosBéjar
  13. 13. Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions In situ germination experiment F1<F3 F1>F2 F1=F2,F3 F1<F2 Germination = geneflowi + populationj + (geneflow x population)ij + motherplantk(j)
  14. 14. Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions In situ germination experiment RUI AGI CAM SES NAJMOR F1>F2F1<F3 F1=F2,F3 F1=F2,F3F1=F2,F3 Inbreeding depression No inbreeding depression F1<F2 Adaptation from MOR F1 F2 F3 Maladaptation from RUI GuadarramaGredosBéjar
  15. 15. Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions In situ germination experiment RUI AGI CAM SES NAJMOR Local adaptation (Giménez-Benavides et al., 2007) Inbreeding depression (García-Fernández et al., 2012) GuadarramaGredosBéjar Giménez-Benavides L, Escudero A, Iriondo JM. 2007. Ann Bot 99:723-734. García-Fernández A, Iriondo JM, Escudero A.2012. Oikos 121: 1435-1445.
  16. 16. Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions RUI AGI CAM SES NAJMOR F1 F2 F3 F1>F2F1<F3 F1=F2,F3 F1=F2,F3F1=F2,F3 Inbreeding depression No inbreeding depression F1<F2 Adaptation from MOR Maladaptation from RUI In situ F1<F2,F3F1<F2,F3 F1=F2,F3 F1=F2,F3 Inbreeding depression No inbreeding depression F1<F2,F3 Inbreeding depression Ex situ F1=F2,F3
  17. 17. Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions RUI AGI CAM SES NAJMOR F1 F2 F3 F1>F2F1<F3 F1=F2,F3 F1=F2,F3F1=F2,F3 Inbreeding depression No inbreeding depression F1<F2 Adaptation from MOR Maladaptation from RUI In situ F1<F2,F3F1<F2,F3 F1=F2,F3 F1=F2,F3 Inbreeding depression No inbreeding depression F1<F2,F3 Inbreeding depression Ex situ F1=F2,F3 He= 0.63 FIS= 0.33 Ne= 10 He= 0.75 FIS= 0.32 Ne= 25 He= 0.66 FIS= 0.19 Ne= 12 He= 0.70 FIS= -0.12 Ne= inf He= 0.70 FIS= 0.39 Ne= 66 He= 0.51 FIS= 0.31 Ne= 131
  18. 18. Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions RUI AGI CAM SES NAJMOR F1 F2 F3 F1>F2F1<F3 F1=F2,F3 F1=F2,F3F1=F2,F3 Inbreeding depression No inbreeding depression F1<F2 Adaptation from MOR Maladaptation from RUI In situ F1<F2,F3F1<F2,F3 F1=F2,F3 F1=F2,F3 Inbreeding depression No inbreeding depression F1<F2,F3 Inbreeding depression Ex situ F1=F2,F3 He= 0.63 FIS= 0.33 Ne= 10 He= 0.75 FIS= 0.32 Ne= 25 He= 0.66 FIS= 0.19 Ne= 12 He= 0.70 FIS= -0.12 Ne= inf He= 0.70 FIS= 0.39 Ne= 66 He= 0.51 FIS= 0.31 Ne= 131
  19. 19. Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions RUI AGI CAM SES NAJMOR F1 F2 F3 F1>F2F1<F3 F1=F2,F3 F1=F2,F3F1=F2,F3 Inbreeding depression No inbreeding depression F1<F2 Adaptation from MOR Maladaptation from RUI In situ F1<F2,F3F1<F2,F3 F1=F2,F3 F1=F2,F3 Inbreeding depression No inbreeding depression F1<F2,F3 Inbreeding depression Ex situ F1=F2,F3 He= 0.63 FIS= 0.33 Ne= 10 He= 0.75 FIS= 0.32 Ne= 25 He= 0.66 FIS= 0.19 Ne= 12 He= 0.70 FIS= -0.12 Ne= inf He= 0.70 FIS= 0.39 Ne= 66 He= 0.51 FIS= 0.31 Ne= 131 Leimu R , Fischer M. 2008. PLoS ONE 3: e4010
  20. 20. Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions RUI AGI CAM SES NAJMOR F1 F2 F3 • Seedling survival and size (up to July): No differences between geneflow treatments • On-going experiment In situ
  21. 21. Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Marginal populations Central populations F1F2 F3 Little evidence of adaptive geneflow between marginal populations: • Mimulus laciniatus (Sexton et al., 2011) Sexton JP, Strauss SY, Rice KJ. 2011. PNAS 108:11704-11709
  22. 22. Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions • Some evidence of central populations providing genetic diversity that reduces inbreeding depression (Holt & Gomulkiewicz, 1997) • No evidence of maladaptive alleles or gene combinations from central populations (Kirkpatrick & Barton, 1997) Marginal populations Central populations F1F2 F3 Holt RD, Gomulkiewicz R. 1997. Am Nat 149:563-572 Kirkpatrick M, Barton NH. 1997. Am Nat 150:1-23
  23. 23. Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Marginal populations Central populations F1F2 F3 Genetic differentiation in functional traits between central and marginal populations: • Tolerance to water stress (García-Fernández et al. 2013). • Flowering phenology: S. ciliata (unpublished results), Armeria caespitosa (Lara- Romero et al., 2014) García-Fernandez A, Iriondo JM, Bartels D, Escudero A.2013 Plant Biol 15:93-100. Lara-Romero C, García-Camacho R, Escudero A, Iriondo JM. 2014. Bot J Linn Soc 176:384-395.
  24. 24. Introduction Aims Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Conclusions 1. High incidence of inbreeding depression in marginal populations. 2. Both adaptive/maladaptive geneflow between marginal populations at the germination stage. 3. No maladaptive geneflow between central and marginal populations at the germination stage. 4. Variation of responses to geneflow depending on the marginal population are probably associated to differences in effective population size, genetic diversity and population inbreeding. 5. Response to geneflow in a given marginal population is also dependent on temporal variation of environmental conditions
  25. 25. Local adaptation versus inbreeding depression in marginal populations of a Mediterranean alpine plant: are they worthy of conservation in a context of climate change? Acknowledgements: • C. Diaz, G. Escribano, S. Prieto, P. Tabares, S. Eleazar, L. Cano & L. Martinez • Parque Nacional de la Sierra de Guadarrama • Parque Regional de la Sierra de Gredos • Reserva de la Biosfera de la Sierras de Béjar y Francia • AdAptA Project CGL2012-33528, Spanish National R&D&I Plan

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