Issues Today• Publications deluge / data deluge ?• Repeatability, citability, “mashability”• Algorithmic assistance to researchers• Web of data & Web of documents• Walled gardens vs interoperability• ... [ paste your issue here] ...
Drivers• Scientiﬁc, technical and social challenges• Moore’s Law, the Web, Instrument platforms• Research / education funding levels +/-• Proﬁts - publishers, pharmas, IT, ...• Open source & open access communities• The scientiﬁc community & its needs
A little history Scientiﬁc printing GPO print Journalculture c. 1450 1660 1665 IBM S/360 Internet Web Webculture 1964 1980s 1991
A table of data from Philos Trans R Soc Lond 1(4):56
What Shapin teaches us• scientiﬁc publications are arguments to witnesses, supported by evidence• instruments (including software) are important, but not all-important• the scientiﬁc social community is critical
Ecosystems• We are designing for ecosystems• People, technologies, publications, data, all have to work together as an ecosystem• Key artifacts and activities have multiple roles and social consituencies• The future ecosystem grows from the present ecosystem
Questions• Why does Shapin call scientiﬁc papers a literary “technology”?• What makes something an “ecosystem”?