JOURNALISM AND MASS COMMUNICATION BASIC CAMERA SHOT 100102120491
A. The moment from switching on the camera to the moment of switching it off, the action of the subject recorded within that time is called a shot.B. A shot is the smallest unit of visual information captured at one time by the camera that shows certain action or event.
I. To give the relative emphasis to the subject matterII. To interlink different areas.III. To establish the relationship between different subjectsIV. To show what audience want to seeV. To create visual verity
1. Extreme Close Up2. Big Close Up3. Close Up4. Medium Close Up5. Medium Shot6. Medium Long Shot7. Long Shot8. Very Long Shot9. Extreme Long Shot10. Two Shot11. Over Shoulder Shot
1. Extreme Close-Up (XCU or ECU): Abbreviated ECU or XCU. Purely a detail shot-farming favors one aspect of a subject such as his/her eyes, mouth, ear or hand. The usefulness of this shot is limited. The shot certainly poses problems in editing a dramatic sequence, as each small movement of a facial expression is magnified to such an extent that it can become silly. Within last few years it has been used in some type of feature films known as “Spaghetti Westerns”.
2. Big Close-Up (BCU): Abbreviated BCU. Human face occupies as much of the frame as possible and still shows the key features of eyes, nose and mouth at once. But does not include the chin line and the top of the head. Often with a man the upper frame edge is on the brow or forehead, but with a woman the shot shows more of the hair line. This shot is about who and how that “Who” feels angry, scared, romantic etc. It has been used in different types of daily soap and film.
3. Close-Up (CU): Abbreviated CU Sometimes called a “head shot”, as the framing may cut off the top of the subjects hair and the bottom of the frame can begin anywhere just below the chin or with a little upper shoulder visible. The Close Up is usually a full face shot and is composed from bellow the chin and may include the shoulder line. The area of the face covers most of the frame. It is a dramatic shot which emphasis and magnifies facial reactions or draws particular attention to a specific thing.
4. Medium Close-Up (MCU): Abbreviated MCU MCU usually takes one or two forms, in this first form Direct to camera and in the second form, Three quarter profile. This shot is composed from the subjects breast line. This shot very often uses in the Television program. This shot successfully express facial an physical expression.
5. Medium Shot(MS): Abbreviated MS It also known as “Mid Shot” or “Waist Shot”. The shot is composed from the subject’s waist and slightly below. It never framed higher than the waist. Most useful and flexible shot.
6. Medium Long Shot(MLS): Abbreviated MLS It also known as “American Knee Shot” or “Knee Shot” The framing of MS is slightly above or slightly below the knee, but never on the knee. The shot provides ample headroom and space on each side for arm movement.
7. Long Shot(LS): Abbreviated LS The long shot comprises the entire body and is framed below the feet. It often used as an introductory shot, mainly because the subject is still close enough to be recognized. The LS or Long Shot is most commonly used when the subject makes a complete movement within the frame.
8. Very long Shot(VLS): Abbreviated VLS It is a wide and comprehensive shot, but not so wide that you can’t indemnify the subject even on the small screen. This shot is noticeable because of the amount of space around the subject. This shot is often use for small crowd scene and very fast subject movement (like car chase).
9. Extreme long Shot(ELS/XLS): Abbreviated XLS or ELS The subject is so small in the frame that it is totally unrecognizable. This shot is also called “The wide angle”, “The wide shot”, even the phrase “Geography shot” is used. This shot is often used in the opening sequence such as a background for titles. Westerns frequently use this shot. Also known as the Establish shot. It also known as “Backbone of the scene”
10. Two Shot(2-Shot/2S): Abbreviated 2-Shot or 2S The two shot contains two people, generally either facing camera or each other. The framing depends on number of factors, whether they are standing or sitting, moving or static, making gesture or not.
11. Over the Shoulder Shot(OSS): Abbreviated OSS This shot is framed from behind a person who is looking at the subject. The person facing the subject should usually occupy about 1/3 of the frame.