Creative Commons and Open Educational Resources Overview


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Presentation given at Free Culture X 2010 conference in Washington, D.C. Open Educational Resources panel.

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  • -thanks to SFC

    -most of you probably know what creative commons is but for those that don’t id be remiss not to give a brief overview

    -so today we’ll describe what cc is and talk a little bit about who’s using creative commons licenses

    -we’ll talk about a few of the ways cc fits into the OER ecosystem
  • -creative commons is a small nonprofit organization based in san francisco but with employees and affiliates around the world

    -the mission of Creative Commons is to develop and steward legal and technical infrastructure that makes sharing easy, legal, and scalable in order to maximize the potential of digital networks to enable creativity and innovation

    -creative commons does this by...
  • -offering free legal and technical tools that allow artists, musicians, educators, journalists and others to share their work more easily with the world
  • the history of the web has been traditionally a history of openness

    throughout the lower layers of the internet stack -- the physical layer (computers), the network layer (TCP/IP protocol), the web layer (HTTP) - open standards not controlled by intellectual property, or a particular company

    anyone can participate in the system without asking permission

    content layer at the top at the top is different - it has a lot of friction, a lot of cost, as we all know from Mr. Lessig, anytime you access content on the web, a copy is inherently created

    we don’t have interoperability at the content layer in the same way we have interoperability at the other layers

    a point of CC is to help lower the transaction costs of sharing on the web
  • -creative commons is building the infrastructure for sharing creativity and knowledge

    -it does this through a license...
  • ...which is an easy, standardized way to communicate to others how they can use your creativity

    -there’s 2 steps to applying a creative commons license to your work
  • -the first step is to choose the conditions that you want to attach to the work

    -all cc licenses require attribution to the original author of the work

    -after that users can think about the conditions they want to apply....for instance

    -the non commercial condition prohibits others from using your work to make money

    -the share alike condition is a copyleft license which requires re-sharing of any downstream uses of your work

    -the no derivatives condition means that users can only redistribute the work as is
  • -the second step is to get the license that reflects your intentions
  • -CC Licenses do not replace, substitute, or provide an alternative to copyright

    -you get a license by going to the CC website...
  • -where you basically work your way through the same 2-step process that we just described

    -1) choosing the conditions you want to apply to your work...and
  • -receiving a license

    -the license is expressed three ways
  • -human readable license that clearly states the conditions
  • -a lawyer readable legal document
  • -and a machine readable code containing the metadata necessary so it can be found on the web
  • -cc licenses and have been ported to 52 jurisdictions around the world
  • -there’s approximately 350M cc licensed works available today

    -and cc is used by a wide variety of people...
  • -photographers

    -some services like flickr actually integrate cc licensing directly into their website so you can choose they license when you upload your photos or choose a default license for all your photos on the site
  • -filmmakers

    -brett gaylor’s RIP: A Remix Manifesto
  • -filmmakers
    -nina paley’s “Sita Sings the Blues”
  • -publishers
  • -artists

    -into infinity project
  • -musicians

    -sites like the Free Music Archive provides technical framework to share music with the world

    -almost 17,000 songs available, many under CC licenses
  • -musicians like Nine Inch Nails
  • -offered free cc licensed download of “Ghosts I-IV” but then also included some interesting models to still make money such as through value added boxed set or deluxe edition
  • -journalists

    -al jazeera cc video repository - cc licensed video footage from the Gaza Strip
  • -user contributions to are licensed under a CC-BY license
  • -last year merged their content into using CC attribution sharealike
  • -mit opencourseware - the largest OCW project, containing OER from 1,900 MIT courses
  • -public library of science - one of the top open access science journals
  • -the course materials of an open university are open educational resources
  • -several definitions, UNESCO, Hewlett foundation, others

    -Hewlett - OER are teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under a license that permits their free use or re-purposing by others

    -we have to ask, what’s different about OER?
  • -most digital media is stuff you can see online for free on the web

    -we can use some of it under fair use and other exceptions to copyright law
  • -OER are stuff you can adapt and then share for others to build on

    -no matter what the specific definition is, the nature of the license should reflect the very purpose of OERs

    -to supply educators and students with resources that they can use legally in the creative and adaptive manner that is central to effective education

    -there are a few ways that CC can help with this.
  • -one way is by addressing language barriers

    -for instance, the legal permissions enabled by most cc licenses help address linguistic barriers to sharing OERs
    -here’s a few examples
  • -licensed attribution noncommercial sharealike
  • -portuguese translation of the MIT OCW class for the Universia
  • -gina trapani’s complete guide to google wave book
    -licensed attribution sharealike
  • -translated into japanese
  • -another way cc licensing can help the OER movement is by addressing technical barrier

    -just because OER resources exist, doesn’t mean they are accessible
    -CC licensing enables the transformation of OER into other formats, and by allowing for reformatting and repackaging, OER can be made available to those with little connectivity or low bandwidth or only small screen access
    -but also, as technology becomes more widely used and crucial to education generally (mobile technologies in the classroom), repackaging is going to become more common and more important
    -CC licensing also helps teachers be more flexible, customizable in creating course content and OER

    -rapidly iteration models are popping...for instance at the university of michigan...

    The Health OER Inter-Institutional Project is a collaboration of institutions seeking to develop a sustainable and scalable model for the systematic rollout of OER to support health education on the continent. The OER materials produced in this initiative will be made freely available to students, faculty, and self-learners around the world through a Creative Commons license
  • -a professor took an existing Python textbook that was licensed under an open license and remixed the book in only 11 days, in preparation for an upcoming “networked computing” class

    -digital book was licensed under a CC license

    -able to do print on demand copies at the University of Michigan’s espresso book machine
  • -students in the course could get a copy printed for about $10

    -here we have “Python for Informatics”
  • -another area cc licenses could help in the adoption and use of OER is through addressing cultural barriers

    -for example, in the OpenCourseWare world, the ability to adapt the work to local contexts via translations and cultural references has become central to the spirit of the movement

    -as we know, it’s critically important for OER producers around the world to collaborate, and for OER to be culturally relevant to real people in local communities throughout the world
  • -university of michigan medical and dental schools have partnered with Universities in Ghana and south africa on an inter-institutional health OER project

    -overall goal is to develop a sustainable and scalable model for the generation and distribution of OERs to support health education on the African continent

    -it’s definitely a two way street--michigan shares its resources and best practices, ghana shares its resources and best practices

    -the cc licensing of content is one piece of this equation
  • -finally, CC licensing can help teachers and students find good OER content by addressing the challenges to information discovery
  • -joi ito and other have been talking recently about findability of good content on the web. for OER this is critically important
  • -joi says that in the past, the problem was in distribution

    -how do you move around physical educational materials? books, journals, newspapers, music, film

    -problem beforehand was spreading this stuff out, and a problem of scarcity too
  • -today, with digital content and the web, we now have a problems with finding stuff
  • -CC is helping to work on this by developing tools such as discoverEd
    -DiscoverEd is an OER search engine
    -built on the basis of content curators
    -populated using content feeds (like RSS)
    -integrates full text of content and also structured data models to pull in good metadata
    -highly customizable on front and back end
  • -CC can provide some of the legal and technical infrastructure, the plumbing to help the OER movement tackle some of these problems
    -promise of OER can't happen at scale without legal interoperability, can’t happen without collaboration around the world and across universities, governments, student groups
  • -Hal Plotkin said, “OER movement is enabling the greatest expansion of access to a high-quality higher education in human history.”

    -CC is going to continue working to be a part of it, and with your help, let’s keep plugging along

    -thanks so much
  • Creative Commons and Open Educational Resources Overview

    1. 1. Makes sharing easy, legal and scalable
    2. 2. Offers free legal and technology tools that allow creators to publish their works on more flexible terms than standard copyright
    3. 3. Creative Commons Knowledge and Culture HTTP/The Web Documents TCP/IP The Network Ethernet Computers
    4. 4. Is building part of the infrastructure for knowledge sharing
    5. 5. A simple, standardized way to grant copyright permissions to your creative work.
    6. 6. Step 1: Choose Conditions Attribution Share Alike Non-Commercial No Derivative Works
    7. 7. Step 2: Receive a License
    8. 8. CC Licenses are built on top of copyright law
    9. 9. Human Readable Deed
    10. 10. Lawyer Readable Legal Code
    11. 11. <span xmlns:cc="" xmlns:dc=""> <span rel="dc:type" href=" Text" property="dc:title">My Photo</span> by <a rel="cc:attributionURL" property="cc:attributionName" href=" my_photo">Joi Ito</a> Machine is licensed under a Readable <a rel="license" href=" licenses/by/3.0/">Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License</a>. Metadata <span rel="dc:source" href=" photo"/> Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at <a rel="cc:morePermissions" href="http://">OZMO</a>.</ span> </span>
    12. 12. 52 Jurisdictions Ported
    13. 13. Over 350 million items
    14. 14. 133+ Million CC Licensed Photos on Flickr
    15. 15. Flickr: Francisco Diez
    16. 16. Research Made Public PLoS is the world’s leading open-access publisher of peer-reviewed online scientific and medical research.
    17. 17. Wheeler
    18. 18. digital media = online, free, limits
    19. 19. OER = customizable, shareable
    20. 20. Language barriers
    21. 21. Technical barriers
    22. 22. Flickr: sukisuki
    23. 23. Flickr: dr-chuck
    24. 24. Cultural barriers
    25. 25. Flickr: Open.Michigan
    26. 26. Discovery barriers
    27. 27. Flickr: gullevek
    28. 28. Media used to be a delivery problem...
    29. 29. it's a discovery problem
    30. 30. Flickr: Darwin Bell