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  1. 1. By Stewart, Ryan, Steve, Tom
  2. 2.  The fictional environment begins with a state of equilibrium (basically everything in that environment is how it should be) It then suffers some disruption (disequilibrium) The Equilibrium is returned at the end of the narrative (everything is back to normal) 1. All is as it should be 2. A disruption of that order. 3. A recognition that the disorder has occurred. 4. An attempt to restore restore the order. The order has been restored,
  3. 3.  Barthes has 5 codes, these are …. Hermeneutic/Enigma code •Proairetic /Action code •Semantic code •Symbolic code •Referential code
  4. 4. Hermeneutic/Enigma codeThis is when parts of the story are not fully explained. They exist as enigmas or questions that the audience wishes to be resolved. Detective stories have narratives that complies with this code - a criminal act is shown and the remainder of the narrative is devoted to answering questions raised by the initial event.
  5. 5.  The Proarietic code is a series of actions that imply further action/reaction. For example, a character may have an argument and the audience wonders what the resolution or outcome of this argument will be. This creates suspense and tension as the audience wonders what the outcome will be and begin to make their own guesses.
  6. 6.  This code refers to connotation within the story that gives additional meaning over the basic denotative meaning of the word. It is by the use of extended meaning that can be applied to words that authors can paint rich pictures with relatively limited text and the way they do this is a common indication of their writing skills.
  7. 7.  His is very similar to the Semantic Code, but acts at a wider level, organizing semantic meanings into broader and deeper sets of meaning. This is typically done in the use of antithesis, where new meaning arises out of opposing and conflict ideas.
  8. 8.  This code refers to anything in the text which refers to an external body of knowledge such as scientific, historical and cultural knowledge.
  9. 9.  Propp identified 8 character roles and 31 narrative functions. Villain (s) The Hero. The Donor (who provides an object with some magic properties) The helper (who aids the hero) The Princess (the person being looked for, reward for the hero, object of the villains scheme Her Father (who rewards the hero) The dispatcher (who sends the hero away) The false hero.
  10. 10.  Propp also says that each film follows a sequence of evens divided into 4 spheres these are… 1st Sphere: The introduction sequence 2nd Sphere: The Body of the story 3rd Sphere: The donor sequence 4th Sphere: The Hero’s return