Mitosis and meiosis


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  • Explain the randomness in meiosis End of first class
  • Beginning of second class
  • A mnemonic to help remember the stages of mitosis. Now do the mitosis flip books End of second class
  • Beginning of third class
  • Mitosis and meiosis

    1. 1. Mitosis & Meiosis Mitosis animation:
    2. 2. Mitosis: <ul><li>If a cell wants to make a duplicate of itself, it first must copy its DNA (part of a chromosome). </li></ul><ul><li>The copies then must be separated & sorted into two sides of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>The cell then splits in two. Part of each parent is carried to the two new cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Results in cells such as internal organs, skin, bones, blood, etc. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Meiosis: <ul><li>As in mitosis, if a cell wants to make a duplicate of itself, it first must copy its DNA (part of a chromosome). </li></ul><ul><li>Results in reproductive cells (sperm, eggs, etc). </li></ul><ul><li>Part of each parent is carried to the four new cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Meiosis has evolved to solve a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>The problem is this: some organisms have sex with other organisms – that is, they combine their genes together (creating genetic diversity). </li></ul><ul><li>Why would this be a problem? </li></ul>
    4. 4. This may you remember these terms: <ul><li>MIT osis takes the cell and M akes I t T wo (diploid) </li></ul><ul><li>M e iosis has to do with s e x </li></ul><ul><li>From the cell’s point of view: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>m IT osis results in I dentical T wins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>m E io S is results in E gg and S perm (haploid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clyde Freeman Herreid – Dept. of Biological Sciences: Buffalo State Univ. of New York </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Mitosis: Meiosis: Each resulting cell still has chromosomes from mom & dad
    6. 6. Mitosis <ul><li>Mitosis animations: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    7. 7. Vocabulary <ul><li>Diploid </li></ul><ul><li>Haploid </li></ul><ul><li>Interphase </li></ul><ul><li>Prophase </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase </li></ul><ul><li>Cytokinesis </li></ul>
    8. 8. Interphase occurs just before Mitosis begins: DNA is replicated along with organelles and other cellular components and the cell prepares for division.
    9. 9. Mitosis Interphase <ul><li>Animal cell </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cell </li></ul>Photographs from:
    10. 10. 1 st step in Mitosis: Prophase (preparation phase) The DNA recoils, and the chromosomes condense; the nuclear membrane disappears, and the mitotic spindles begin to form.
    11. 11. Mitosis Prophase Photographs from: Animal cell Plant cell
    12. 12. 2 nd step in Mitosis: metaphase (organizational phase) <ul><li>The chromosomes line up the middle of the cell with the help of spindle fibers attached to the centromere of each replicated chromosome. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Mitosis Metaphase <ul><li>Animal cell </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cell </li></ul>Photographs from:
    14. 14. 3 rd step in Mitosis: Anaphase (separation phase) <ul><li>The chromosomes split in the middle and the sister chromatids are pulled by the spindle fibers to opposite poles of the cell. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Mitosis Anaphase <ul><li>Animal cell </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cell </li></ul>Photographs from:
    16. 16. 4 th step in Mitosis: Telophase <ul><li>The chromosomes, along with the cytoplasm and its organelles and membranes are divided into 2 portions. This diagram shows the end of telophase. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Mitosis Telophase <ul><li>Animal cell </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cell </li></ul>Photographs from:
    18. 18. After Mitosis: Cytokinesis <ul><li>The actual splitting of </li></ul><ul><li>the daughter cells into </li></ul><ul><li>two separate cells is </li></ul><ul><li>called cytokinesis and </li></ul><ul><li>occurs differently in </li></ul><ul><li>both plant and animal </li></ul><ul><li>Cells. </li></ul>Beginning of cytokinesis in a plant: Beginning of cytokinesis in an animal:
    19. 19. <ul><li>I nterphase </li></ul><ul><li>P rophase </li></ul><ul><li>M etaphase </li></ul><ul><li>A naphase </li></ul><ul><li>T elophase </li></ul><ul><li>C ytokinesis </li></ul>I P ray M ore A t T he C hurch Julie Camp’s mitosis power point - IPMATC
    20. 20. Meiosis <ul><li>Meiosis animation: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    21. 21. Vocabulary <ul><li>Diploid </li></ul><ul><li>Haploid </li></ul><ul><li>Germ cell </li></ul><ul><li>Somatic cell </li></ul><ul><li>Interphase </li></ul><ul><li>Prophase </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase </li></ul><ul><li>Cytokinesis </li></ul>
    22. 23. Meiosis Interphase Meiosis is preceded by interphase. The chromosomes have not yet condensed.
    23. 24. Meiosis Interphase The chromosomes have replicated, and the chromatin begins to condense.
    24. 25. Meiosis Prophase I The chromosomes are completely condensed. In meiosis (unlike mitosis), the homologous chromosomes pair with one another
    25. 26. Meiosis Metaphase I <ul><li>The nuclear membrane dissolves and the homologous chromosomes attach to the spindle fibers. They are preparing to go to opposite poles. </li></ul>
    26. 27. Meiosis Anaphase I <ul><li>The chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell. </li></ul>
    27. 28. Meiosis Telophase I & Cytokinesis <ul><li>The cell begins to divide into two daughter cells. It is important to understand that each daughter cell can get any combination of maternal and paternal chromosomes. </li></ul>
    28. 29. Meiosis Prophase II <ul><li>The cell has divided into two daughter cells. </li></ul>
    29. 30. Meiosis Metaphase II <ul><li>As in Meiosis I, the chromosomes line up on the spindle fibers. </li></ul>
    30. 31. Meiosis Anaphase II <ul><li>The two cells each begin to divide. As in Meiosis I, the chromosomes move to opposite ends of each cell. </li></ul>
    31. 32. Telophase II & Cytokinesis <ul><li>With the formation of four cells, meiosis is over. Each of these prospective germ cells carries half the number of chromosomes of somatic cells. </li></ul>
    32. 33. Yvonne Norman G410 (Life Sciences for Middle School Educators) Senior – Portland State University February 2009