Philosophy of AI
Can a machine act intelligently?
Can a machine have a mind, mental states and
consciousness in the same sense humans do?
Are human intelligence and machine
intelligence the same?
What is intelligence : Turing test
Turing Test: CriFcism
Russell and Norvig : “aeronautical engineering texts do not define
the goal of their field as ‘making machines that fly so exactly like
pigeons that they can fool other pigeons.’ ”
What is Intelligence?
If an agent acts so as
maximize the expected
value of a performance
measure based on past
experience and knowledge
then it is intelligent
Human Intelligence : Symbol Processing
• Newell and Simon : A physical symbol
system has the necessary and suﬃcient
means of general intelligent ac7on.
AI and Consciousness
Morpheus : We have only bits and pieces of
informa7on, but what we know for certain is that
some point in the early twenty‐ﬁrst century all of
mankind was united in celebra7on. We marveled
at our own magniﬁcence as we gave birth to AI
Neo : AI ‐ you mean Ar7ﬁcial Intelligence?
Morpheus : A singular consciousness that spawned
an en7re race of machines.
Ethics : OpposiFon
• Lot of opposiFon to giving ethics to AI
• AI should not replace
– Police oﬃcers,etc
• Wiezenbaum : “ArFﬁcial intelligence, if used
in this way, represents a threat to human
Why people may have ethical concerns
over the advance of AI
“…AI research makes possible the idea that humans are
automata ‐‐ an idea that results in a loss of autonomy or even
of humanity. …humanity has survived other setbacks to our
sense of uniqueness: (Copernicus, 1543) moved the Earth
Away from the center of the solar System and (Darwin, 1871)
put Homo Sapiens at the same level as other species. AI, if
widely successful, may be at least as threatening to the moral
assumpFons of 21st century society as Darwin's theory of
evoluFon was to those of the 19th century."