TX History Ch 21.4

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TX History Ch 21.4

  1. 1. Chapter 21: The Cattle Kingdom Section 4: The Closing of the Open Range
  2. 2. Fencing the Open Range <ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers wanted to keep stray cattle out of crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little wood on plains to build fences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illinois woman asks husband to create a fence to keep dogs out of garden </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Barbed Wire
  4. 4. Fencing the Open Range <ul><li>Joseph F. Glidden —Illinois farmer who invented barbed wire </li></ul>Joseph Glidden
  5. 9. Fencing the Open Range <ul><li>Glidden opened a factory to produce wire </li></ul><ul><li>“ Light as air…cheap as dirt” </li></ul><ul><li>Made large scale fencing easy & inexpensive </li></ul>
  6. 10. Fencing the Open Range <ul><li>The cattle kingdom began to disappear after fences started to enclose the open range </li></ul>
  7. 11. The Range Wars <ul><li>Barbed wire presented problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small property owners surrounded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public roads blocked off & mail delivery disrupted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water sources fenced off </li></ul></ul>
  8. 12. The Range Wars <ul><li>Range War —armed conflict over fencing and sheep that erupted during the 1880s </li></ul>
  9. 13. The Range Wars <ul><li>Fence cutting becomes a major issue </li></ul><ul><li>1884: Gov. John Ireland calls an emergency session of the legislature: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fence cutting illegal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gates every three miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illegal to fence land you do not own </li></ul></ul>
  10. 14. The Range Wars <ul><li>In parts of Texas that were too rugged and dry for cattle, some ranchers turned to sheep herding. </li></ul>
  11. 16. Legacy of the Open Range <ul><li>Death of the Open Range: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barbed wire and fencing of open range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension of rail lines & refrigerated railcars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overgrazing of land </li></ul></ul>
  12. 17. Legacy of the Open Range <ul><li>Death of the open range: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of windmills & expansion of farming onto the Plains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion of sheep ranching </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cattle ranching an important part of Texas’ legacy & economy </li></ul>

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