TV related leisure experiences: intergenerational intersections and relationsTelevision as an(intergenerational) leisure artefacta preliminary comment1Xabier Landabidea UrrestiInstitute of Leisure StudiesUniversity of Deusto
Summary1. BACKGROUND: “Televisual leisure experiences of differentgenerations of Basque speakers” study (PhD)• Basic concepts.• Methodology and fieldwork.2. TELEVISION AS AN (INTERGENERATIONAL) LEISURE ARTEFACT.• An artefact for leisure• An artefact of leisure3. GENERATIONAL BELONGING AND PERCEIVED DIFFERENCES.2
Basic conceptsHumanist leisure perspective(phenomenon, experience,right).Leisure. More than free time.Uncoerced activity, wanted andsatisfactory activity withoutprimarily utilitarian goals,articulation of freedom. A distinctrealm of human experience.Leisure experience. Beyondleisure practices/activities:(materially, socially, historically)situated subjective dimension.An integral approach to thetelevisual leisure experiences ofdifferent generations (Astia-Aldia-Aisia model):3FREE TIMELiberated time. Choice. Opportunity. The field of perceived freedom. Duration of opportunity. Potential./ASTIA/DURATION Practice. Activity.Spacial/temporal coordinates. The time onwhich something takes place.Its material and biographicalrealization./ALDIA/AisialdiaAisialdiaLEISURE EXPERIENCEExperience of a pleasantprocess or situation. Gratuity, satisfaction. Experience. Erfahrung / Erlebnis./AISIA/
Methodology4• 1 heterogeneous (pretest)• 9 homogeneous age-groups• Maximum variation sample (age and residency)Focus Groups(oral account)• 6 critical cases (able to prove or disprovehypotheses).In depthinterviews(oral account)• Sociodemographic data• Objective, measurable variables• 12 item elicitation: Leisure coordinatesQuestionnaire(written account)+ ATLAS.ti 7 (CAQDAS) for data analysis
fieldwork5AGE GROUP Focus group In depthinterviewYOUNGS (18‐34) MUNGIADURANGOBAKIOADULTS 1 (35‐49)BERMEOBILBAOBILBAOMUSKIZLARRABETZUADULTS 2 (50‐64)MUNGIALEKEITIOSANTURTZIELDERS (65+) BILBAOAULESTIALEZAMALEKEITIO
TV as a (intergenerational) leisureartefactAn artefact for leisure(its function is leisure)An artefact of leisure(it´s formed by leisure)How has television changed our(understanding/ experience of)leisure?How is our leisure changing our(understanding/ experience of)television?
An artefact for leisure The intergenerational status of TV viewing as a leisure practice• TV is (often) watched in company of othersTV as a shared experience / reference• Cartoons, programs, evolution of TV: past and present generational landmarks.8
An artefact for leisureCo‐ocurrence of three grand leisure functions of TV (common/intrinsic to TV?):• Entertainment / pastime / diversion (universal)• Information (universal, but contested)• A familiar presence: noise, company (universal)Something more (and less) than the classic edutainment.9
An artifact of leisureThe idea of television (its experience) and the practice ofwatching television is shared by different generations.There is an high level of coexistence, cohabitation andcontact between generations in the TV related leisureexperiences.Generations shape the understanding of TV (older toyounger, younger to older).WOMAN, 47, BILBAO: That thing with skype, I´ve just discovered it when the child has gone theUnited States, as he apparently has a big television in his room, and the can connect to skypethere and call us and so on… Instead of a computer, from the television.WOMAN, 43, BILBAO: Of course, that kind ot television is already like a computer.WOMAN 50 BILBAO: I want a TV like that next time.
Leisure coordinatesFields on which leisure is manifested (with different livedexperiences) and which can guide its study andclassification (Cuenca, 2011).Autotelicleisure“Pure leisure”. The north of humanist leisure.Free, satisfactory, with an end on in its own (no need of other aims). Nonutilitarian.Exotelicleisure“Usefu leisure”. Leisure as a medium (towards another end). Educativeleisure, terapeutic leisure… Leisure with (perceived) benefits for the subject.Absentleisure“Emptiness”. Lack of leisure experience. Boredom, need to fill a vacuum.Workaholism, consumism…Harmfulleisure“Autodestructive leisure”. Contrary to a possitive leisure. It has negativeeffects for the individual and for tor the collective. Its definition and perceptionare dependent on social and historical coordinates.
Leisure coordinatesPhrase elicitation (questionnaire): Choose 4 and order themfrom order of importance (12 sentences to choose from).The items are presented randomly to the participants, afterthe focus group or interview session..AutotelicleisureI like televisionI find what I like in the televisionWatching television is pleasant/pleasurable.ExotelicleisureTelevision informs me about the worldI learn with televisionTelevision is useful/helpfulAbsentleisureI switch on the television when I´m boredTelevision bores meWatching television is a waste of timeHarmfulleisureTelevision is addictive.I watch too much televisionTelevision takes up time to do other things.
TV in terms of leisure coordinates Young people (18‐34)13WOMAN, 24, DURANGO: Uf, If I amwatching TV for two hours I feel bad, Imean, it feels I´ve wasted time, I mean,for me it´s when I don´t know what to do,or maybe what you said earlier, forrelaxing, or to have some noise when I´mcooking, because I´m in the kitchen… butit´s not a productive thing, it´s a « badlyinvested » time, I don´t know, if it´s notsomething particular, a good film or…Clear prevalence of ABSENT and HARMFUL leisure.Some importance to EXOTELIC leisure.Almost no trace of AUTOTELIC leisure.
TV in terms of leisure coordinates Adults 1( 35‐49)14Clear prevalence of EXOTELIC and AUTOTELIC leisure.Some importance to ABSENT leisure.Almost no trace of HARMFUL leisure.MAN, 39, BILBAO: Well… that´s it, to beinformed and to have a passive leisure.To relax, maybe, too… Maybe it´s forwhat we have associated at home, but…normally what we do is to put thechildren to sleep, put out the stuff… andwe switch the TV on, and maybe youassociate that moment with relaxing (…)It´s not the same, but I think it hassomething to do with that moment whenpeople used to gather around thefireplace…MAN, 37, BERMEO: For me, it´stranquility too. I don´t know, to be ableto be watching for a little while, calmly…to put the attention only to it…
TV in terms of leisure coordinates Adults 2 (50‐64)15Total prevalence of EXOTELIC leisure.Equilibrium between AUTOTELIC, ABSENT AND HARMFUL leisure coordinates.WOMAN, 51, MUNGIA: Television time is arelaxation time, and therefore it´s not awaste of time, it´s that you are relaxing andyou have it in front of you. (…) It´s not atime where you have to do something else,but a time you have to rest.WOMAN, 55 MUNGIA : Yes, because if youwant you can turn it off and do your things,but no, you are resting and watching.WOMAN, 51, MUNGIA: You have put upeverything, you have finished everything,and you say “ok, now 5 minutes to sitdown”, and then you switch it on, but notbecause you are due something, butbecause you have a moment…
TV in terms of leisure coordinates for Elder (65+)16Equilibrium between AUTOTELIC, EXOTELIC, ABSENT AND HARMFUL leisure coordinates.Slight prevalence of AUTOTELIC leisure.Difficulties with written accounts.MAN, 75, BILBAO: Somebody inventeda beautiful thing with television.Indeed! Me, I… spend most of the timein the television. A little walk, walk for abit and… to the television. You learn lotsof things. Otherwise we would bedumb… dumb.WOMAN, 85, AULESTI: What did yousay, useful, right? That´s it, to switch iton when you are bored, and to learnthings and for everything! I like it.Television is a friend for me. Maybe youare home, and you switch on thetelevision and…
Generational belonging and perceived generational differences in terms of TV17• All age‐groups feel as part of “a generation”…• Although the actual boundaries are not clear• Technology (mobile phones, internet, game consoles…)• TV content (shared childhood programs, present day /past fandom…)• Some individuals declare themselves part of a certain generation.MAN 40, LARRABETZU: Well, I know that my generation is the TV generation, the FM generation, but I consider myself part ot the Internet generation, and I proclaim it.
Generational belonging and perceived generational differences in terms of TV18All age‐groups think there are differences between generations in their relation to TV• The actual characteristics are unclear• There is a correlation between the stated personal generation (“FM generation”, “Internet generation”…) and the leisure relation to TV.• Even younger groups talk about “the different young ones”.MAN, 24 DURANGO: In my opinion, the ones that come after us have everything rightfrom their birth.WOMAN 20 MUNGIA: I don´t feel part of the things that a child of 14 does, I don´t know…
In conclusion19• There are differences (and similarities) in the leisure experiences of television of different age‐groups• Younger groups seem to be more critical (but also more confessedly addicted) towards TV• Subjective belonging does influence the relationship with TV in terms of leisure.• Media affiliation (radio, TV, internet) is mentioned when building a generational “we sense”. • Television as a leisure artefact (both for and of) is constructed intergenerationally.• Generations watch each other (as well as TV) when understanding and experiencing TV.