TX History Ch 18.3


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TX History Ch 18.3

  1. 1. Chapter 18: Texas & the Civil War Section 3: Campaigns in Texas & the Southwest
  2. 2. Bellwork <ul><li>Why might the Union want to control parts of Texas? </li></ul>
  3. 3. The New Mexico Campaign <ul><li>After the war began, Texas forces marched into New Mexico and claimed the territory </li></ul><ul><li>Fall 1861: three regiments sent to seize the Southwest </li></ul>
  4. 4. The New Mexico Campaign <ul><li>Henry H. Sibley —Confederate general who attempted to seize control of the Southwest in 1861 </li></ul>Henry H. Sibley
  5. 6. The New Mexico Campaign <ul><li>Sibley and his 2,000 troops defeat 2,500 Union troops at Valverde, NM </li></ul><ul><li>Texans seize Albuquerque & Santa Fe </li></ul><ul><li>Disease & lack of food </li></ul>
  6. 7. The New Mexico Campaign <ul><li>March 28, 1862: Sibley’s forces encounter Union forces at Glorieta Pass </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to retreat </li></ul><ul><li>Union retains control of Southwest </li></ul>
  7. 9. Fighting at Galveston Island <ul><li>Union Navy blockaded Texas ports </li></ul><ul><li>Oct. 1862: Confederate forces retreated Galveston Harbor </li></ul><ul><li>Galveston an important port </li></ul>
  8. 10. Fighting at Galveston Island <ul><li>Plans made to recapture Galveston </li></ul><ul><li>Two steamboats converted to gunboats by lining sides with cotton bales </li></ul>Cotton Bale
  9. 11. Fighting at Galveston Island <ul><li>Jan.1, 1863: “Cottonclads” attack Galveston </li></ul><ul><li>Union ships retreat </li></ul><ul><li>Union troops captured </li></ul>
  10. 13. The Battle of Sabine Pass <ul><li>Union planned to retake Galveston </li></ul><ul><li>September 1863: Union troops set sail from New Orleans with 4,000 troops </li></ul><ul><li>Union plan: invade Texas at Sabine Pass, march to Houston, and capture Galveston </li></ul>
  11. 14. The Battle of Sabine Pass <ul><li>Richard Dowling —commander of the Confederate artillery at the Battle of Sabine Pass </li></ul>Lt. Richard Dowling
  12. 15. The Battle of Sabine Pass <ul><li>Based at Ft. Griffin </li></ul><ul><li>Sept 8, 1863: Union forces attempt to overtake Sabine pass </li></ul>
  13. 16. The Battle of Sabine Pass <ul><li>Confederate gunners cripple two Union gunboats </li></ul><ul><li>Capture 300 Union soldiers </li></ul>
  14. 18. The Coast & South Texas <ul><li>Union troops wanted to take Brownsville and stop trade between Texas and Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton shipped overseas from Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>November 1863: Union forces capture Brownsville </li></ul>
  15. 19. The Coast & South Texas <ul><li>Union Gen. Nathaniel Banks splits forces </li></ul><ul><li>Union troops under command of Col. E.J. Davis attack Laredo </li></ul><ul><li>Attack fails </li></ul>
  16. 20. The Coast & South Texas <ul><li>Santos Benavides —commander who successfully defended Laredo from Union forces </li></ul>Santos Benavides
  17. 21. The Coast & South Texas <ul><li>Union forces called out of Brownsville </li></ul><ul><li>Brownsville recaptured by the Confederates </li></ul>
  18. 22. The Red River Campaign <ul><li>Union troops left Brownsville to take part in Red River Campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Union wanted to invade Texas from the NE </li></ul><ul><li>General Banks & 27,000 soldiers hoped to meet a group of Union soldiers from Arkansas </li></ul>
  19. 24. The Red River Campaign <ul><li>April 8, 1864: Banks intercepted by Confederate Gen. Richard Taylor at Sabine Crossroads </li></ul><ul><li>A Confederate force of only 9,000 force Union troops to turn back </li></ul>
  20. 25. The Red River Campaign <ul><li>April 18, 1864: Confederate forces intercept Union army moving south from Arkansas </li></ul><ul><li>Union forces defeated at Poison Spring, Arkansas </li></ul><ul><li>Confederate troops turn back Union attacks on Texas </li></ul>