Demographics• Both Fertility and Mortality rates drop• So people live longer but have fewer children• Cost of living increase• Urbanization rates jump
Thomas Malthus• Writes Essay on the Principle of Population• Says that unchecked population growth will hold society back by limiting resources • Says famine and mass death is the result • Advocates moral restraint to control population.
Slums form in cities• London’s population is 1 million in 1800.• 2.4 million in 1850, 6.5 million by 1900 • Infrastructure can’t handle it • open sewers, outbreaks of cholera • ﬁretrap housing.
Migration ensues• People leave Europe for North America • 50 million migrate in 19th and 20th centuries • Brits to avoid slums, Irish b/c of potato famine, Jews to avoid persecution • Also Scandinavians and Germans leave home
Gender roles change• men seen as primary breadwinners, but women now can work as well• secondary wage earners, paid less than men.• Expected to work, but expected to keep the home as well.• no such thing as day care...or health care...
Smells like....Socialism (‘cause it is...Fox News take note...)• Utopian Socialists: Charles Fourier and Robert Owen• oppose the competition of capitalism• Try to create small scale societies without this to improve living and working conditions • New Lanark, Owen’s community: raises wages, cuts workday to 10 hours, provides housing and opens stores that sell at fair prices, provides free education to all the children. • But it isn’t ﬁnancially viable, so communities fold, attempts shift to larger scope...Marx remakes all of society...
Socialism and Reform• Huge impact on ideas of how to reform society.• Reduce property requirements for male voting (leads to universal suffrage...) • health care, educational opportunities, unemployment compensation, retirement beneﬁts• Unions form in all industries to advocate for the above
Industrialization beyond Europe• Russia is late to the party• Russia in 1860 has 700 miles of RR track • by 1900 has 36,000 • Sergei Witte, ﬁnance minister, pushes Tsar to modernize and industrialize • Oversees Trans-Siberian Railroad. Invites European capitalists in to build & invest • Russia develops massive coal, oil and steel and weapons industries
Japan plays too• Government hires foreign experts to build and instruct• Government opens schools, builds shipyards, factories, foundries then sells them to private investors • form the Zaibatsu: a trust/company formed around a single family. • banking, trade, mining, textiles
Global impact• rural areas provide raw materials• Urban areas provide industrial• industry representatives scour the globe for sources of material and labor• LA, Africa, SE Asia, India become dependent on export industry & don’t industrialize• So wages stay low, domestic industry small