Classroom Instruction Revised


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Classroom Instruction Revised

  1. 1. Marzano
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ The Mediocre Teacher Tells, The Good </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Explains, The Superior Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates, but the Great Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Inspires.” </li></ul><ul><li>William Arthur Ward </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter 11 TEACHING SPECIFIC TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE <ul><li>I. Vocabulary terms and phrases </li></ul><ul><li>II. Details </li></ul><ul><li>III. Organizing Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Skills and Tactics </li></ul><ul><li>V. Process </li></ul>
  4. 4. I. Research and Theory VOCABULARY TERMS AND PHRASES <ul><li>1. Students must encounter words in context more than once to learn them. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Instruction in new words enhances learning those words in context. </li></ul><ul><li>3. One of the best ways to learn a new word is to associate an image with it. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Direct vocabulary instruction works. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Direct instruction on words that are critical to new content produces the most powerful learning. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Classroom Practice VOCABULARY TERMS AND PHRASES >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>><<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< A 5 STEP PROCESS FOR TEACHING NEW TERMS AND PHRASES <ul><li>1. Present students with a brief explanation or description of the new term or phrase </li></ul>
  6. 6. Classroom Practice VOCABULARY TERMS AND PHRASES >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>><<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< A 5 STEP PROCESS FOR TEACHING NEW TERMS AND PHRASES <ul><li>2. Present students with a nonlinguistic representation of the new term or phrase </li></ul>
  7. 7. Classroom Practice VOCABULARY TERMS AND PHRASES >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>><<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< A 5 STEP PROCESS FOR TEACHING NEW TERMS AND PHRASES <ul><li>3. Ask students to generate their own explanations or descriptions of the term or phrase. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Classroom Practice VOCABULARY TERMS AND PHRASES >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>><<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< A 5 STEP PROCESS FOR TEACHING NEW TERMS AND PHRASES <ul><li>4. Ask students to create their own nonlinguistic representation of the term or phrase. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Classroom Practice VOCABULARY TERMS AND PHRASES >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>><<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< A 5 STEP PROCESS FOR TEACHING NEW TERMS AND PHRASES <ul><li>5. Periodically ask students to review the accuracy of their explanations and representations </li></ul>
  10. 10. II. Research and Theory DETAILS <ul><li>DETAILS – specific type of knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 Facts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Time Sequences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Cause and Effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Episodes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Research and Theory DETAILS
  12. 12. Verbal <ul><li>Telling students about details or having them read about details </li></ul>
  13. 13. Visual <ul><li>Graphic representations, pictures, graphs, or creating mental pictures </li></ul>
  14. 14. Dramatization <ul><li>Students either observe a dramatic enactment of the details or are involved in a dramatic enactment of the details. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Classroom Practice DETAILS <ul><li>Multiple Exposures – Teachers should find ways to expose students to details at least three times. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Classroom Practice DETAILS <ul><li>Dramatic Representation – Elementary teachers probably use drams more often than do secondary teachers, but we need to remember that all learners can benefit from this technique. </li></ul>
  17. 17. III. RESEARCH AND THEORY ON ORGANIZING IDEAS <ul><li>Although vocabulary terms and details are important, generalizations help students develop a broad knowledge base because they transfer more readily to different situations. </li></ul><ul><li>For instance, the preceding generalization about battles applies to wars generally-across countries, situations, and ages, whereas a fact about the Battle of Gettysburg is a specific event that does not directly transfer to other situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Students need a rich set of illustrative facts, one of which is probably that regarding the Battle of Gettysburg. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The following generalizations can serve to guide instruction in organizing ideas: <ul><li>Students frequently have misconceptions about generalizations and principles when </li></ul><ul><li>they are first introduces to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Simply activating prior knowledge- asking students to recall what they know about a specific organizing idea- produces very little conceptual change. </li></ul><ul><li>Having students discuss what they know about an organizing idea produces significantly more conceptual change probably because it facilitates the infusion of new perspectives and ideas generated by discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>The biggest conceptual change comes when students must provide a sound defense or argument for their position, or are presented with a sound argument or a sound defense relative to an organizing idea. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Students should be provided opportunities to apply organizing ideas. <ul><li>Students learn the most when teachers ask students to apply generalizations and principles once they understand them. </li></ul><ul><li>More instructional time and energy should be </li></ul><ul><li>focused on having students use organizing ideas </li></ul><ul><li>than initially understanding them. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to design instruction so that students first understand generalizations and principles. </li></ul>
  20. 20. IV. RESEARCH AND THEORY ON SKILLS <ul><li>Mental skills come in two different forms: Tactics and Algorithms. </li></ul><ul><li>Tactics consists of general rules governing an overall flow of execution, rather than a set of steps that must be performed in a specific order. </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithms are mental skills that have specific outcomes and steps. </li></ul>
  21. 21. 1. The discovery approach is difficult to use effectively with skills. <ul><li>A common misconception is education is that “discovering” how to perform a skill or tactic is always better than being directly taught the skill or process. </li></ul><ul><li>Although the discovery approach has captured the fancy of many educators, there is not much research to indicate its superiority to other methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Some researchers have made strong assertions about the lack of effectiveness of discovery learning, particularly as it relates to skills. </li></ul><ul><li>A useful rule of thumb might be that the more variation there is in the steps that can be used to effectively execute a skill, the more amenable the skill is to discovery learning. </li></ul>
  22. 22. 2. When teachers use discovery learning, they should organize examples into categories that represent the different approaches to the skill. <ul><li>a. One of the best examples of an effective discovery approach with skill-based knowledge is Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI). Using this approach, teachers can encourage primary students to “design” their own strategies for solving problems. </li></ul>
  23. 23. 3. Skills are most useful when learned to the level of automaticity. <ul><li>a. Automaticity is one highly generalizable research finding relative to skill learning that must be learned at a level that requires little or no conscious thought. To do this, students must engage in practice that gradually becomes distributed, as opposed to massed. </li></ul>
  24. 24. V. RESEARCH AND THEORY ON PROCESSES <ul><li>Processes are similar to skills in some ways and different in other ways. They are similar in that they produce some form of product or new understanding. The process of writing produces a new composition. </li></ul><ul><li>By definition, processes are not amenable to a “step by step” instructional approach. But most students could still do with some guidance in the general aspects of the process. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Consider the following phrases (or adaptations of them) that many teachers use for the writing process: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Prewriting </li></ul><ul><li>2. Writing </li></ul><ul><li>3. Revising </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Within each of these major components of the writing process, more specific subcomponents are identified, such as the following: </li></ul><ul><li>3 . Revising: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revising for the overall logic of the composition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revising for effective transition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revising for word choice and phrasing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revising for subject-verb agreement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revising for spelling and punctuation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Student should practice the parts of a process in the context of the overall process. Teachers should present students with the components and subcomponents of a process and provide practice in all of them. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation : The teacher explains what good writing is and gives examples. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural process : The teacher has students engage in a great deal of free writing, individually and in groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused practice: The teacher structures writing tasks to emphasize specific aspects of writing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills : The teacher breaks down writing into its components parts and then provides practice, sometimes in isolation, on each part. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><ul><li>Teacher should emphasize the metacognitive control of processes Metacognitive control involves complex interactions of component skills. Consequently, a student must not only have mastery over the components skills, but must be able to control the interactions of these elelment. Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide plenty of guided practice by having students use the strategies form as many appropriate tasks as possible, providing reinforcement and feedback on how the students can improve their execution of the strategies. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage students to monitor their performance when using the strategies. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage generalization of the strategies by having students use them with different types of materials in various content areas, as well as their continued use. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. THE END