US History Ch 12.4


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US History Ch 12.4

  1. 1. U.S. History Chapter 12: A New National Identity Section 4: Indian Removal
  2. 2. The Black Hawk War <ul><li>1827: officials order removal of Indians from Illinois </li></ul><ul><li>Sauk leader Black Hawk ignores order </li></ul>Black Hawk
  3. 3. The Black Hawk War <ul><li>1830: Returning from winter hunt, Sauk find village overtaken by white settlers </li></ul><ul><li>Attacks on settlements & U.S. troops </li></ul><ul><li>August 1832: running low on food & supplies, Black Hawk surrenders </li></ul>
  4. 4. Indian Removal Act <ul><li>American Indians lived in Southeast </li></ul><ul><li>Desire to open land to settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Removal Act —authorized the removal of American Indians who lived east of the Mississippi River </li></ul>
  5. 5. Indian Removal Act <ul><li>Indian Territory —area of land containing most of present-day Oklahoma </li></ul>Map of Indian Territory
  6. 6. Indian Removal Act <ul><li>Bureau of Indian Affairs —federal agency that oversaw policy directed towards American Indians </li></ul>
  7. 7. Indian Removal Act <ul><li>Choctaw first Indians sent to Indian Territory </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek —over 10 million acres of Choctaw land was ceded to the state of Mississippi </li></ul><ul><li>Disastrous removal during Winter 1831-32 (1/4 died) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Indian Removal Act <ul><li>Other Indians resist </li></ul><ul><li>1836: federal troops remove Creek from Alabama </li></ul><ul><li>1837-38: Chickasaw removed from Mississippi </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Cherokee Nation <ul><li>Cherokee believed they could prevent conflict by adopting white culture </li></ul><ul><li>Invited missionaries to establish schools </li></ul><ul><li>Children learned to write/speak English </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Cherokee Nation <ul><li>No written Indian language </li></ul><ul><li>Sequoyah: produced a Cherokee writing system </li></ul>Sequoyah
  11. 11. The Cherokee Nation <ul><li>Cherokee Phoenix newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>Created government inspired by U.S. Constitution </li></ul>
  12. 12. Trail of Tears <ul><li>Gold discovered in Cherokee land in Georgia </li></ul><ul><li>Cherokee refuse to move </li></ul><ul><li>Georgia militia attack Cherokee towns </li></ul>
  13. 13. Trail of Tears <ul><li>Cherokee sue state </li></ul><ul><li>Cherokee claim: Independent nation & that Georgia had no legal power within their territory </li></ul><ul><li>1832: Worchester v. Georgia </li></ul>
  14. 14. “… [the Cherokee nation] is a distinct community, occupying its own territory,…in which the laws of Georgia have no force.” --Chief Justice John Marshall
  15. 15. “ John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it.” --Andrew Jackson
  16. 16. Trail of Tears <ul><li>1838: U.S. troops begin to remove Cherokee to Indian Territory </li></ul><ul><li>Georgia took farms, businesses property </li></ul><ul><li>“ Trail of Tears”: ¼ of the 18,000 Cherokee on the march died </li></ul>
  17. 18. The Second Seminole War <ul><li>1832: Seminole leaders forced to sign treaty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree to leave Florida within three years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seminoles of African ancestry would be considered runaway slaves </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. The Second Seminole War <ul><li>Osceola : called upon the Seminole to resist removal by force </li></ul>Osceola
  19. 20. The Second Seminole War <ul><li>Second Seminole War </li></ul><ul><li>1837: Osceola captured, dies in prison </li></ul><ul><li>1500 soldiers died, millions of dollars spent </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. gives up fight </li></ul>