US History Ch 9.1


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US History Ch 9.1

  1. 1. U.S. History Chapter 9: Citizenship & the Constitution Section 1: Understanding the Constitution
  2. 3. The Federal System <ul><li>Representative Democracy —a government led by officials who are chosen by the people </li></ul>
  3. 4. The Federal System <ul><li>Federalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power divided between state & national governments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A system of shared responsibility </li></ul></ul>
  4. 6. The Federal System <ul><li>Delegated Powers —powers granted to the federal government </li></ul>
  5. 8. “ The Congress shall have Power…To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States…” --United States Constitution Article I, Section 8
  6. 9. The Federal System <ul><li>Elastic Clause —allows Congress to stretch its powers to address issues that the nation’s founders may not have foreseen </li></ul>
  7. 10. The Federal System <ul><li>Reserved Powers —powers retained by the state governments or by its citizens </li></ul>
  8. 12. The Federal System <ul><li>Concurrent Powers —powers that are held by both the federal & state governments </li></ul>
  9. 14. The Legislative Branch <ul><li>Separation of Powers —the division of government into distinct areas with different braches of government exercising different powers </li></ul>
  10. 16. Legislative Executive Judicial
  11. 18. The Legislative Branch <ul><li>House of Representatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>435 members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation based on population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apportionment —planned distribution </li></ul></ul>
  12. 19. The Legislative Branch <ul><li>Apportionment determined by examining population changes shown in census count . </li></ul>
  13. 20. The Legislative Branch <ul><li>Membership Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25 years old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US citizen for 7 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resident of state/district </li></ul></ul>
  14. 21. The Legislative Branch <ul><li>House of Representatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 year term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presiding Officer: Speaker of the House </li></ul></ul>
  15. 22. Nancy Pelosi Speaker of the House 110 th Congress
  16. 23. The Legislative Branch <ul><li>Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 senators per state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50 states = 100 senators </li></ul></ul>
  17. 24. The Legislative Branch <ul><li>Membership Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30 years old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US citizen for 9 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resident of state </li></ul></ul>
  18. 25. The Legislative Branch <ul><li>Presiding Officer: Vice President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Casts tie breaking votes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President pro tempore leads in absence </li></ul></ul>
  19. 26. Dick Cheney Vice President of the United States
  20. 27. Executive Branch
  21. 28. George W. Bush 43rd President of the United States
  22. 29. Executive Branch <ul><li>Chief officer: President </li></ul><ul><li>Job Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Native-born US citizen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>35 years old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US resident for 14 years </li></ul></ul>
  23. 31. Executive Branch <ul><li>Term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 year term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22 nd Amendment limits to two terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VP becomes president upon death/removal </li></ul></ul>
  24. 32. Franklin D. Roosevelt 32nd President of the United States Elected to four terms as President
  25. 33. “ The President, Vice President, and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.” -- United States Constitution Article II, Section 4
  26. 34. Executive Branch <ul><li>Impeach —to bring charges against a president suspected of committing a crime or violating essential duties </li></ul>
  27. 35. Andrew Johnson 17th President of the United States Impeached 1868
  28. 36. Bill Clinton 42nd President of the United States Impeached 1998
  29. 37. House of Representatives Impeach—charge Simple majority to impeach Senate Trial 2/3 majority to convict Removal from office
  30. 38. Working with Congress <ul><li>Veto —power of the president to cancel laws that Congress passes </li></ul><ul><li>Congress can override veto with 2/3 majority of both houses </li></ul>
  31. 39. Congress passes a bill Bill sent to president Sign bill into law Veto bill Bill returned to Congress Bill passed by 2/3 majority of both house  bill becomes law; presidential veto overridden Bill fails to attain 2/3 majority in both houses  bill dead
  32. 40. Working with Congress <ul><li>Executive Order —a command that has the force of law </li></ul><ul><li>Pardons —Power to grant freedom from punishment for a person convicted of a federal crime or facing criminal charges </li></ul>
  33. 41. Working with Congress <ul><li>Commander-in-chief </li></ul><ul><li>Cabinet —heads of executive departments who advise the president </li></ul>
  34. 43. The Judicial Branch <ul><li>Federal Judiciary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consist of Federal Courts & Supreme Court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strike down unconstitutional laws </li></ul></ul>
  35. 44. The Judicial Branch <ul><li>Judges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed by president </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifetime appointment </li></ul></ul>
  36. 45. The Judicial Branch <ul><li>Multi-tiered Court system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>District Courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Courts of Appeal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court </li></ul></ul>
  37. 46. The Supreme Court <ul><li>“ Court of final appeal” </li></ul><ul><li>Hears about 100 cases a year </li></ul><ul><li>Most cases involve important constitutional issues </li></ul>
  38. 48. The Supreme Court <ul><li>Nine justices </li></ul><ul><li>Presiding Officer: Chief Justice </li></ul><ul><li>No specific requirements </li></ul>
  39. 50. The Three Branches of Government