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Odyssey by Homer


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Odyssey by Homer

  1. 1.  30% of the words in a ordinary dictionary comes from the ancient Greek language.  Ancient Greeks were the first to use vowels.  Our alphabet came from the Greek language.  For example: the word “alphabet” came from ancient Greek words “alpha” “beta”.
  2. 2.  Ancient Greek literature had four major writings; epic traditions, lyric poetry, tragedy and comedy.  An example of the epic traditions are the Iliad and the Odyssey.  Lyric poems got its name from a group of individuals singing while playing the lyre.  Tragedies and comedies were dramas and used to honour Greek god Dionysus.
  3. 3.  An ancient Greek called Homer is famous for his two writings Odyssey and Iliad.  Homer was a blind man and people would gather around too hear him sing 10 epic songs.  Homer live around the 8th century and made imagination based stories.  Another contributor was Theocritus.
  4. 4.  Theocritus was the creator of pastoral poetry.  He wrote mane mime plays.  Alexandria was a book and poem maker.  Goethe was a Greek man who made classical and romantic poems.  “Clearness of vision, cheerfulness of acceptance, easy grace of expression, are qualities which delight us” quoted Goethe
  5. 5.  English grammar, punctuation and paragraphing came from the ancient Greek literature.  Greek literature influenced us most during the 18th century.  Roman, Latin and English literature was most influenced by ancient Greek literature.  Greeks made mane genres such as tragedy, comedy, poetry and historic writing.
  6. 6.  The ancient Greek alphabet was the first to have vowels.  The vowels made the language easier to learn and speak.  Their poetry made us think more and clear our minds.  Ancient Greek poetry was referred to medicine for the mind.  Greek words express ideas very well.
  7. 7.  are long narrative poems that tell of the adventures of heroes who in some way embody the values of their civilization.  The Epic Tradition  Epics and other tales were probably told by wandering bards or minstrels called “rhapsodes”. Rhapsodes were….  Epics were originally told aloud because …..
  8. 8.  True identity is unknown  “The Iliad and The Odyssey”  Homer passed his stories on via travelling story-tellers called “Rhapsodes”  Believed that homer lived around 850 B.C. in Greece  Homer = “Homeros” meaning “BLIND”
  9. 9.  a great epic written by the great poet Homer  It is the second of Homer’s two great epic poems.  an epic about humans on the journey of life overcoming temptations along the way.  It is divided into 24 books.  The Odyssey is named for Odysseus.
  10. 10.  Odysseus is the King of Ithaca, and island off the coast of Greece.  The Odyssey begins in “medias res”…  According to the myth, Odysseus did not want to fight at Troy.  He did not want to leave his wife, Penelope, and his baby son, Telemachus.  Odysseus is an example of an epic hero
  11. 11.  a larger-than-life hero who embodies the values of a particular society. Characteristics of an epic hero:  1. An epic hero is superhuman. He is braver, stronger, smarter, and cleverer than an ordinary person is.  2. The epic hero is on a quest for something of great value to him or his people.  3. The villains that try to keep the hero from his quest are usually uglier, more evil, and more cunning than anyone we know in ordinary life.  4. The epic hero is often of mixed divine and human birth and so possesses human weaknesses.  5. The divine world (the gods) interferes with the human world.
  12. 12.  Laertes and Anticleia were the parents of Odysseus  He was married to Penelope  Telemachus  "Odysseus the Cunning"
  13. 13. TROY
  14. 14. The Island of Cicones
  15. 15.  Odysseus ordered his men to raids the main city Ismarus, attack their people, and steal their possessions.  Cicones’ wine  Odysseus loses 72 men from each of his twelve ships.
  16. 16. The Island of the Lotus-Eaters
  17. 17.  Odysseus sends three of his men out to search for food and information about this island.  Lotus fruit – you will forget everything but only you want is to stay and enjoy the honey-sweet taste of it.  Odysseus drags the men back to their ships against their will, and with help from his crewmates the twelve ships set sail once again.
  18. 18. The Island of Cyclops
  19. 19.  Cave  Polyphemus– the leader of one-eyed giant Cyclops.   traps Odysseus and his men inside of the cave.  the Cyclops eats the six of Odysseus’ men.   Odysseus gets the Cyclops drunk with strong Ciconian wine. Odysseus tells the Cyclops his name is “Nobody”.
  20. 20. The Land of Aeolus
  21. 21.   Aeolus, master of the winds.  Odysseus and his men stay for one month.  Aeolus gives Odysseus a Bag of Winds tied with a silver cord. It contains all the storm winds.  While Odysseus is sleeping, his men suspect treasure inside the bag and they open it. The winds escape and blow the ship back to Aeolus’ island.  Odysseus begs for another bag of winds. Aeolus refuses
  22. 22. The Land of Telepylus, city of the giant  Laestrygonians
  23. 23.  Odysseus and his men reach Telepylus, city of the giant Laestrygonians.   sends three men for information.  meet the daughter of King Antiphates, leader of the Laestrygonians, near the spring Artacia.  Only Odysseus and the men on his own ship survive and his other eleven ships are destroyed and their men captured or drowned.
  24. 24. Island of Circe, the witch Goddess
  25. 25.  Two groups  Eurylochus  Circe, the witch Goddess  Some of odysseus’ men became a beasts because of circe magic  Odysseus meets the god Hermes who gives him moly  Moly protects Odysseus from the deadly magic of circe  Circe turns Odysseus’ men back into humans.  Circe told Odysseus of a way to reach home through Teiresias (Holy man of Thebes).  Odysseus and his crew stay on her island for one year.
  26. 26. The Land of the Dead (Underworld)
  27. 27.  Odysseus travels to the Land of the Dead to seek advice from the ghost of Teiresias, the blind prophet.   Tiresias tells Odysseus of the following: 1. to stay away from the cattle of Helios, sun god 2. to make a sacrifice to Poseidon, and 3. that he will have a peaceful old age. Odysseus also talks to his mother Anticleia, who had died from the grief of missing her son. Odysseus’ mother and Teiresias each tell Odysseus that he would reach Ithaca and what to expect when he gets home. 
  28. 28. A Proper Burial for Elpenor
  29. 29.  When Odysseus visits the Land of the Dead he is surprised to see Elpenor —the youngest member of his crew.   Elpenor tells Odysseus that he died after getting drunk and falling off the edge of Circe's roof because he didn’t use the ladder. Elpenor begs Odysseus to go back to Circe’s island and give his body a proper burial. Odysseus honors the request.   Odysseus and his men return briefly to the island of circe, find Elpenor’s body and, with sorrowful tears, hold a proper funeral for their comrade. First they burn his body and his armor. Then they pile a grave mound over the body and armor. Finally, they plant Elpenor’s oar on top of the mound. All of this, just as Elpenor had requested.
  30. 30. The Island of Sirens
  31. 31.  Odysseus and his men reach the island of the Sirens - sweet-singing, bird-like enchanters whose songs lure sailors to their island.  Unsuspecting men who get too close to their voices die on their island among the bones of other dead sailors.   On the advice of Circe, Odysseus blocks his men’s ears with wax and ordered his men to tie him to the mast because he alone will listen to the Sirens.  Once they are safely past the Sirens, Odysseus’ men remove the wax from their ears, untie Odysseus, and continue their journey.
  32. 32. Deadly Sea Monsters, the Syclla and Charybdis
  33. 33.  On one side are the deadly Wandering Rocks and on the other are Scylla – the six-headed monster, and Charybdis – the whirlpool.   Circe has warned Odysseus that he will lose six men to Scylla – there is no way to avoid that. But if he tries to fight Scylla, he will lose many more.   Ignoring Circe’s advice, Odysseus prepares to fight Scylla. Terrified, Odysseus and his crew try to pass. Six of his men are grabbed by the six heads of Scylla and eaten. Odysseus and his crew are devastated.   For Odysseus, hearing his men scream his name and watching their hands reach out to him while being eaten would be the worst sight on his sea journey.
  34. 34. The Island of the sun-god Helios
  35. 35.  Circe and Teiresias warn Odysseus about the island of Helios, the sun god, and not to eat his sacred oxen.  Unfavorable winds trap the men on the island for one month and they eat up all their own food. Odysseus prays to the gods for help, then they falls asleep. Fearing starvation, his men – led by Eurylochus - break their oath and eat the cattle.  Lampetië, daughter of Helios, reports the killing.  Helios tells Zeus to throws a bolt of lightning at the ship, and turns it to splinters when the men are back at sea.  only Odysseus survives   
  36. 36. The Island of Calypso, the Goddess of silence
  37. 37.  Odysseus finds this island after drifting in the sea. It is an island of women, with a nymph named Calypso, with whom Odysseus has a seven-year affair with.   After the seven years, Hermes convinces Calypso to let Odysseus build a new ship so he could sail home.
  38. 38. The Island of Scheria, Phaeacia
  39. 39.  Princess Nausicaa found Odysseus and Phaecians accept odysseus.  Odysseus explains his ten-year journey to Phaecians during a feast.  King Alcinous of Phaecian helped odysseus to go back to Ithaca.
  40. 40. Finally On Ithaca
  41. 41.  The arrival of Odysseus on Ithaca went unnoticed  He pretended to be a beggar  Penelope would marry anyone of them who could string Odysseus' bow and shoot an arrow through twelve axe- handles joined together.  Odysseus as beggar picked up the bow, stringing it with ease and in one fluid motion letting fly an arrow that pierced all the twelve axe-handles. After that, there was chaos.
  42. 42.  Revealing his true identity, Odysseus began massacring the suitors  Penelope set up to test if that beggar is Odysseus .  Penelope ordered the palace servants to remove the bed from her bed-chamber to the hall outside.  On hearing this, Odysseus bristled with anger and opposed the idea, saying that this bed had been fashioned out of a living oak by his own hand and none, save a god, none in the whole world could move it. Penelope rushed to Odysseus and hugged him, with big tears in her eyes, for she was reassured that this man was her beloved husband returned to her. Only Odysseus knew the secret about their bed and his words were the proof she needed to believe him.