Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Populism as Politics of
Personal Experience
THE CASE OF SUVIVIRSI
TuukkaYlä-Anttila
1 FINLAND
2 THEORY
3APPLICATION
SUVIVIRSI
“The precious summertime is now here and beautiful
flowers bloom everywhere. The warm sun gives its
blessings, a...
STATE & CHURCH
76.3 % of Finns are members of the
Lutheran Church (90.3 % in 1990!)
Freedom of religion but Lutheran Churc...
APATHY
“Parties have drifted further and further away from
ordinary people’s issues”
“I have no say whatsoever over what t...
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Finland Norway Denmark
Populist voters
Other voters
“Sometimes politics and government seem so
...
TURNOUT %
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
1962 1966 1970 1972 1975 1979 1983 1987 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007
PRACTICES
“efficiency, rationality and expertise
were emphasized [...] disputes were often
handled as neutral technical fa...
PARTICIPATION
If politics is merely about experts
choosing the most rational/effective
option, why should citizens partici...
“Is the purpose here to create
some sort of fast lane for
legislation? … It is a peculiar
situation if already congested
m...
“People have too
much time on their
hands. Of course
people are allowed to
discuss what they
want, but it’s just so
time-c...
CONSENSUS
Soviet Union
“Finlandization”
Kekkonen 1958–1982
Korpilampi 1977
STABILITY/PROTEST
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1987 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 2011
Conservatives
Soc. Dem.
Rural/Finns
Centre
Lef...
THE (TRUE) FINNS PARTY
1 FINLAND
2 THEORY
3APPLICATION
POPULISM
“[A]n ideology that considers society to be
ultimately separated into two homogeneous and
antagonistic groups, ‘t...
LAURENT
THÉVENOT
public justification vs. familiarity
PUBLIC JUSTIFICATION
Efficiency (“industrial”)
Tradition (“domestic”)
Inspiration
Market
Civic
Fame
(Boltanski & Thévenot:...
FAMILIARITY
Habitual action
Feeling at ease
Predictability
Home
(Thévenot 2007, 2011a, 2011b, 2014)
PRACTICES
“efficiency, rationality and expertise
were emphasized [...] disputes were often
handled as neutral technical fa...
1 FINLAND
2 THEORY
3APPLICATION
FINNISH POLITICS
=
Based on certain agreed principles?
=
public justification
DISTANCE
“to appear credible the citizens’ movement had
to distance themselves from particular
interests and frame their a...
“[Suvivirsi] is an essential part of
Finnish cultural heritage.”
”You don’t have to sing the hymn if
you don’t want to, or...
“If Finns have to look at the religious
dress of muslims and subordination
of women under the pretense of
religion, we can...
COMMONPLACE
Shared material and/or symbolic
artefact that can be used to build
commonality via familiarity and
personal cl...
“Suvivirsi draws thoughts to summer even if
school days were a long time ago.”
“It fills hearts with emotion
when nature b...
SHARED
EXPERIENCE
Embedded in a particular time and place!
INCLUSION FOR
EXCLUSION?
Broadening the range of acceptable
politics but excluding immigrants
DISCUSSION
Understanding familiarity and justification...
...to understand lack of interest in politics
...to understand w...
AL = Aamulehti 21 March 2013: Holmlund nihkeänä kansalaisaloitteesta: ”Onko tarkoitus luoda lainsäädännön
ohituskaista?” O...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Populism as Politics of Personal Experience: The Case of Suvivirsi

856 views

Published on

ISA World Congress of Sociology, Yokohama 2014

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Populism as Politics of Personal Experience: The Case of Suvivirsi

  1. 1. Populism as Politics of Personal Experience THE CASE OF SUVIVIRSI TuukkaYlä-Anttila
  2. 2. 1 FINLAND 2 THEORY 3APPLICATION
  3. 3. SUVIVIRSI “The precious summertime is now here and beautiful flowers bloom everywhere. The warm sun gives its blessings, awakening nature to life. The meadows are again green, the fields filled with plentiful crops, and the forests with leaves. Every year this reminds us of your mercy and miracles, God. Like the birds singing beautiful songs, wouldn’t we, God’s people, thank our Creator. My soul, join this choir and thank our Lord of His Mercy.”
  4. 4. STATE & CHURCH 76.3 % of Finns are members of the Lutheran Church (90.3 % in 1990!) Freedom of religion but Lutheran Church gets special treatment, incl. tax funds Basically a state church
  5. 5. APATHY “Parties have drifted further and further away from ordinary people’s issues” “I have no say whatsoever over what the government or parliament decides”
  6. 6. 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Finland Norway Denmark Populist voters Other voters “Sometimes politics and government seem so complicated that a person like me cannot really understand what is going on” (ESS 2008)
  7. 7. TURNOUT % 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 1962 1966 1970 1972 1975 1979 1983 1987 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007
  8. 8. PRACTICES “efficiency, rationality and expertise were emphasized [...] disputes were often handled as neutral technical facts” (Luhtakallio & Ylä-Anttila 2011)
  9. 9. PARTICIPATION If politics is merely about experts choosing the most rational/effective option, why should citizens participate? Example: Citizens’ initiative
  10. 10. “Is the purpose here to create some sort of fast lane for legislation? … It is a peculiar situation if already congested ministries have to spend their time dealing with citizens’ initiatives, that might, moreover, be in conflict with the government platform.” (Anne Holmlund, chair of the Legal Affairs Committee of the Finnish Parliament) (AL 21 March 2013)
  11. 11. “People have too much time on their hands. Of course people are allowed to discuss what they want, but it’s just so time-consuming.” (Jari Koskinen, Minister of Agriculture and Forestry) (HS 8 April 2013)
  12. 12. CONSENSUS Soviet Union “Finlandization” Kekkonen 1958–1982 Korpilampi 1977
  13. 13. STABILITY/PROTEST 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1987 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 2011 Conservatives Soc. Dem. Rural/Finns Centre Left Greens Swedish Christian D. Others Seats in parliament, 1987–2011
  14. 14. THE (TRUE) FINNS PARTY
  15. 15. 1 FINLAND 2 THEORY 3APPLICATION
  16. 16. POPULISM “[A]n ideology that considers society to be ultimately separated into two homogeneous and antagonistic groups, ‘the pure people’ versus ‘the corrupt elite’, and which argues that politics should be an expression of the volonté generale (general will) of the people.” (Mudde 2004)
  17. 17. LAURENT THÉVENOT public justification vs. familiarity
  18. 18. PUBLIC JUSTIFICATION Efficiency (“industrial”) Tradition (“domestic”) Inspiration Market Civic Fame (Boltanski & Thévenot: On Justification, [1991] 2006)
  19. 19. FAMILIARITY Habitual action Feeling at ease Predictability Home (Thévenot 2007, 2011a, 2011b, 2014)
  20. 20. PRACTICES “efficiency, rationality and expertise were emphasized [...] disputes were often handled as neutral technical facts” (Luhtakallio & Ylä-Anttila 2011)
  21. 21. 1 FINLAND 2 THEORY 3APPLICATION
  22. 22. FINNISH POLITICS = Based on certain agreed principles? = public justification
  23. 23. DISTANCE “to appear credible the citizens’ movement had to distance themselves from particular interests and frame their argument as public justification for the common good” (Lonkila 2011)
  24. 24. “[Suvivirsi] is an essential part of Finnish cultural heritage.” ”You don’t have to sing the hymn if you don’t want to, or you feel like it doesn’t fit with your culture.”
  25. 25. “If Finns have to look at the religious dress of muslims and subordination of women under the pretense of religion, we can sing suvivirsi once a year without worries! IS THIS QUESTION SOME SORT OF JOKE???”
  26. 26. COMMONPLACE Shared material and/or symbolic artefact that can be used to build commonality via familiarity and personal closeness (Thévenot 2007, 2011a, 2011b, 2014)
  27. 27. “Suvivirsi draws thoughts to summer even if school days were a long time ago.” “It fills hearts with emotion when nature blooms.” “I’m not particularly religious myself and still I always wait for Suvivirsi to brings tears to eyes.” “It still brings tears to my eyes when I sing it. This I want to be continued and this feeling I hope will be passed on to our children.”
  28. 28. SHARED EXPERIENCE Embedded in a particular time and place!
  29. 29. INCLUSION FOR EXCLUSION? Broadening the range of acceptable politics but excluding immigrants
  30. 30. DISCUSSION Understanding familiarity and justification... ...to understand lack of interest in politics ...to understand why populism gains popularity ...to understand the significance of the material for symbols ...to help debate between populists and establishment? ...to support progressive politics?
  31. 31. AL = Aamulehti 21 March 2013: Holmlund nihkeänä kansalaisaloitteesta: ”Onko tarkoitus luoda lainsäädännön ohituskaista?” Online: http://www.aamulehti.fi/Kotimaa/1194802824885/artikkeli/holmlund+nihkeana +kansalaisaloitteesta+onko+tarkoitus+luoda+lainsaadannon+ohituskaista+.html [Viewed 18.4.2013] Boltanski, Luc & Thévenot, Laurent [1991] 2006: On Justification: Economies of Worth. Princeton University Press. HS 8 April 2013: Maatalousministeri torjuu kalastuskritiikin – ”Ihmisillä on liikaa aikaa”. Online: http://www.hs.fi/ kotimaa/Maatalousministeri+torjuu+kalastuskritiikin++Ihmisill%C3%A4+on+liikaa+aikaa/a1365386092083 [Viewed 18.4.2013] Lonkila, Markku 2011: Yhteisyyden kieliopit helsinkiläisessä ja pietarilaisessa kaupunkiaktivismissa. Sosiologia 48(1), 22–33. Luhtakallio, Eeva & Ylä-Anttila, Tuomas 2011: Julkisen oikeuttamisen analyysi sosiologisena tutkimusmenetelmänä. Sosiologia 48(1), 34–51. Mudde, Cas 2004: The Populist Zeitgeist. Government and Opposition, 39(4), 541–563. Thévenot, Laurent 2007: The Plurality of Cognitive Formats and Engagements: Moving Between the Familiar and the Public. European Journal of Social Theory 10(3), 409–423. Thévenot, Laurent 2011a: Power and oppression from the perspective of the sociology of engagements: a comparison with Bourdieu’s and Dewey’s critical approaches to practical activities. Irish Journal of Sociology 19(1), 35–67. Thévenot, Laurent 2011b: Oikeutettavuuden rajat. Yhteiselämää koossapitävät sidokset ja niiden väärinkäyttö. Sosiologia 48(1), 7–21. Thévenot, Laurent 2014: Voicing Concern and Difference. From Public Spaces to Common-Places. European Journal of Cultural and Political Sociology 1(1), 7–34.

×