Chapter 7: Ethnicity


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Chapter 7: Ethnicity

  1. 1. Chapter 7 Ethnicity PPT by Abe Goldman An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 8e James M. Rubenstein
  2. 2. Refugees fleeing Rwanda 1994
  3. 3. <ul><li>Writing Formula for APHG essays: </li></ul><ul><li>--When you write for AP HG essays, be sure you answer each thoroughly…define, describe… </li></ul><ul><li>--Use who? what? when? where? info as you write </li></ul><ul><li>--When defining, use examples to show you know what you are talking about. </li></ul><ul><li>--Outline your thoughts b4 you write…word-web, t-chart, or whatever…or just notes w/ bullets </li></ul><ul><li>Writing : Read p. 212 + 240 – 241. Answer each question below using the writing formula for APHG essays. </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the Hutus & the Tutsis? (Where? Who? What is going on? Etc….)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Cleansing: What is it and how is it show in this area? </li></ul><ul><li>How did European imperialism cause part of these problems which are seen throughout Africa? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Distribution of Ethnicities <ul><li>A. Ethnicities in the United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clustering of ethnicities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African American migration patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. Difference between ethnicity & race </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Race in the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Division by race in South Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regional concentrations of ethnicities in USA for these ethn. groups: (pp. 213-215): </li></ul><ul><li>Afr-Amer, Asn-Amer, Lat/Hisp-Amer.: </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>a) States w/ majority of these groups? % in these places? </li></ul><ul><li>Afr-Am : SE (mid-TX -GA) & Atlantic Coast to about MD; 25 - 50+% (think SOUTH !)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>- rural South & in northern cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Asn-Am : Pacific Coast (CA, WA, OR), esp. CA ,often 10-49%, or 3-9% </li></ul><ul><li>- Hawaii & California . </li></ul><ul><li>Lat.-Am : border states (CA, NM, AZ, CO, TX, FL) & Pac. Coast : 20-60+% </li></ul><ul><li>- SW USA & in N. cities . </li></ul><ul><li>Amer. Ind/Aleut also : AK = hi %; &quot; 4 corners &quot; (?) = hi %; MT, SD, ND also </li></ul><ul><li>- plains, the SW, & Alaska. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>b) Cities with ethnic clusters? </li></ul><ul><li>AfrAm: 50% in cities (25% of all Amer.) </li></ul><ul><li>Detroit = 85% Af-Am; Chicago = 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Lat-Am: </li></ul><ul><li>NY = 25% (but only 1/20 of NY state pop.) </li></ul><ul><li>LA = (+ -) 50% (either Hispanic-Am or Lat.-Am)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>3. C lustering of Euro-Amer. groups in the late 1800’s - early 1900’s (p. 215) </li></ul><ul><li>--Cleveland, Chicago., Detr. (Greektown, Poletown…): </li></ul><ul><li>high % of immg. from S & E. Europe </li></ul><ul><li>--now ethnic ID held thru relig. & food, not residence …but restaurant s in areas still show this history </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>4. 3 major migration flows: Afr-Am’s </li></ul><ul><li>a) forced migration from Africa: 1619 - 1860's: </li></ul><ul><li>(see triangular slave trade in #5) </li></ul><ul><li>b) Great Migration (from S  N): </li></ul><ul><li>2 waves around the 2 WW's: </li></ul><ul><li>*1910-20's *then '40's- 50's …went where? </li></ul><ul><li>-east Ala. thru VA = up to NE </li></ul><ul><li>-W. Ala. to TX = to Grt Lakes (Chicago/Detroit) </li></ul><ul><li>-W to CA…..often into ghettos </li></ul><ul><li>c) Expansion of the Ghetto (?): moved to areas adjoining ghettos in 50's & 60's, expanding the size of ghettos </li></ul><ul><li>Also: after Civ. Rights Mov’t. in 60’s – 70’s, back from N  S </li></ul>
  8. 8. African Americans in the U.S. The highest % of African Ameri.: Rural South Northern cities.
  9. 9. Latino/ Hispanic Americans in the U.S . Highest % of Hispanic Ameri. in the SW & in N. cities.
  10. 10. Asian Americans in the US Highest % of Asian Ameri.: in Hawaii & California.
  11. 11. Native Americans in the U.S. The highest % of Native Americans are in parts of the plains, the SW, & Alaska.
  12. 12. Ethnicities in Chicago: OLDER Data Afr. Americans, Hisp. Americans, Asian Americans, & Euro. Americans are clustered in different areas of the city.
  13. 13. Ethnicities in Chicago: Newer data African Amer., Hispanic (Latin) Amer., Asian Amer., & European Americans are clustered in different areas of the Notice: Less other ethnic areas left as divisions.
  14. 14. Ethnicities in Los Angeles Hispanic, white, African Amer., & Asian areas in & around LA.
  15. 15. Ethnic Diversity, NYC
  16. 16. British triangular slave trading system operated among Britain, Africa, & the Caribbean & N. America.
  17. 17. Slavery Source Areas: Europeans: Slaves mainly from the Western coast of Africa. Arabs & others: Also obtained slaves from Eastern Africa.
  18. 18. African American Migration in the US 1910-20’s & 1940-50’s 20 th century Great African American Migration w/in U.S. consisted mainly of migration from the rural S. to NE cities, Midwest, & West.
  19. 19. <ul><li>Middle Passage & the triangular slave trade: </li></ul><ul><li>Middle passage : high density packing of African slaves sent to W. Hemisph. by Europeans; </li></ul><ul><li>Sp. & Port. sent to Carib. & S.A . (majority ) </li></ul><ul><li>Brits & others sent to Carib. & N. A. </li></ul><ul><li>Triangular slave trade : from slave from Africa to West. Hem.; rum & molasses to Europe bottom diagram 217)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>After slavery , Jim Crow laws & sharecropping system kept African-Amer. in virtual slavery, much like serfs of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Sharecropping : Slaves were the experts in agric. & was what they knew…so rented from landowners, paying by a share of crops </li></ul><ul><li>-seed, food & other supplies were loaned by landowners, paid hi % of crops… </li></ul><ul><li>-hi interest + heavy debt meant $$ never paid it off, </li></ul><ul><li>so = virtual slavery </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Ghettos originally vs. now? </li></ul><ul><li>ghettos : originally European areas where Jews forced to live in Middle Ages </li></ul><ul><li>Now = ANY crowded, poor areas in inner-cities </li></ul><ul><li>Differences: race vs. ethnicity: E thnicity is better aspect of ppl for geographers to study than race b/c… </li></ul><ul><li>race : genetic biological traits passed to later generations--but these can vary drastically within a race </li></ul><ul><li>ethnicity : more cultural (history, lang., relig., etc.) aspects, but can include race as one part of this  </li></ul>
  21. 21. Diagram of a Slave Ship
  22. 22. Cotton Sharecroppers in U.S.
  23. 23. African Americans in Baltimore Areas w/ 90% African Amer. population in Baltimore expanded from a core area NW of downtown in the 1950s .
  24. 24. <ul><li>Main reason geogr. DO study race…& WHY: </li></ul><ul><li>Often determines where ppl will be sorted geographically: homes, schools, etc…(segregation of groups)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>How’s “African-Amer.” an EX: of this? </li></ul><ul><li>EX: African -Amer. = an ethnicity b/c it ID's a group w/ a cultural tradition including foods, dress, speech, religions, etc .; </li></ul><ul><li>- black applies only to darker skin </li></ul><ul><li>In some places, Arabs, Indians, etc., all = black </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>“ Separate but Equal Doctrine .” </li></ul><ul><li>1896 : Plessey vs. Ferguson : Supreme Ct. ruling: -said we must have &quot;equal&quot; things, but didn’t have to mix w/ them…could stay separate & still be equal </li></ul><ul><li>gave whites, especially in South, chance to enact &quot;Jim Crow&quot; laws: extreme separation </li></ul><ul><li>1954 : Brown vs. Board of Education : overturned Separate but Equal… but took years to make it work </li></ul><ul><li>W hite flight: C ouldn't keep “colored” (?) out, so whites left old neighborhoods & went to suburbs & drove/rode into cities to keep distance </li></ul><ul><li>blockbusting : real estate agents scared whites in areas near mixed ethn. areas </li></ul><ul><li>-said “ others ” are moving in…Better sell cheap now & get out! </li></ul><ul><li>-then they sold at hi prices to minorities looking for better neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>-then start all over w/ next “white” neighborhood </li></ul>
  26. 26. Segregation in the U.S.
  27. 27. <ul><li>A partheid …. In S outh A frica: New babies classified as 1 of 4: black, white, colored (mixed), Asian </li></ul><ul><li>-laws controlled how these mixed, lived, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>-S-A had been Dutch Boers (aka Afrikaners ) but Brits began to take in 1795…by 1902 took over completely </li></ul><ul><li>1948--Afrikaners got power back thru elections </li></ul><ul><li>-African countries were going back to true black African rule </li></ul><ul><li>-Afrikaners swore they wouldn‘t, so created apartheid to keep white dominance </li></ul><ul><li>-in '70's began to create &quot;homelands&quot; to keep blacks away & under “control” </li></ul><ul><li>World boycotts of S. Afr. products, etc., began in ‘70’s </li></ul><ul><li>-1991 white govt. repealed apartheid </li></ul><ul><li>- Nelson Mandela (head of Afr. Natl. Congress; was legalized 1991 ) released after 27 yrs in prison… elected President of S. Afr. in '94 </li></ul>
  28. 28. Black “Homelands” in South Africa During the apartheid era , South Africa created a series of black “homelands” w/ the expectation that every black would be a citizen of one of them. These were abolished w/ the end of apartheid.
  29. 29. Train Station Stairs for Blacks & Whites in South Africa under Apartheid
  30. 30. <ul><li>Nelson </li></ul><ul><li>Mandela, </li></ul><ul><li>H ead of </li></ul><ul><li>Afr. Natl. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress; </li></ul><ul><li>Released </li></ul><ul><li>after 27 </li></ul><ul><li>yrs in </li></ul><ul><li>prison. </li></ul><ul><li>He was </li></ul><ul><li>elected </li></ul><ul><li>President </li></ul><ul><li>of S.Afr. </li></ul><ul><li>in 1994 </li></ul>
  31. 31. Ethnicities into Nationalities <ul><li>Rise of nationalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nation-states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multinational states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Former Soviet Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turmoil in the Caucasus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revival of ethnic identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnicity and communism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebirth of nationalism in Eastern Europe </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>N ationality vs. ethnicity vs. race . EX in USA : </li></ul><ul><li>N ationality ( Latin nasci : &quot;to have been born”) : those born here or immigrated & became Amer. citizens … </li></ul><ul><li>--ppl tied together to a particular place thru legal status & cultural tradition” </li></ul><ul><li>E thnicity : those w/ distinct ancestry & cultural traditions (Latin Amer., Ital. Amer., Afri.-Amer., etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Race : Biological aspects, espec. color, of a person </li></ul><ul><li>What about Quebecois in Can.? </li></ul><ul><li>S elf-determination & nation-states : </li></ul><ul><li>Self-determination : right of ethnicities to govern themselves </li></ul><ul><li>State (p. 257) : political unit w/ sovereignty (control RE: internal affairs & foreign affairs… other states can’t interfere)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>-has permanent pop. & has defined territory </li></ul><ul><li>-has control over synonym for state = country (… not nation)‏ </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>When ethnicities became nationalities in Euro: </li></ul><ul><li>France is a good EX: Either late 19th or beginning of 19th century; French ethnicities  nationalities when ppl stopped fighting for a king & began to fight for France </li></ul><ul><li>How these lead to WWI : Nation-states of Europe didn't agree over boundaries or control in Africa & Asia colonies (imperialism)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>WWII: How Hitler theory to use this concept of “nationality” to justify expanding Germany: </li></ul><ul><li>-Said all German speaking people = Germans , so should be one nation-state , & he began to take them all over </li></ul><ul><li>Britain & France finally tried to stop him after he expanded into Poland, which was NOT Germanic but Slavic ( remember languages ?)‏ </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>There are no perfect nation-states: EX: Denmark: </li></ul><ul><li>It’s about as perfect as it gets b/c … </li></ul><ul><li>-have very few other ethnicities w/in borders… </li></ul><ul><li>-all speak Danish… </li></ul><ul><li>-& nearly all world's Danes live in Denmark… </li></ul><ul><li>-BUT…has a southern a Germanic (in ethn. & lang.) area </li></ul><ul><li>Also: 2 areas outside Denmark (Faeroe Islands & Greenland)….& those are not &quot;majority Danish&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism: loyalty & devotion to a nationality </li></ul><ul><li>-a state is expected to preserve & defend the culture & attitudes of a nationality… & people support this state </li></ul><ul><li>Ppl show it by… songs, flag-waving, pledges, etc., show support…. aka “patriotism” </li></ul><ul><li>- (nationalism vs. patriotism?? Us vs. them?)‏ </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Great way to build & support (foster) nationalism: mass media usually helps…(but in USA media can question govt.)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>-promoting flags & songs & protecting these can keep people in line…ideas of unity build national bonds; </li></ul><ul><li>-another way: Tie idea of nation to God ( manifest destiny ?) </li></ul><ul><li>USA’s media differs from many (NOT all, of course) countries b/c of its ability to ? & check on govt. where other countries don't allow media to do this </li></ul><ul><li>These ideas come from founding fathers like T. Paine, B. Franklin, Jefferson, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>We use flags & songs to foster nationalism in various ways… Making flags & other symbols of country sacred…like laws against burning </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Centripetal : means bringing together, pulling to the center </li></ul><ul><li>-a force that unites , not separates (a force pushing ppl apart would be ____?___ )‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Best way to get citizens’ support is to emphasize shared attitudes that unify the people </li></ul>
  37. 37. Republics of the Soviet Union The Soviet Union (USSR) consisted of 15 republics that included the country’s largest ethnic groups. These all became independent countries in the early 1990s.
  38. 38. Ethnic Groups in Russia : Russia officially recognizes 39 ethnic groups (nationalities); concentrated in western & southern regions.
  39. 39. Russian Soldiers in Chechnya The Russian army has occupied & destroyed much of Chechnya in suppressing Chechen rebel groups.
  40. 40. <ul><li>Clashes of Ethnicities </li></ul><ul><li>Former colonies: “nationalities” & “countries” sometimes not the same thing…. (Difference in nationality / state ?)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>EX: India/Pakistan : 2 very different ethn. shared a country, &quot;India&quot; controlled by Brits; when Brit control ended, put &quot;India&quot; as main part of country with E & W Pakistan as 2 Muslim areas, a &quot;fragmented&quot; state; Africa has lots of &quot;states&quot; that have numerous ethnicities &/or nationalities w/in their borders (p.225 )‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Problems w/ the British, Muslims, & Hindus in S. Asia: </li></ul><ul><li>India, Pakistan, & Bangladesh all = &quot;India&quot;….then was &quot;India” & “Pakistan (E & W)&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Now: Pakistan, India & Bangladesh b/c of the differing nationalities & religions, etc., w/in the borders </li></ul><ul><li>Millions were killed when migrating to other area </li></ul><ul><li>Known as the PARTITIONING OF INDIA </li></ul>
  41. 41. Ethnic Division of South Asia 1947 Brit. India gained independence & was divided into India & E/W Pakistan, resulting in the migration of 17 million ppl & many killings. In 1971, after a brutal civil war, E. Pak. became Bangladesh
  42. 42. <ul><li>The PARTITIONING OF INDIA : </li></ul><ul><li>Problems w/ the British, Muslims, & Hindus in S. Asia: Brits controlled India (M. Ghandi ?)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>India, Pakistan, & Bangladesh all = &quot;India“ </li></ul><ul><li>--was then &quot;India” & “Pakistan (E & W)&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Now: = Pakistan, India & Bangladesh b/c of the differing nationalities & religions, etc., w/in the borders </li></ul><ul><li>Millions were killed when migrating to other area </li></ul><ul><li>Issues RE Jammu & Kashmir: </li></ul><ul><li>India & Pak. never agreed on this area </li></ul><ul><li>both say it's theirs; now have split control…but not officially; it’s majority Muslim pop., so prob. would vote to go w/ Pak., but India refuses to let them vote on it </li></ul>
  43. 43. Jammu & Kashmir Although its population is mainly Muslim, much of Jammu & Kashmir became part of India in 1947. India & Pakistan fought 2 wars over it, & there has been a separatist insurgency in the area.
  44. 44. Ethnicities in the Caucasus The Caucasus region is extremely diverse ethnically. Ethnic groups are spread across several national boundaries.
  45. 45. Kurdish Refugees from Iraq, 1991 Many Kurds fled Iraq after the 1991 Persian Gulf War when Saddam Hussein’s armed forces attacked Kurdish regions in northern Iraq.
  46. 46. Ethnicity in the Horn of Africa There have been numerous Interethnic civil conflicts in the Countries of the Horn of Africa (including the Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, & Somalia).
  47. 47. Ethnicities in Lebanon Christian, Sunni Muslims, Shiite Muslims, & Druze are dominant in different areas of the country.
  48. 48. <ul><li>Sikhs : 19 mill. in &quot;Punjab” area of India (NW corner) south of Kashmir </li></ul><ul><li>-resented that they didn't get own independence when Brits pulled out; </li></ul><ul><li>-they fight for more self-determination…or for full independence & sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>Problems in Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon): Tamils (Hindus) vs. Sinhalese (Buddhists) </li></ul><ul><li>-Majority = Sinhalese </li></ul><ul><li>-Minority Tamils (18%) fight for control </li></ul><ul><li>-different languages AND religion </li></ul><ul><li>-colonialism keep problems down, but since independence (1948), became extreme </li></ul><ul><li>-In 1993 Tamil assassinated Sinhalese president of Sri Lanka; in '99 Tamil attempted again & wounded another president </li></ul>
  49. 49. Sinhalese &Tamils in Sri Lanka Sinhalese are mainly Buddhist & speak an Indo-European language, while the Tamils are mainly Hindu & speak a Dravidian language.
  50. 50. <ul><li>Key 4 : Ethnic Cleansing </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity = a major problems in Africa b/c ppl often hold loyalty to ethnicity way more than to nation-state </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Marx (communist) idea RE : nationalism s aid nationalism kept workers down & controlled them; thought workers would ID more w/ &quot;working class&quot; than with ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Ways communists in E. Europe controlled regional identities & used other centripetal forces: </li></ul><ul><li>-Russian was taught to all & encouraged ethnic. </li></ul><ul><li>-literature pushed into a certain style of social realism that stressed communist values </li></ul><ul><li>-religion was minimized to lessen ethnic ties </li></ul><ul><li>Use some ethnicities to create local govern. units </li></ul><ul><li>EX’s: 6 in Yugoslavia, 2 in Czechoslovakia, etc…. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Forced Migrations after WW II Territorial changes after World War II resulted in many migrations, especially by Poles, Germans, & Russians.
  52. 52. Former USSR
  53. 53. <ul><li>Fall of Communism in E. Europe opened up the way for ethnic clashes (EX’s: Serbs…Czechs…Slovenes…)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Big part of fall of USSR had to do w/ desire for independence w/in minority ethnicities (EX: Yugos. & Czech.)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>no longer would go with dominant population & began to want own independent nation-state </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Slovenia formed out of former Yugoslavia which had been controlled by the Serbs… </li></ul><ul><li>90% of Slov. ppl are Slovenes, so they have few problems…but others w/ more ethnic mix have big problems </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>Multi-ethnic states vs. multi-national states…. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-ethnic : EX: Belgium: Flemmings (Flanders Germanic) & Walloons (Wallonia/French)…but both see selves as Belgian first </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-national : United Kingdom of Great Britain & Ireland: 4 nationalities: Welsh, English, Irish, & Scots; have differing historical experiences, but share language & other aspects of identity, but see selves as separate nationalities, & have some legal controls over these…but there only UK negotiates w/ other countries & has embassies in other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Soccer shows this today: In UK, ppl play for their own nationality: there is no UK team! </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>The Horn of Africa & Central Africa : </li></ul><ul><li>2 of the worst Sub-Saharan African areas w/ ethnicities competing to be dominant w/in various countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethiopia vs. Eritrea (horn) : </li></ul><ul><li>Ethiopia was free for over 2,000 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>-Italy took Erit. in 1890…& Eth. in 1930's </li></ul><ul><li>-after WWII, UN “gave” Ethiopia Eritrea w/ idea of some independence </li></ul><ul><li>But Eth. took over, banned Eritrean language, & war raged from 1961-91… </li></ul><ul><li>-1993 Eritrea was given independence </li></ul><ul><li>-But fights over border began in '98 </li></ul><ul><li>--Ethiopia won that </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>Ethiopia : still has mixed ethnicities: Christians (Amharas), fundamentalist Muslims (Oromos), & Ethiopian Orthodox Church (Tigres)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Eritrea : split 50/50 Muslim & Christian, but b/c of shared rebellion against Ethiopia, they cooperate </li></ul><ul><li>Sudan (N. Central) : 2 ethnicities: rebels in south (animists & Christians) & gov't. in north (Arab-Muslims)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>-Civil war has raged since 1980's. </li></ul><ul><li>-more than 2 mill. have died, & 1 mill. refugees </li></ul><ul><li>-Women restricted by strict Muslim gov't. …& men also somewhat </li></ul><ul><li>-Darfur region : SE Sudan: very violent ethnic cleansing </li></ul><ul><li>Somalia ( horn ) : Somalis are a &quot;nation-state&quot;, but warring clans w/ war-lords fighting over control has destroyed the central gov't. </li></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>Central Africa: Problems betw.n the 2 main groups in each area </li></ul><ul><li>Main fight has been Rwanda: Hutus & Tutsis </li></ul><ul><li>Germans, then Belgians, controlled Rwanda & Burundi…. </li></ul><ul><li>- H's & T's didn't get along b4, but Tutsis were treated special under colonial rule--so a bad situation became worse </li></ul><ul><li>-Rwanda was to get independence in 1962 & H's thought T's would be in charge, so they &quot;ethnically cleansed”: killed or ran them into Uganda, et al. </li></ul><ul><li>1994 presidents’ of Rwanda & Burundi plane was shot down </li></ul><ul><li>so Tutsis poured back into Rwanda… </li></ul><ul><li>-millions died or were exiled </li></ul><ul><li>This spread into Democr. Repub. Of Congo (Zaire…& leader = Robert Mobutu) & Republic of the well as others… </li></ul><ul><li>-later leader Kabila supported Tutsis, then broke w/ them, & they rebelled… </li></ul><ul><li>Other countries became involved (Angola, Namibia, Zimbabwe…) so…it's a mess…. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Ethnicities in Africa The boundaries of African states do not ( and cannot ) coincide with the thousands of ethnic groups on the continent.
  59. 59. <ul><li>Ethnicities & nationalities in Israel & Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>1 area, 2 nationalities: how many states? This changes.. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim Palestinians lived in the area for centuries </li></ul><ul><li>“ Zionist” Jews began push to go back to “the homeland” in 1890’s  </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler’s “final Solutions” led to US push for the Israelis in 1948 w/ new &quot;Israel&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>1948-49 Israel & Jordan fought & Jordan took some of Jordan River area (West Bank)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>June 1967 : bordering Muslim nations of Lebanon, Syria, Egypt, & Jordan all attacked Israel in the 6-Day War (b/c Israel defeated them in 6 days)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Israelis took back West Bank from Jordan , took Golan Heights from Syria, & Sinai & Gaza Strip from Egypt </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>Other fighting in 1973… & later Jordan signed peace treaty w/ Israel… & Syria backed off </li></ul><ul><li>1979 : Begin, Sadat, & Carter = Camp David Accords = Israel returned Sinai b/c Egypt recognized its &quot;right to exist&quot;…& Egypt's leader, Sadat, was assassinated by an angry Egyptian </li></ul><ul><li>1981 : Israel formally annexed Golan Heights, which Syria had used to attack them </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>Palestinian view (perspective)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>5 different groups see themselves as a new nationality called Palestinians (p. 232): </li></ul><ul><li>- Muslims in Israel </li></ul><ul><li>-M’s living in a) West Bank & b) Gaza; </li></ul><ul><li>-M’s who fled a) W-B & b) Gaza in wars </li></ul><ul><li>- some in Lebanon, Syria, & Jordan who just ID w/ the </li></ul><ul><li>Palestinians </li></ul><ul><li>They want autonomy (self-rule), but though Israel has given them (the PLO : Palestinian Liberation Organiz.. & Fattah ) most of the control of Gaza & the West bank, they want complete independence & more of the area </li></ul><ul><li>-Some say all, some say what was taken in 6-Day War </li></ul><ul><li>Palestinians also want control of Old City of Jerusalem : But that won’t happen w/o destruction of the state of Israel </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>Israeli perspective : </li></ul><ul><li>Palestinians & other nations refuse to recognize Israel's &quot;right to exist&quot;, saying they were established w/o consent from ppl (was Muslim controlled 1500 yrs.)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>So the Israelis fight for the survival for their nation ( AND now state ), which they laid claim to from the ancient days b4 the Diaspora (Romans threw them out)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>They also see their land as formed from natural landforms …partly b/c much of it represents military control….areas to be used as attack fronts against them ( hi elevation )‏ </li></ul><ul><li>After the Holocaust, they refused to give in…especially the Old City of Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>Things got better & Israel was giving Palestinians a &quot;homeland&quot;, but w/o complete autonomy… </li></ul><ul><li>Recently Hamas won power (elections) from Fattah… </li></ul><ul><li>Now Israel is ready to go after them again </li></ul>
  63. 64. <ul><li>Ethnic cleansing : 1 powerful ethnic group forcibly removes all of a less powerful grp. </li></ul><ul><li>Balkan Peninsula problem : </li></ul><ul><li>Huge #’s forced to migrate during & after WWI & WWII: </li></ul><ul><li>Nazis forced migration of millions of Jews, gypsies, & other ethnicities </li></ul><ul><li>After WWII = big mix of ppl in new areas </li></ul><ul><li>This creates new clashes in groups, but strong Communist gov't controlled them </li></ul><ul><li>(Yugo-Slav. Pres. Tito) forced them to get along…or to tolerate each other, under the new &quot;Yugoslavia“ </li></ul><ul><li>Strong gov't allowed ppl, especially young, to see </li></ul><ul><li>themselves as Yugoslavs, not Croats, etc. (kind of force?)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Tito allowed more self-rule than most USSR countries, & more Western communication </li></ul>
  64. 65. <ul><li>“ 7-6-5-4-3-2-1” statement means Yugosl. Has… </li></ul><ul><li>7 neighbors : Austria, Greece, Italy, Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary Romania </li></ul><ul><li>6 republics : Bosnia, Herz., Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia </li></ul><ul><li>5 nationalities: (Croats, Maced., Monteneg., Serbs, Slov.)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>4 official languages : Croatian, Maced., Serbian, Slovene </li></ul><ul><li>3 maj. Religions : Rom. Cathol.(N), E. Orthodox (E), Muslim (s)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>2 alphabets : Cyrillic (Maced. + Serb.) & Roman (Slov. & Croa.)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>1 dinar : form of currency </li></ul>
  65. 66. Languages in SE Europe Some new states created, & boundaries were shifted after WWI & WWII. New state boundaries often coincided w/ language areas.
  66. 67. The Balkans in 1914 The northern part of the Balkans was part of Austria- Hungary in 1914, while Much of the south was part of the Ottoman Empire. The country of Yugoslavia was created after WWI.
  67. 68. Ethnic Regions in Yugoslavia: The Troubled Balkan Region Yugoslavia’s 6 republics til 1992 included much ethnic diversity. Brutal ethnic cleansing occurred in Bosnia, Croatia, & Kosovo during the civil wars of the 1990s.
  68. 69. Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo: Aerial photos helped document the stages of ethnic cleansing in W Kosovo in 1999.
  69. 70. <ul><li>Creating Yugoslav. brought stability </li></ul><ul><li>As long as it was 1 country, ethnic grps. didn’t get too upset about division… </li></ul><ul><li>Comm. held them in check & made them work together </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-ethnic Yugoslavia was destroyed when became 5 countries, & ethn. fought about boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Boundaries of 5 new countries did not = the territories of </li></ul><ul><li>5 major nationalities </li></ul><ul><li>Some major ethnicities, i.e., Bosnians, didn’t get recognized as nationality so that = conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Bosn. Muslims in Bosn-Herz. was largest group (40%)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Serbs = 32%, Croats = 18% </li></ul><ul><li>But Serbs wanted control …so they began ethn. cleans. </li></ul><ul><li>of Bosnians…& were successful </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic cleansing in Bosnia & Kosovo: Removed ALL members of a group from a region…attack not just soldiers, but all men, women & children </li></ul><ul><li>Burned homes, raped ALL, beat, etc. </li></ul>
  70. 71. <ul><li>The “4 steps” in ethnic cleansing </li></ul><ul><li>large # of military into village w/ no strategic value </li></ul><ul><li>round up village folks </li></ul><ul><li>destroy, rape, pillage (steal)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>force them to leave </li></ul><ul><li>Balkanized: term 1 st used about 100 yrs ago… </li></ul><ul><li>A small geographic area that can’t be successfully </li></ul><ul><li>organized into 1 or more stable states b/c of too </li></ul><ul><li>many ethnicities w/ history of antagonism toward </li></ul><ul><li>each other </li></ul><ul><li>Balkanization: </li></ul><ul><li>Process by which a state breaks down thru conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>among ethnicities & poses a threat to rest of the world </li></ul>
  71. 72. <ul><li>Handout: Darfur region in Sudan: </li></ul><ul><li>Genocide/Ethnic Cleansing in Darfur: </li></ul><ul><li>Witnessing Darfur: Genocide Emergency </li></ul><ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><li>Where? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul><ul><li>What is being done? </li></ul>