• Is an individually planned and systematically
implemented and carefully evaluated instruction to
help exceptional children achieve the greatest
possible personal self-efficiency and success in present
an future environments.
• Every child in the SpEd classroom is provided with
individualized programs that will focus on enhancing
the child’s sphere of development.
It would be helpful to give the readers a glimpse
of terms used in special education as defined in Section 4
of Republic Act 7277:
Those suffering from restriction or different
disabilities, as a result of a mental, physical or
sensory impairment, to perform an activity in the
manner or within the range considered normal for a
Commonly called an IEP, is a legal document
collaboratively prepared by the special education
team of professionals describing the child’s academic
assessment, progress and instructional plans and
procedures and necessary interventions.
Or Least Restrictive Environment to the maximum
extent for the child to participate with non-disabled
peers in conjunction with the general education
Includes (1) improvement of existing facilities used
by employees in order to render these readily
accessible to and usable by disabled persons and
(2) modifications of work schedules, reassignment
to a vacant position, acquisition or modification of
equipment or devices, appropriate adjustment or
modifications or examinations and other similar
accommodations for disabled persons
The provision of productive work for disabled persons through
workshops providing special facilities, income-producing
projects or homework schemes with a view to give them
opportunity to earn a living thus enabling them to acquire a
working capacity required in industry.
Refer to the characteristics of institutions, whether
legal, economic, cultural, recreational or other, human
group, community or society which limit the fullest possible
participation of disabled persons in the life of the group.
A neurological disorder that
affects communication and the
processing of sensory information.
Means Attention Deficit Disorder or
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
A biological, brain-based condition that
is characterized by poor attention and
distractibility or hyperactivity and
Refers to a disorder in one or more of
the basic psychological processes
involved in understanding or using
spoken or written language, which can
result in difficulties in
reading, writing, listening, speaking, thin
king, spelling or mathematics.
An impairment in the ability to read or
comprehend written language which is
considered to be a significant learning
disability on reading problems, or oral
People who become disoriented with
directions or distinctions between north from
south, east from west, left to right are
included in this classification.
Those who labor on handwriting
difficulty, suffer clumsiness or encounter
difficulty in walking, skipping and balancing
cover spatial skills are classified within this
The difficulty of the individual in
A disorder manifested by children who have
motor, visual and spatial difficulties. Organizing
time and tasks, sensitivity to senses and social skills
are also included in this classification.
A condition that affects an individual’s general
ability to learn school materials, to adopt to the
social demands/ characteristics of a given age
level, and to maintain appropriate interpersonal
relationships with other people.
Cam learn self-help, communicate,
social and simple occupational skills but
limited to academics and vocational
Can learn self-help, communication and
simple work tasks under supervision.
Can learn basic academics and have
enough social adaptive ability to
become semi-independent or
There is no strong presumption and the
person is considered to be untestable by
standard intelligence test.
Conditions that affects movement – an individual’s gross
motor control or mobility and fine-motor control.
Literally means “ paralysis of the brain” involving muscle
control, posture and movement that is not progressive or
does not get worse over time.
A permanent or temporary disability in listening that will
affect learning skills or academic achievement. The
inability to absorb verbal instruction indicates a
commonly called deafness impairment.
Blindness is referred as having low or no vision. Similar with
deafness, this impairment will adversely affect the child’s
Expressive speech disorder or any language impairment,
receptive or expressive, caused by brain damage. The
child is unable to use the lips, tongue, and other speech
structures that can produce sounds for language.
Another classification of children that needs
special education is the Gifted and Talented.
These children exhibit excellence in the areas of
intellect, creative arts, leadership and in some
specific academic areas whose parents or teachers
are astonished with their reasoning power or
geniuses. We may have heard of stories about
gifted and talented children who are often teased
by their peers because they cannot relate well
others. They are very sensitive and expect
perfections on things and undertakings assigned to
them. Failures are heartbreaking for them most
likely lead to frustrations.
Among the youngest members of Mensa, which he joined
when he was four years old. He started to show his genius at
four months, when he began browsing childrens books and
correctly answering questions about them. Upon entering
Mensa, he scored a high 99.9 percentile on the standardized
IQ test of Mensa. At five years old, he finished the math
courses offered by Stanford University’s Education Program
for Gifted Youth on five levels (kindergarden to 5th grade)
in just six months.
At six years old, he is already taking high school and college
courses. He has maintained a grade point average of 4.0 in
all of his college courses and was one of the youngest to be
inducted in the Phi Theta Kappa Honor Society. He also
publishes essays on NASA’s Lunar Science website.
Special Education Teacher’s plan is not for the
entire class but rather for an individual child. This is
called Individual Education Plan, or IEP. It is
legal document made through with special
education assessment, eligibility, and instructional
planning procedures. IEP is a planning tool where
knowledge and skills are systematically taught.
Differentiated steps and teaching requirements
are needed to help the pupil reach the IEP
Bauzon (2001) emphasized the necessity of
the curriculum. Curriculum is viewed as the very
heart of all educational systems. There are
different approaches to curriculum design and let
us underscore two approaches relevant to the
teaching special education. These are:
The scope and sequence of this approach is found
in the child himself. The learner’s needs and
interests supply the basis for planning the activity
or experience – centered curriculum.
It is designed for the child as the center of the
educational process. Children become the focus of
educational efforts. Experience becomes the
medium of learning.
• Students with dyslexia have much easier time focusing on
a topic that is interesting to them. Take an active role in
helping your student gain skills in the area of reading.
Disabilities • For dyscalculic children, keep a sharp eye for
opportunities and skills that are appropriate with.
• Children with dysgraphia must be taught with cursive
• The curriculum includes balance of teacher-directed and
self-directed activities. Provide a chart that specifies what
he/she needs to do and estimate the time to finally reach
• Students with autism tend to be visual learners, visual cues
greatly help them understand
language, concepts, directions and scheduled which are
strategically posted inside the classroom.
• Many students with this disability have difficulties with
fine motor and visual functioning. For this reason, some
homework and classroom assignments need to be
shorter, since handwriting can be laborious. Work closely
with an occupational therapist who can make helpful
suggestions on his/her classroom work.
• Learn about your student’s developmental level and
types of intelligence so you can plan how to include her
in learning activities. Structure lessons carefully by thinking
about steps involved, present skills and concepts.
• Gifted students can have different assignments, but they
should be in the same area of study as what the class is
working on. Provide drill work for your student to willingly
accept the task. Let your student come up with great
ideas you feel can profit him/her most.
• Use visual cues to reinforce concepts and
facts. Film shown must be provided with
caption or written scripts. Provide written
directions on the board at her desk. Picture
cues are equally important.
• Visually impaired children, use lot of verbal
cues in your instruction. Teach your student
to give you a signal if he is confused. The
sizes of your print materials are helpful for