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Embracing Special Education

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Embracing Special Education

  1. 1. • Is an individually planned and systematically implemented and carefully evaluated instruction to help exceptional children achieve the greatest possible personal self-efficiency and success in present an future environments. • Every child in the SpEd classroom is provided with individualized programs that will focus on enhancing the child’s sphere of development.
  2. 2. It would be helpful to give the readers a glimpse of terms used in special education as defined in Section 4 of Republic Act 7277: Those suffering from restriction or different disabilities, as a result of a mental, physical or sensory impairment, to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being.
  3. 3. Commonly called an IEP, is a legal document collaboratively prepared by the special education team of professionals describing the child’s academic assessment, progress and instructional plans and procedures and necessary interventions. Or Least Restrictive Environment to the maximum extent for the child to participate with non-disabled peers in conjunction with the general education curriculum.
  4. 4. Includes (1) improvement of existing facilities used by employees in order to render these readily accessible to and usable by disabled persons and (2) modifications of work schedules, reassignment to a vacant position, acquisition or modification of equipment or devices, appropriate adjustment or modifications or examinations and other similar accommodations for disabled persons
  5. 5. The provision of productive work for disabled persons through workshops providing special facilities, income-producing projects or homework schemes with a view to give them opportunity to earn a living thus enabling them to acquire a working capacity required in industry. Refer to the characteristics of institutions, whether legal, economic, cultural, recreational or other, human group, community or society which limit the fullest possible participation of disabled persons in the life of the group.
  6. 6. A neurological disorder that affects communication and the processing of sensory information.
  7. 7. Means Attention Deficit Disorder or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. A biological, brain-based condition that is characterized by poor attention and distractibility or hyperactivity and impulsive behavior.
  8. 8. Refers to a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using spoken or written language, which can result in difficulties in reading, writing, listening, speaking, thin king, spelling or mathematics.
  9. 9. An impairment in the ability to read or comprehend written language which is considered to be a significant learning disability on reading problems, or oral language.
  10. 10. People who become disoriented with directions or distinctions between north from south, east from west, left to right are included in this classification. Those who labor on handwriting difficulty, suffer clumsiness or encounter difficulty in walking, skipping and balancing cover spatial skills are classified within this disability.
  11. 11. The difficulty of the individual in mathematical problems.
  12. 12. A disorder manifested by children who have motor, visual and spatial difficulties. Organizing time and tasks, sensitivity to senses and social skills are also included in this classification. A condition that affects an individual’s general ability to learn school materials, to adopt to the social demands/ characteristics of a given age level, and to maintain appropriate interpersonal relationships with other people.
  13. 13. Classification IQ Range Mild 50-55 to 70 Moderate 35-40 to 50-55 Cam learn self-help, communicate, social and simple occupational skills but limited to academics and vocational skills. Severe 20-25 to 35-40 Can learn self-help, communication and simple work tasks under supervision. Unspecified Capabilities according to supervision Can learn basic academics and have enough social adaptive ability to become semi-independent or independent living. There is no strong presumption and the person is considered to be untestable by standard intelligence test.
  14. 14. Conditions that affects movement – an individual’s gross motor control or mobility and fine-motor control. Impairment Description Cerebral Palsy Literally means “ paralysis of the brain” involving muscle control, posture and movement that is not progressive or does not get worse over time. Hearing A permanent or temporary disability in listening that will affect learning skills or academic achievement. The inability to absorb verbal instruction indicates a commonly called deafness impairment. Visual Blindness is referred as having low or no vision. Similar with deafness, this impairment will adversely affect the child’s educational performance. Aphasia/ Apraxia Expressive speech disorder or any language impairment, receptive or expressive, caused by brain damage. The child is unable to use the lips, tongue, and other speech structures that can produce sounds for language.
  15. 15. Another classification of children that needs special education is the Gifted and Talented. These children exhibit excellence in the areas of intellect, creative arts, leadership and in some specific academic areas whose parents or teachers are astonished with their reasoning power or geniuses. We may have heard of stories about gifted and talented children who are often teased by their peers because they cannot relate well others. They are very sensitive and expect perfections on things and undertakings assigned to them. Failures are heartbreaking for them most likely lead to frustrations.
  16. 16. Among the youngest members of Mensa, which he joined when he was four years old. He started to show his genius at four months, when he began browsing childrens books and correctly answering questions about them. Upon entering Mensa, he scored a high 99.9 percentile on the standardized IQ test of Mensa. At five years old, he finished the math courses offered by Stanford University’s Education Program for Gifted Youth on five levels (kindergarden to 5th grade) in just six months. At six years old, he is already taking high school and college courses. He has maintained a grade point average of 4.0 in all of his college courses and was one of the youngest to be inducted in the Phi Theta Kappa Honor Society. He also publishes essays on NASA’s Lunar Science website.
  17. 17. Special Education Teacher’s plan is not for the entire class but rather for an individual child. This is called Individual Education Plan, or IEP. It is legal document made through with special education assessment, eligibility, and instructional planning procedures. IEP is a planning tool where knowledge and skills are systematically taught. Differentiated steps and teaching requirements are needed to help the pupil reach the IEP learning target.
  18. 18. Bauzon (2001) emphasized the necessity of the curriculum. Curriculum is viewed as the very heart of all educational systems. There are different approaches to curriculum design and let us underscore two approaches relevant to the teaching special education. These are:
  19. 19. The scope and sequence of this approach is found in the child himself. The learner’s needs and interests supply the basis for planning the activity or experience – centered curriculum. It is designed for the child as the center of the educational process. Children become the focus of educational efforts. Experience becomes the medium of learning.
  20. 20. • Students with dyslexia have much easier time focusing on a topic that is interesting to them. Take an active role in helping your student gain skills in the area of reading. Learning Disabilities • For dyscalculic children, keep a sharp eye for opportunities and skills that are appropriate with. • Children with dysgraphia must be taught with cursive writing. • The curriculum includes balance of teacher-directed and ADD/ADHD Autism self-directed activities. Provide a chart that specifies what he/she needs to do and estimate the time to finally reach her goals. • Students with autism tend to be visual learners, visual cues greatly help them understand language, concepts, directions and scheduled which are strategically posted inside the classroom.
  21. 21. Tourette Syndrome • Many students with this disability have difficulties with fine motor and visual functioning. For this reason, some homework and classroom assignments need to be shorter, since handwriting can be laborious. Work closely with an occupational therapist who can make helpful suggestions on his/her classroom work. • Learn about your student’s developmental level and Mental Retardation Gifted and Talented types of intelligence so you can plan how to include her in learning activities. Structure lessons carefully by thinking about steps involved, present skills and concepts. • Gifted students can have different assignments, but they should be in the same area of study as what the class is working on. Provide drill work for your student to willingly accept the task. Let your student come up with great ideas you feel can profit him/her most.
  22. 22. Physical Impairment • Use visual cues to reinforce concepts and facts. Film shown must be provided with caption or written scripts. Provide written directions on the board at her desk. Picture cues are equally important. • Visually impaired children, use lot of verbal cues in your instruction. Teach your student to give you a signal if he is confused. The sizes of your print materials are helpful for them.

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