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What's an I/O psychologist, and what can we do for you? (Collected insights from SIOP 2013)


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What can we do for you? This recap of Big Ideas from the 2013 SIOP Annual Conference attempts to capture the conference theme and specific insights to help explain how I/O psychologists help leaders and organizations excel.

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What's an I/O psychologist, and what can we do for you? (Collected insights from SIOP 2013)

  1. 1. SIOP 2013: BIG IDEAS …Because Everything is Bigger in Texas Tom Briggs Research Psychologist Human Development April 11 – 13, 2013 Houston, TX
  2. 2. ROAD MAP APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 2 ] START: Session Topics Who We Are / Opening Plenary Performance Management Employee Lifecycle Research Workplace Meetings Employee Engagement / Biz Perf Survey Action / Impact ROI: Nontraditional Measures Big Data / Workforce Analytics Competency- Aligned Training Nothing Endures But Change What’s Not Covered END: What can we do for you?
  4. 4. WHO WE ARE / OPENING PLENARY American Psychological Association established 1892 APA creates Division 14 1945 Division 14 becomes Division of Industrial and Organizational Psychology 1964 Division 14 incorporates as Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology 1982 2012 SIOP has 4,136 professional members APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 4 ]
  5. 5. Branding: Better recognition of SIOP and the I/O brand among HR executives, business leaders, scientists, and general public Science Practice APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 5 ] WHO WE ARE / OPENING PLENARY
  6. 6. Scientist Practitioner Me Research methods Design of Experiments Behavior expert Statistics / Analysis HR / Human Capital Business / Management Personnel / EEO law Consulting I/O Psychologist APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 6 ] WHO WE ARE / OPENING PLENARY
  7. 7. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 7 ] PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT 1. Accurately measure employees’ contribution to the organization 2. Enable decisions of where to invest dollars in salary and training 3. Allow us to give feedback to develop and coach THE THREE THINGS PM MUST DO
  8. 8. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 8 ] PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Alternatives to rating: don’t rate, and engage employees, instead. If you must rate, calibration sessions should be professionally facilitated and coached, before individual managers make initial ratings. Start from a shared mental model. No one pays attention to the “development” plan. If someone needs to develop to accomplish something, put the development item in their performance plan. ON RATING, AND SO-CALLED “DEVELOPMENT” PLANS
  9. 9. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 9 ] PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT “Ratees hate it. Raters hate it. Senior leaders like it.…until they get sued, like Ford and Goodyear for age discrimination.” BEWARE FORCED DISTRIBUTIONS “Forced distributions lead to bad behavior…sabotaging others, and a 10-15% reduction in overall performance.” CITATIONS AVAILABLE
  11. 11. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 11 ] PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT “We used a tool that gives generic, canned feedback to employees. People told us ‘it’s better than what I got before.’” “People are overconfident in their ability to give feedback. There are all kind of myths. What we need is a ‘How to Give Feedback 101’ course. The literature is really helpful.” “Employees open up for the development conversation, but then feel betrayed when the compensation talk follows.” FEEDBACK
  13. 13. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 13 ] PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Look at the PM literature. Measure the effectiveness of your performance management system: if it’s not leading to better organizational outcomes and performance, don’t do it – it will make things worse. Make sure that feedback is actually helpful and developmental – not personal, but task-related. Managers need training. WHERE TO GO FROM HERE?
  16. 16. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 16 ] WORKPLACE MEETINGS Perceived organizational support can mitigate surface acting in meetings. Surface acting decreases meeting effectiveness and increases emotional exhaustion and intention to quit. (Dunn) Individuals who have high susceptibility to emotional contagion are more likely to engage in “faking” when there are greater numbers of higher-powered individuals present. (Thomas) What happens in meetings, matters. There are best practices – checklists, agendas, conditions, psychological safety. (Salas) Back at your desk, after a meeting, can you actually cross something off your to-do list?
  17. 17. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 17 ] EMPLOYEE LIFECYCLE RESEARCH Assessment Onboarding Engagement Exit Goal of linking the four phases of talent management data collection…  Based in adulthood developmental theory and product lifecycle research  Seeks to better understand the employee experience over time  Helps with new talent management challenges  Little academic research to date
  18. 18. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 18 ] EMPLOYEE LIFECYCLE RESEARCH CASE STUDY Bloomberg, LLC ~ 15K employees 4 goals: gather, analyze, predict (turnover, disengagement), inform Moved from attributed exit interviews to confidential exit interviews and added a survey component (2010). Similar measures in onboarding and exit measures – conduct linkage analysis. Onboarding: conducted focus groups at multiple points in time (orientation, 30, 60, 90, 180 days). The longer employees were at Bloomberg, the less they knew about Bloomberg’s business. By Day 90, less than 70% believe their career goals can be met at Bloomberg.
  19. 19. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 19 ] EMPLOYEE LIFECYCLE RESEARCH CASE STUDY Sirota Consulting Looked at engagement during first 5 years of tenure (comparing snapshots). Compared engagement data and career events (promos, training hours). Found U-shaped “honeymoon effect” at 3-5 years. Disengaged if: high investment in career (training) + lack of promotion Turnover costs organizations 93 to 200% of an employee’s salary (Cascio, 2000). Different consequences for collective versus individual turnover. Unnoticed effort can be detrimental to employee engagement.
  20. 20. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 20 ] EMPLOYEE LIFECYCLE RESEARCH CASE STUDY Intuit Question: Why does an employee apply to a new internal role? Top reason: Doesn’t feel challenged in current role. Action: Started giving stretch assignments to challenge in place. End goal: Able to make proactive suggestions to at-risk employees. Look for HRIS data to link: how many roles, time since promotion, time since raise… Org Leadership Manager Leadership Job Satisfaction Outcomes Business Growth Validated model:
  21. 21. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 21 ] EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT / BUSINESS PERFORMANCE Engagement is “the emotional state and behavioral reactions to a given work environment.” Engagement Individual Productivity Organizational Performance “Employees’ psychological involvement and discretionary effort lead to increased organizational performance.”
  22. 22. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 22 ] EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT / BUSINESS PERFORMANCE Global engagement survey – annual census of 2.2 million employees worldwide using an identified survey with actionable (v. opinion) items. Local markets (internationally) can select additional items of interest. CASE STUDY Walmart Engagement $ Absenteeism Turnover Customer Satisfaction Inventory measures Basket size WMT (qtd 4/25/2013) 1-year +26% 5-year +36% 10-year +43%
  23. 23. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 23 ] EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT / BUSINESS PERFORMANCE Identified survey with five major factors that collectively predict engagement. Engagement predicts guest satisfaction and employee retention. CASE STUDY Marriott Engagement $ Leadership excellence Personal growth Quality of life at work Teamwork Total rewards GUEST SATISFACTION EMPLOYEE RETENTION The antecedents of engagement will affect customer outcomes.
  24. 24. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 24 ] EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT / BUSINESS PERFORMANCE KEY OBSERVATIONS ACROSS THE PANEL Data collection Data analysis Communication Easy to get bogged down trying to obtain data Some metrics have more variance; similar metrics are not always interchangeable Be careful what is communicated – organizations can “latch on” to the wrong thing Use to drive & prioritize action from leadership Don’t expect it to be easy No analysis paralysis – recall hypotheses Modeling is a science & an art, and takes time
  25. 25. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 25 ] SURVEY ACTION / IMPACT The CEO of John Deere challenged the company to be “world class” for engagement by 2014. As a result, they created an action-planning accountability index scorecard to track the CEO’s challenge. “When middle managers say, “I can’t be responsible for senior leaders,” tell them, ‘Okay, but you can affect these areas, and we need you to not undermine senior leaders by saying ‘I take care of my employees; it’s senior leadership’s fault!‘” Leaders—at all levels—must engage in constructive and non-retaliatory survey action. ON NOT PASSING THE BUCK
  26. 26. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 26 ] SURVEY ACTION / IMPACT Leaders need to underpromise and overdeliver: identify 1-3 issues to tackle. Knock those out, then go back and add another. It will be visible if the right people at the right level are working the right issues. Rethink action planning: “Yes, you need quick, one-year wins, but also need to take a multi-year approach to major issues – you’re not going to fix them in exactly 12 months!” “It’s almost like we’ve conditioned people to sit around and wait for our survey. It’s critical to get your HR field reps involved and supportive.” Surveys aren’t about getting good scores; they’re to improve mission accomplishment. WHEN TO SURVEY? WHEN TO ACT? EARLY, AND OFTEN
  27. 27. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 27 ] NONTRADITIONAL MEASURES OF ROI Recruiting organizations are typically interested in time to hire, but that tells us nothing about quality of hire (Steffensmeier - AMZ) Applicant reactions to the hiring process are important – they can serve as checks on whether hiring managers are asking inappropriate questions (Ibid) Need to actually use assessment data to improve selection, performance management, and other programs (Killian - Chally) SELECTION MEASURES THAT DON’T GENERATE SCORES
  28. 28. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 28 ] NONTRADITIONAL MEASURES OF ROI Many contractors are required to evaluate their program, but this idea is rarely adopted internally (Steffensmeier) Pilot or pre-test new instruments and programs with small groups – 50 or 60 employees (Boyd – BBY) Use persuasion first, “legally obligated” as last resort (Steffensmeier) Pushback that manager ratings “too subjective” – partner with behavioral economists and look at the data differently, from a systems-level (Ibid) PROGRAM EVALUATION AND IMPACT ANALYSIS
  29. 29. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 29 ] NONTRADITIONAL MEASURES OF ROI Start from scientific ideal then consider practical realities, but some things can’t be compromised on, like job analysis because it’s a litigation area (e.g., Costco class action suit of 700 women) (Boyd) Local validation studies are important – ask “why wouldn’t you want us to do it?” Partner with people who are experts in other data sources, like customer satisfaction data, if you’re using that data (Boyd) Get buy-in from all executive stakeholders, so that Exec 2 doesn’t undermine what Exec 1 started (Killian) BALANCING METHODOLOGY WITH BUSINESS PACE Walk leaders through all of the important reasons for your methodology.
  30. 30. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 30 ] HR NEEDS BIG DATA AKA WORKFORCE ANALYTICS Used “big data” to evaluate and compare interviewer quality. Adjusted quota system, increasing perceptions of fairness. Investigated predictors of job performance: single greatest predictor of job performance was 401(k) participation (binary coded). CASE STUDY Sprint The most interesting variables may be the ones you least expect.
  31. 31. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 31 ] HR NEEDS BIG DATA AKA WORKFORCE ANALYTICS CASE STUDY Sprint Sprint clearly links workforce goals and organization outcomes in their ITM model.
  32. 32. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 32 ] HR NEEDS BIG DATA AKA WORKFORCE ANALYTICS “I always tell people: Recruiting doesn’t hire anyone – it’s your hiring managers.” Important to adjust selection assessments to measure different attributes linked to success in various roles (engineer v. salesperson) Used pre-hire assessment data to look at differences between people who withdrew from hiring process – they scored 37% higher – need to better understand why/where losing this potential talent CASE STUDY TimeWarner Rework lesson – use your waste (in this case, pre-hire data on applicants who drop out).
  33. 33. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 33 ] HR NEEDS BIG DATA AKA WORKFORCE ANALYTICS Find optimal number of interviews – reduced from an average of 9.8 to 4 – average score across the 4 is 86% predictive of job success. Looked at how employees make financial decisions – found that employees valued $1 of stock at 1/10th value of $1 in salary (conjoint). Low-performers leave at higher rates, but used survival analysis to look at mid-performers leaving – wanted to understand “work events” CASE STUDY Google There are troves of publicly available “big data” from governments that can be useful.
  34. 34. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 34 ] HR NEEDS BIG DATA AKA WORKFORCE ANALYTICS Increased overall workforce 401(k) contributions by 3% using tailored “nudges” and email “nags” Optimized line length in cafeteria for networking and cross-pollination (optimal length: 4 people). Used creative data sources: “plate data” and weight of food waste. Currently studying employee lifecycle and tying performance back to hiring data, but hard to measure performance of knowledge workers. CASE STUDY Google
  35. 35. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 35 ] HR NEEDS BIG DATA AKA WORKFORCE ANALYTICS Lesson 1 – Important to respect privacy rights. Lesson 2 – Client buy-in happens often after you institutionalize process/survey/data – not before Lesson 3 – Use “canaries” to socialize the result Lesson 4 – Anticipate and overcome objections CASE STUDY Google It’s okay to spy on your employees, just “don’t be evil.”
  36. 36. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 36 ] COMPETENCY-ALIGNED TRAINING 1 – Reduce the number or list of competencies, or what people think of as competencies – no more than a handful can be critical 2 – Capture what it looks like for someone to be “proficient” (e.g., 30 people will give 30 different definitions of “Basic Excel skills”) 3 – Understand “enablers” – the things you should select for versus trying to develop or train (“You can’t train honesty.”) – job analytic data RULES OF ENGAGEMENT
  37. 37. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 37 ] COMPETENCY-ALIGNED TRAINING “I worked with an agency that wanted to transform their HR workforce from transactional to being strategic business partners. They tried training, development programs, certification, but nothing worked. Unfortunately, no one told them that they had specifically selected these people to be transactional in the first place.” “In government, you have to wait for existing people to retire before you can align to the competency model you want - you’re hamstrung. It’s hard when you ask people to do a job they weren’t hired to do and they don’t want to do.” SQUARE PEGS AND ROUND HOLES If an employee is hired for one thing, transforming them may not be possible.
  38. 38. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 38 ] COMPETENCY-ALIGNED TRAINING When prioritizing – the biggest “gap” may not actually be the most important to have – when will your workforce need to have this? How are we using competencies? Are we selecting for rather than training? WHERE TO GO FROM HERE MSPB research report on “trainability” of competencies – each type coded R/Y/G – many organizations are trying to train “less trainable” reds SHRM HR competency model
  39. 39. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 39 ] NOTHING ENDURES BUT CHANGE Case study: sales leader role evolving and 1/3 of incumbents would not meet new requirements. Used job analysis and developed a new selection strategy, but transparency, communications, and marketing were almost as important as I/O work, and took just as much time. Social design; Switch – shape the environment for change. Critical to establish the strategic purpose of a change initiative; all future decisions throughout program guided by this understanding. BUDDY, CAN YOU SPARE A DIME? - LESSONS IN CHANGE
  40. 40. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 40 ] NOTHING ENDURES BUT CHANGE Case study: Wells Fargo revamped selection and assessment program due to merger with a highly regulated industry. Takeaways:  What are HR’s strategic priorities and how will this effort help?  Does leadership team understand work and commitment necessary for organizational transformation?  Have you clearly identified who’s responsible for the organization change?  What are competing demands? Is the timing right?  Will the environment allow the team members/managers to adopt the changes?
  41. 41. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 41 ] NOT COVERED LEADERSHIP IN EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS (Kellogg, JetBlue, FBI) MODERATING ESTABLISHED JUSTICE EFFECTS (Shapiro; implications for pay freezes, furloughs) EMPLOYEE NET PROMOTER SCORE: IS IT THE ULTIMATE QUESTION? (CEB, JetBlue, Dell, Sirota, Universal Orlando) WHAT HR DELIVERS VERSUS WHAT CUSTOMERS WANT (SHRM, Starbucks, Walmart) Interested in any of the above? Let’s talk. I can also provide articles and literature.
  42. 42. APRIL 2013TWBRIGGS@GMAIL.COM [ 42 ] CLOSING: WHAT CAN WE DO FOR YOU? We blend social science with management and HR practice. We have peer-reviewed and professional literature on applied topics – don’t start from scratch or re-invent the wheel! Ask us! We are good at data, and we “grew up” measuring things; if you have data or measurement challenges, we can help. We can bring science to your practice, using the evidence base to help you achieve optimal results.
  43. 43. THANK YOU Tom Briggs Research Psychologist Human Development