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Minna no Nihongo2 chuukyuu_i_notas_gramaticais_enus

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Minna no Nihongo2 chuukyuu_i_notas_gramaticais_enus

  1. 1. Minna no Nihongo 4 I / , ” ‘J/ " I ‘J :5: I— -' :7 F ‘ Tfii I" . r ' :4 :1 Intermediate Level I am 1 ma -xzsman mans Translation & Grammatical Notes
  2. 2. / < I‘ '; > I’ Q5, “* ‘Q ¥%i‘s / % K A V7 i "mini : /I Intermediate Level I [_n_N ~s r- ‘ K ‘ 994] V FL“ QJT‘/ _ —’/ r'J’| §3Y; /'Z FT‘f. '"’ t’r*’£{flJT’ _ V 7‘ ‘ ’ 1 O W W My g: r:»;2j; r‘a3 r W L» * law/ x 1. E37£; ”eJ'd/ fin/ § C? /‘~7i7&t/ /*<> ‘”&J“iWEMb . /.i/ «~>; i;‘: .s7[; ?:r ms Translation & Grammatical Notes «/ Cf} I ZU-I-4<-yI~9—a
  3. 3. © 2009 by 3A Corporation All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Publisher. Published by 3A Corporation. Shoei Bldg. , 6-3, Sarugaku—cho 2—chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0064, Japan ISBN 978-4-88319-492-6 C0081 First published 2009 Printed in Japan
  4. 4. Foreword Minna no Nihongo Chukyu (Japanese for Everyone — Intermediate) has been planned and edited to form a comprehensive set of J apanese-language learning materials following on from Minna no Nihongo Shokyu I and II (Japanese for Everyone — Introductory I & II), which were first published in 1998. The Minna no Nihongo Shokyu materials were originally developed to enable general adult beginners to acquire an introductory level of Japanese—language ability rapidly, but they are also widely used as introductory textbooks both in Japan and abroad by non-Japanese students either already studying at Japanese universities and colleges or preparing to do so. Meanwhile, the number of non-Japanese intending to work in Japan or already living here continues to increase as the Japanese birthrate falls and international interchange gains pace, and the Minna no Nihongo books are also popular among such people because of the way the materials help them to learn Japanese easily. As the range of people using the Minna no Nihongo books widened and demand for them increased, We began to receive requests from many different quarters for a set of intermediate materials that would follow on from Minna no Nihongo Shokyu I and II. After extensive writing, testing and editing, we are now finally able to present everyone with what they have been asking for — Minna no Nihongo Chukyu. At the introductory level, people who need to communicate in Japanese are required to be able to say what they want to say and understand what is said to them. At the intermediate level, however, I believe they need more than this — they also need sufficiently good language skills to be able to understand and explore Japanese culture and customs. This book is designed to give ample support to learners like these. Finally, I should like to thank everyone sincerely for their valuable opinions and for all the help they gave us in preparing and testing these materials. We at 3A Corporation intend to continue contributing to people's networking through activities such as developing and publishing the educational materials that today's multicultural, interdependent community requires, and I sincerely hope that you will continue to support and encourage us in this. May 2009 Michihiro Takai Chairman, 3A Corporation
  5. 5. Explanatory Notes I. Structure of the Materials The Minna no Nihongo Chukyu I materials consist of a Main Text (with CD) and the associated Translation and Grammar Notes (to be made available separately in various languages, starting with an English version). The materials aim to help learners develop a comprehensive set of J apanese-language skills in speaking/ listening and reading/ writing at the lower Intermediate level (enabling them to progress from introductory to intermediate level J apanese). Minna no Nihongo Chukyu I will be followed by Minna no Nihongo Chukyu II, which will enable learners to develop their skills further and ultimately achieve a mastery of intermediate-level Japanese. ll. Contents and Method of Use 1. Main Text (with CD) (1) Lessons Minna no Nihongo Chukyu I contains twelve lessons and follows on from Minna no Nihongo Shokyu I and II (which contained a total of fifty lessons). They consist of: 1) Grammar and Practice Drills The grammar points introduced in each lesson are presented in the form of sentence patterns. Grammar terminology is avoided. When a sentence is connected to a sentence pattern, it is indicated by | ""J , e. g. (W t in 5 C t 7’fJ (Lesson 2). When a noun or noun phrase is connected to a sentence pattern, it is indicated by | '~J , e. g. I~€*~<‘: -i§”‘)J (Lesson 1). However, even if a connection is a sentence, it is indicated by F~J if its ending requires a special form such as the “C -form, the 7‘: -form, the dictionary form, the f: 6 -form, the foe -form, or the if -form, e. g. (~71: 8. ~7’: l (Lesson 2). The ways in which the grammar points (sentence patterns) are actually used are illustrated by example sentences and dialogues. Practice drills are provided to help learners develop their ability to use the grammar points, and illustrations are given whenever necessary to show the context. Learners are encouraged to make their own statements based on the sentence-pattern drills, which are designed to develop conversational topics and thereby strengthen conversational and reading comprehension skills.
  6. 6. 2) Speak and Listen Communication scenes are set out (mainly discussions and negotiations about everyday topics), and model dialogues and graded exercises (described below) are provided. By working through these exercises, which are designed to stimulate interest and increase learning motivation, learners ultimately become able to use the intended dialogues without relying on rote memorization. The characters appearing in the dialogues (old friends from Minna no Nihongo Shokyu I and II) converse in a variety of situations. 1. $0 'C59~§ L J: 5 (Let's Try It) This introduces the target dialogue. Learners use the Japanese they already know to make conversation in the situation described, in accordance with the set tasks. 2. Féll/ 'CJ>k§ L J: ’) (Let's Listen) Learners listen to the dialogue on the CD, paying close attention to the key listening points and expressions introduced in each lesson. 3. I) ’) 3 E L . t ’) (Let's Listen Again) Learners complete their comprehension of the dialogue by filling in the blanks in the exercises while listening to the dialogue on the CD again (playing it back in a way that matches their level of understanding of the material). 4. t? -‘:0 Tia 3 L I 5 (Let‘s Try Saying It) Learners try repeating the dialogue as it is on the CD, focusing on their pronuncia- tion and intonation. hkLu5 5. ti 3 78 L i L . t 5 (Let’s Practice) Learners practice the words and expressions used in the dialogue. 6. 1, 1 L I 5 (Let's Talk) Learners practice the dialogue by recreating it while looking at the illustrations. 7. 9‘ Jr 1/ V L i L . t 5 (Let's Challenge Ourselves) After understanding the situation and relationships described, learners practice the negotiation dialogue targeted in the lesson. 3) Read and Write In l'§%<7>k i L . .t 51 (‘Let's Read‘), twelve different reading texts selected to pique readers’ interest and enable them to enjoy reading have been provided. 1. ”%”'7: my 2: L J: 5 (Let’s Think About It) To prepare themselves to read the text, learners activate their knowledge of the topic. 2. E. Z: ti‘7a’:9"z ‘V 7 Li L J: ’) (Let's Check the Words) Learners do this exercise to make sure they know the key words (including new vocabulary) that they need in order to understand the text. They should check the meaning of any words they do not know in the new vocabulary list or a dictionary.
  7. 7. 3. 2%: 1, J: 5 (Let's Read) Each lesson’s reading text is accompanied by | —§f“T: i.‘i* J: 3 0371‘? /f ‘/ l*J (Points to Note When Reading), which sets tasks designed to have learners practice the skills and strategies they need in order to understand the text. The aim is to enable them to obtain an accurate understanding of the gist of the text rapidly. A text can be read silently or aloud, but the latter is also considered important here, and the CD contains specific examples of vocalized expressions for this purpose. 4. E L . : 5 (Let's Answer) Learners do this exercise to check whether they have correctly accomplished the tasks set in ‘Points to Note When Reading. ’ Where necessary, there are also questions on the detailed contents of the texts. 5. 9'‘ r 1/ ‘/ L i L .1: 5 (Let's Challenge Ourselves) The aim of this exercise is to enable learners to speak or write about their own experiences or familiar events relating to the contents of the reading text. 4) Revision Exercises The Revision Exercises include ones for listening comprehension (indicated by the CD symbol QM), grammar, and vocabulary. The listening comprehension ones are of two types: listening to the CD and answering short questions, and listening to a short dialogue and grasping its key points. Both of these apply the key learning points introduced in the lesson and are designed to reinforce learners‘ listening comprehension. The grammar exercises check learners’understanding of the new sentence patterns introduced in each lesson, and the vocabulary exercises focus on enabling learners to remember and apply functional words. (2) Key Learning Points 1) Speak and Listen CD Title of dialogue ® Learning goals (strategy) (3) Grammar points (sentence patterns) introduced in Speak and Listen (42 points) Qt) * : Supplementary points (9 in total; see Explanatory Notes 2. Translation and Grammatical Notes) 2) Read and Write ® Title of reading text (2) Hints for reading (strategy) (3 Grammar points (sentence patterns) introduced in Read and Write (53 points) @ * : Supplementary points (8 in total; see Explanatory Notes 2. Translation and Grammatical Notes)
  8. 8. (3) Kanji Usage 13.25315 A. 0:5 1) As a rule, kanji are selected from the %’ Ffi E (the official list of kanji in common use) and its Appendix. ® l: Ka< B </ » , §?l $5111 (kanji compounds having a special reading) that appear in the Appendix are written in kanji: a it fit . e. g. 7y: :¥ friend cold Proper nouns, and artistic, cultural and family-member names, are written in N)fi‘2‘3 ER tfi spectacles ll: 7‘: *5 i. “ if +3? twenty years old Ifilifli their own kanji even if those kanji do not appear in the official list: L‘? ( L 2 U A. U K’ e. g. K %l‘$i‘: l: Itsukushima Shrine It’) In f5’¢% E E WEE Natsume Soseki Ml‘ ' iii‘: niece 2) Some words are written in kana to simplify students’ reading, even when their kanji are in the official list or its Appendix: e. g. aw. (iéz. -fie) be ‘«*i‘§F2 (236%) now 525$ 5 E ‘é“i (1595) various 3) Numbers are chiefly shown in Arabic numerals: e. g. 9H‘: *r 9o’clock fro 3.07% 10 H 2 El 2 February 90 90 years old But kanji are used in cases like the following: ow #A'C“ 1.") Z If *}55¥'C detached house l‘5t: ‘5t: >w5 ~ElFF' by oneself all day long 4) The readings of all the kanji appearing in the Main Text of Minna no Nihongo Chukyu I are given in furigana. (4) Indexes 1) New Vocabulary (approx. 910 words) 2) Conversational Expressions (approx. 50) 3) Kanji (315 of the official—list kanji appearing in the reading texts in all 12 lessons; introductory-level kanji omitted) (5) Answers 1) Answers ® Grammar and Practice Drills, Speak and Listen, Read and Write (2) Revision Exercises (including scripts for listening comprehension exercises) Some of the questions will have more than one possible answer, depending on
  9. 9. the learner's background. The answers given here are merely model examples. 2) ‘Speak and Listen’ dialogue scripts 3) Contents of CD (6) CD The CD contains (D the dialogues from Speak and Listen, C2) the reading texts from Read and Write, and (ID the listening comprehension parts of the Revision Exercises. In addition to studying the pronunciation word by word while paying attention to accent and intonation, learners can use the dialogues to accustom themselves to Japanese spoken at normal speed, as well as to develop their ability to understand the key points in the flow of a conversation and answer questions about it. Also, when listening to the reading texts, they can enjoy hearing the richness of Japanese expressions, which vary with the genre of the writing. They should pay attention to how the different parts of the text are read, and what rhythm and tone variation are used. Finally, by using the Revision Exercises to check what they have learned, students can organize their thoughts and develop an all-round ability to apply their knowledge when speaking and writing. 2. Translation and Grammatical Notes (available as separate volumes in various languages) These cover lessons 1 through 12 and contain the following: (1) New Vocabulary and Its Translation New words, conversational expressions and proper nouns are given in the order they appear in the lessons. (2) Grammatical Notes 1) Grammar Points The grammar points (sentence patterns) in each lesson have been compiled from the grammar syllabus considered necessary for intermediate-level learners. 2) Grammar Explanations (in various languages) Explanations of the grammar points have been kept to the minimum needed by learners. Example sentences are used to clarify their meaning and function and indicate when and in what actual situations they can be used. 3) Connections In the Main Text, thought has been given to making the connections understandable without using technical grammar terminology, by presenting grammar points in the form of sentence patterns and illustrating them with example sentences. In each language version of the Grammatical Notes, the forms of all the connections
  10. 10. are shown, so that learners can check them for themselves. Grammar terminology is also used where necessary. 4) References and Supplementary Notes A second language is acquired not just by building up sequentially from the introductory stage, but also by working in spiral fashion (combining new grammar with previously-studied grammar, so that material already learned can be repeated and reinforced). The References show points introduced in Minna no Nihongo Shokyu and other relevant points. The Supplementary Notes (in the Key Learning Points at the end of the Main Text) list points which, while not appearing in the Grammar and Practice Drills sections of the Main Text, are nevertheless considered useful for learners to know.
  11. 11. How to Use This Textbook Effectively These notes explain the key points that learners should bear in mind in order to make most effective use of the Minna no Nihongo Chukyu I Main Text (with CD) and the associated Translation and Grammatical Notes (available separately in various languages). I. Minna no Nihongo Chukyu I Main Text (with CD) 1. Grammar and Practice Drills For each grammar point, begin by looking at the example sentences to see in what circumstances and situations the relevant sentence patterns and expressions can be used. Also compare these with elementary sentence patterns and expressions that can be used to express similar things. Then check the connections, do the Practice Drills, and try using what you have learned in actual speaking, listening, reading and writing situations. 2. Speak and Listen (Dialogue) First, do Exercise 1 R90 Ti» i L J: 5 1 (‘Let's Try It‘), trying to create a conversation using the Japanese you already know. Then do Exercise 2 H’: lb'C¥; « i L .1 51 (‘Let’s Listen’), listening to the dialogue on the CD while paying close attention to the wording. Then do Exercise 3 I it; 5 3 i L . .t 5 1 (‘Let's Listen Again’), filling in the blanks while listening to the dialogue on the CD once more. Then do Exercise 4 | "§o "Ca? i L . : 51 (‘Let's Try Saying It’), speaking the dialogue out loud along with the CD while paying attention to your pronunciation and intonation. Then do Exercise 5 Iiifigg 5: L i L J: 5 1 (‘Let's Practice’), further practicing the expressions from the dialogue. Finally, do Exercise 6 L i L . t 51 (‘Lets Talk’), making up a conversation based on the pictures. If you practice like this, you will become able to make conversation naturally, without having to force yourself to learn, and you will easily be able to extend your skills by doing Exercise 7 P7‘ 5* 1/ V L at L I 5 1 (‘Let's Challenge Ourselves’). 77Il‘&5 The dialogue scripts can be found in the FFJIFE1 (Answers) section at the end of the book. 3. Read and Write (Reading Text) Before reading the text, please get ready. Do Exercise 1 Tag it 'C is i L . t 5 1 (Let's Think About It’), thinking about the topic of the text and discussing it with your classmates and teacher. Then do Exercise 2 F: c‘: 135727‘: '7 7 L i L .1 51 (‘Let's Check the Words’), reviewing the words that appear in the text and looking up any unfamiliar ones in a dictionary or in the New Vocabulary list in Minna no Nihongo Chukyu I Translation and Grammatical Notes
  12. 12. (available separately in various languages). Next, do Exercise 3 F E57’. 59% E L E 5 1 (‘Let's Read’), reading the text yourself. Follow the instructions in the FEED t 3: 0) 4’ V 1* 1 (‘Points to Note When Reading’) box, as you will need these in order to understand the text. Then do Exercise 4 (Ex E L . t 51 (‘Let's Answer’), to check how well you have understood the text. Finally do Exercise 5 I E at 1/ V L E L . t 5 1 (‘Let's Challenge Ourselves’), putting the finishing touches to your reading comprehension by telling others what you know about or have experienced concerning the topic of the text, writing about it, and so on. There is a Kanji Index at the end of the book which gives the 315 kanji appearing in this book (not including elementary ones) in their order of appearance. This will be a useful resource for learning how to read and write kanji and studying their meanings and uses. 4. Revision Exercises Do these Revision Exercises to ensure that you have properly understood the meanings and usage of the grammar points and vocabulary introduced in the lesson. The answers are at the end of the book. 5. CD (an): OD symbol) Each lesson on the CD contains G) the dialogues from Speak and Listen, (2) the reading texts from Read and Write and (3 the listening comprehension parts of the Revision Exercises. IQ») Dialogue: The speed of the dialogues increases little by little with each successive lesson. Use them to get used to Japanese spoken at natural speed, and to practice grasping the key points of the conversations. :3») Reading Text: As you listen to the CD, pay attention to the rhythm and tone, as well as to how each part of the text is read. Q») Revision Exercises: Check your listening comprehension by doing these exercises, which introduce different applications of what you have learned in the lesson. Minna no Nihongo Chukyu I Translation and Grammatical Notes (available separately in various languages) These consist of New Vocabulary and Grammatical Notes. 1 . New Vocabulary New vocabulary, conversational expressions and proper nouns are given in the order in which they appear in the lessons. Check how they are used in the Main Text, and develop your ability to use and apply them by repeatedly practicing them together with the approximately 2,000 terms introduced in the introductory books.
  13. 13. 2. Grammatical Notes These explain the grammar of the approximately 100 grammar points (sentence patterns) appearing in the ‘Speak and Listen’ (dialogue) and ‘Read and Write’ (reading text) sections of each lesson. Improve your ability to use these by studying their meaning and function and deepening your understanding of them in actual conversational situations or in the context of the reading texts. The Minna no Nihongo Chukyu I text has been designed to help learners make a smooth and enjoyable transition from introductory-level to intermediate-level J apanese, with the four functions (speaking, listening, reading and writing) of words and expressions introduced in a balanced way. We hope that they will help learners to develop their J apanese-language abilities to the lower intermediate level and build a sound platform for their next step of progressing to the higher intermediate level.
  14. 14. Terms Used for Instruction 5”’ L‘ BL‘ U fl‘J(‘ . lififi request 7 J3 $36 comparison 9 quoting 6 negative intention 6 asking for 5 ill: @« simile 1 ' .4“/ «&‘V< L 3 confirmation SK HIT contextual 5 past volition 6 demonstrative %§%i§= invitation 10 ififis change 11 %5I'% obligatory 6 reason 1 mum _ an E _ _ {EEK experience 11 1§lJfl< illustration 1 ongoing action 11 l‘l’L‘1'L% . L‘ E’) é: '5_L _ _ HE‘ record, history 11 3% Efi motion verb 5 result 1 ‘ is: emotion verb 7 no in Lzxjtt uz_iELE5_L _ ? fi‘E§'&0) FUR E resultant state 11 3i FL-§§°)5§i stative verb 8 cause 8 Eéiméia compound verbs 10 man _ _ ii 2.1»; _ _ BEE limit 6 %EFu‘i Er? interrogative 5 logical ground 1 El El? person's name or 1 $55: instruction 7 other proper noun L: to Lraotf/ V . _ f2><L: .x_L _ $E%0) Hi E advent of a condition 6 55 case particle 4 L”M‘l§ habit 11 Li‘? L iéii sentence-final 7 $7” means 11 particle lJJ: _;)§‘I5 _ _ l: x1")_L, l ‘(R 73‘ 6 conjunction, guess 1 H E5 counter 1 from a situation 13 X 5 £1‘/ V _ . '3 IT 1,‘ . 1 conditional 9 €23’ passive 7 1‘| -‘Uzi _ _ ax/ mi-cirr A _ _ _ HE E COI1]11I1Ctl0Il 5 Fa'ii‘%"; %% indirect passive 12 325% suggestion 11 1L ix fig; causative-passive 4 72: polite request 1 film? W; volitional form 5 Dig £5}: BFl5'jJl: ”; suspended form 4 reported speech 4 hf off“ listing of actions 12 van a it '63?) a style 4 it/ 4t_: }4 . _ 'EL‘hLlTL" _ "U ‘ CO1’1]uI1CtlOI1, guess 1 Tfiifé polite form 4
  15. 15. plain form conversational written subjunctive causative emotional causative perfective adversative conjunction counterfactual usage attendant circumstances parataxis noun modifier stem topic clause respectful apposition we 01 r-| R'. >lvl>kD >l>OOO105
  16. 16. Abbreviations l¢>L__L N Noun ($331) A Adjective (ilgjééfil in A In -adjective (lniiggébfi) it A it —adjective ( Eifgiiééfi) V Verb (innit) U 55 _i. Vi. V E E‘ 71: .25 __L Vt. V ifll 5‘ v 1 1* -form V a air? V dic. -form V Vim‘-form V&u>if§ V 7’: —form V V “C —form V S Sentence (fig) in Part 2 indicates a usage not found in the main text.
  17. 17. Characters « Mike Miller Matsumoto Tadashi Sato Keiko American, J apanese, Japanese, employee of IMC (Osaka) department manager at IMC employee of IMC Nakamura Akiko Yamada Ichiro Yamada Tomoko J apanese, Japanese, Japanese, sales section manager at IMC employee of IMC bank clerk John Watt Taro British, J apanese, schoolboy (8 yrs. ), professor at Sakura University son of Ichiro and Tomoko Yamada Thawaphon Mori Lee Jin Ju Thai, Japanese, Korean, student at Sakura University professor at Sakura University researcher at AKC Hirota Sano Nomura J apanese, J apanese, J apanese, student at Sakura University housewife housewife
  18. 18. Jose Santos Maria Santos Brazilian, Brazilian, employee of Brazil Air housewife / /1.I. fl' I ; ‘~i~‘I: :i: w Teresa Brazilian, schoolgirl (9 yrs. ), daughter of Jose and Maria Santos Karl Schmidt Klara Schmidt German, German, engineer at Power Electric Company teacher of German Hans German, schoolboy (12 yrs. ), son of Karl and Klara Schmidt Watanabe Akemi J apanese, employee of Power Electric Company Karina Indonesian, student at Fuji University Ikeda J apanese, employee of Brazil Air Wang Xue Chinese, doctor at Kobe Hospital , ‘Ii, / <i°: ~" 2 _ V / _J§)_ , / Lin Lin Chinese, niece of Wang Xue * IMC (computer software company) H/ hi9’) * AKC (7 75}? $3 -’c 7 57 — 2 Asia Research Institute)
  19. 19. Contents Foreword Explanatory Notes How to Use This Textbook Effectively Terms Used for Instruction Abbreviations characters Part 1 Vocabulary Lesson 1 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 2 Lesson 2 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 6 Lesson 3 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 9 Lesson 4 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 12 Lesson 5 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 16 Lesson 6 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 19 Lesson 7 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 23 Lesson 8 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 26 Lesson 9 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 29 Lesson 10 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 33 Lesson 1 1 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 37 Lesson . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 4.2
  20. 20. Part 2 Grammatical Notes Lesson 1 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 46 1.~f§Bii%A#-~TmtfiUi%A# ~'C%> f5i>Z: c1nf~L. t 56* - ~Tu>f: f:“l7‘7:cvs1‘L. t 57% . ~©;5fi-~®;5&~-~©;5tm . ~:&u/ fl/e . ~e~a%5 . ~&w5~ . wo/ E:/ %/fin/ EA&K~<t ~Ue&<T, ~ ch01»-l>~DJl’l '4: 1:- mt~l< wmfi-wocutm f. cM; A. f. <A.7i‘| .‘ ’&/ -$1.‘ flAs. WEb. Wfib~ Lesson 2 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 51 1.fl)@)~t%. ~t 2.~tw5®u~®: tfi-~tw5®um&m5:afi 3.w&w5~ o 3 L *3‘m5I. ~ 15‘ 7:17) 4.wl7K§m/ fifiié/ tab/ EU 5. ~J§«f:1nf: “- ~«7>«f: v>7;c~ - ~M; w:-. - £3/I 1-ni< ~&C6 Lesson 3 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 54 1.~(é)nT§Bii%A#-~(§)%TwkfiHi%A# ~ (5) 'd"Ci;6;? .7;cn'C‘L. t57)"~ (ES) 'li"Cu7‘. :7’El7‘7I: lA’C‘L; ’)7J‘ 2.fl)mCkKTé @)~: kKLTwé 3. (1) ---Ctiltczu (2) ---: kl:7;co'Cv7.> 4. ~'CliLl/ >-~7;u>’C‘l1L/ > 5.fl)~%5&~-~%5Kw
  21. 21. @)~&§%5 (3) ~%’) %> 7§:1«> Lesson Q, .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 59 1.~&w5:tfi 2 m®. m®? 3.~Bv5-~k<~~Té 4.~(§)%Bh5-~§hé 5.~v@a 6‘ ~: %=; ‘ f ~<$‘ 7.u)~(t>#a (2) ~ (75) ifiofuxzy 8.m: a-wamaza S ? +fi< ~g)~ ~iL7ZB '"'~iI/ C‘ Lesson 5 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 65 1.u)&~-%~ Q)%~ 2.wAU%&w? 3. "’7L’9:C.6LC/ 'C* 4.u>@)~(; )5a¢a/ Lam 5.~®fi65# 6. ~<‘:0)/ '§‘@/7.? "7)V)/ $'C‘7)/ ’®~ 7.wfi55-~fi65&E5 --'7J>6 ~'( < 7‘: ”é1r>
  22. 22. Lesson 6 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 71 2. (1) ~O%>V)Li7:c/ > (2) ~’D%> Dffofc (3) ~7‘: O%> 7) -~TwZ. ao¥; D 3. ~TL; t’7)=0wZ. » -~ci“7N)~'Cu~7.> 4. . ..(Eg, ).. . 5. ~’Z‘< E» 6. ~T<Z> - ~11/= < Lesson 7 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 76 1.U)~&<Tu&B&w/ mfifiw-~&<Té#ib&m @)~&<E%/ ~&§v[wH&w] 2.~fiHfi-mfi]wfiHfiww 3.m»& 4.fl)~&A#w @)w&AT~ 5.u)~<s>&a @>~(s>&ana-~zna ~'C<71’L Lesson 8 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 32 1. (1) (2) ~2F;1«= f:‘ -~~-~a5wf5L: . 2. (1) (2) ~i'C ~---~i'C‘b: » 3. ~7:~ . ~b: J:o'C~- . ~f: ii ----~0)ii . ---7b>Ib7*: “ CT: <J'| >h
  23. 23. 1 2.~T§#ib&w 3.-wiE~&uw~wiETu&ux 4.-vma*41&u»/ wtux 5. ---7*: &) [EL - ---7’: a?>f: “ 6.~t6/~w~t Lesson Ifl 0 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . ... ... ... ... ... .. 90 1. (1) --~c: .+<r‘r: ‘ (2) ---tif7b“/1i7.: t1n B)~uffiat 2.~: &#/5&6 H9?! ‘ Hat" 3. ~7*: ¥§5'E ----~a>. ‘ 4. <1) ~EE<r @)~%m5-~%ba-~%wa @)~§na-~§ ~aw5:au&5 Lesson -Q-Q . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 95 1. ~’C<Z. >-~'Cv= < 2. ~7‘: l’o [E5] ? 4.~BLw 5. ~~~I‘9Lw 6.~tLT 7.u>~f[u1w Q)~f»m 8. ~’Cl«= é
  24. 24. .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 10] 1.w§®/ éhfiwa 2. (1) ~ (9) 112.; (2) ~ (re) 9&6 3.~t0~t0 4.~od&L 5. (1) ---£7b>b7“’C - --»?37§>H’f: ° (2) "-'&In'( - ---mars ii? E 5:1-a: <. mfifiwfii fit-%< rzama%zm. ~m5fi ~iTi5K/ E%Al5K Key Learning Points . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..
  25. 25. Ewiém £715’) [3Ec: ~1 fig £51‘ @7513! IEE 145% ~43 [%’? ~] woizlftn Ektt Ezififi Etc] K13 ~: ‘E§ ill/ R’) Lesson 1 i I 5 [J§<BL: ~l Je/51:6»: 3a7b‘z>u> [tH*fi= <7b*‘~l ’6Ba‘o"<° a€~3“")<7>« aozfa“ IAODB isaifil) 1 '3”) s @059? f: 7‘: i>*~ §“za‘k/ u vfl>7b= «o_W= °é“ E5075‘ ~i‘oo") [7.a<f~] Wolf [73] HOT/ u how lose [one's way] senior (student, colleague, etc. ) just (as in X is just like Y’) cheerful [personality] father (cf. 1 mother) lake aim at, have one’s eye on life traditional Japanese food for the New Year traditional practice of Visiting a shrine or temple during the New Year to pray for happiness tatami mat (thick straw mat used for flooring in traditional Japanese rooms) square floor cushion for sitting or kneeling on floor formal kneeling position, with buttocks on heels, body upright, and hands in lap bow (greeting) writer, author while [while out] full, crowded however, no matter how wonderful, grand failing, shortcoming past, after, gone suit, look good in
  26. 26. -. -'5 1,= :u= é3c7‘7.» o7b= wbl7‘%> Eé J: ‘é %E<7>uH1Z> J:7><‘: E» %fi% Dxlfibe ~% ~Le as tots fifiu Utxfim %irLli 3:‘ Rive fiwoxfiie $12]-V -If/ ufcm %< L< 5:58 Wflé fikimé OWE; [%%&~] [&ii&~] 53:” t E 2:13?‘ EW? 53%? >‘l‘flJ§t€‘7l9—1i’£> <v'9~$>? b’c3_‘Z> 3% §¢<i Efi vi ii$‘E: ‘[$E Ltfk/ "<° '7 5 47% Wfiié : éw5T5 fifi Low W6[fi%&~] k6[LoH&~l Rfifél flwfélfil fiflftl %wHO[&] Zlii Li/ WE‘/ u -13%? we :7’: “'C wee L:5fi<fiw use selectively merit, good quality understand by reading or scrutinizing tourist, traveller -er (person) most very, extremely to that extent represent whole lay (a tatami mat), lay out (a futon, floor cushions) just (as in ‘X is just like Y’) many (flat objects) apply, give [a name to] word of purely Japanese origin move combine, join together drawing room, parlor living room, sitting room workroom, study straw mat rush breathe moisture, dampness remove [moisture] comfortable clean main text detached house primary school student
  27. 27. El ’%’$ifi [:75 I2 I 5 "@. ’lz=7.‘PO daily life $05, ~“Clx= f:f: °l)‘7.§c1z= “GL. t 57.7% Excuse me, but I wonder if you could possibly. ..? Askinga idifficult-to«ask favor, while showing hesitation by startingtwith tab 0) 5 l1[‘Excuse me. .‘. .'V]. K A [d & 7§=2%‘[§§u>“C‘ 2* 7?: l«>’C‘ L J: 5 fro Couldn’t you please find some way to oblige me? Showing that, despite knowing your request is unreasonable, you really would like it to be granted. 1 5 B '63: 17‘ hli 85 %‘o If our house would be all right, then please come along. 2‘o‘[§<El: _[”: £'f ‘C J: #9 f: ’C‘5‘o I'm glad I was able to help. :s£i%7b= 0 L 3 an We'll take care of it. Haruki Murakami I Author and translator. 1949-. [/ JV? 1 If 0%] Norwegian Wood 2 One of Haruki Murakami’s best-known works, translated into many languages. it“ ’‘i ‘ South Pacific l~ V The Kingdom of Tonga 1*‘ fl‘ 1*‘ 7° Baobab I A tree native to Africa. 7 5’ #1 737 )1« Madagascar 57 5’ E -if Tatamisé (e) I A French word signifying a person who has adopted the Japanese lifestyle and culture.
  28. 28. Le$~e@nt 5» < [if 3 X E ~] wipe [the (window) glass] , !g, i=, =§'e 17‘ o 75> result Pléléfifi 75?! » F9 1» : “ loanword $5 [i‘d1.I3l? %~] E *6 Z> [*6 3 19> 5 EA/ l protect [the earth] ‘J 7 l~ '7 .1 7’ software X — 11/ e-mail flii 19> 5 ? }‘/ u (postal) mail E2<—11/ 4’~—2<-11/ e-mail 7” 1/ / { if/1’ F‘ theater ticket agency 53% %_ 11‘ J: 5 nutrition 7J 121 ‘J — calorie J1 :1 eco, concern for the environment ifiifi was J: 5 environment 7’ appointment 55 I 21 L . t 5 I / '?~ energy-saving $”§T7.> 7)“<L»9>51'7.> learn 53$ 3 ll article (in a newspaper, magazine, etc. ) flit)‘ Ea [ 3.1771 E ~l 71917‘ Z» separate [rubbish] 5 7b ‘é rumor ill '0 ' 3) 7: 1) area 7‘ FIV X advice $1¢ L‘; 17‘ / u incident § 5 5 if 5 take, snatch, steal ‘F? 13?‘ dry 13.9] 11> 11*‘ In apart from, except O< [5%€*~] tell [alie] 13 V l~ robot 25% 11 / u E 0) real thing fits: [§’$: ~] kéa‘ [%l’o%~] fly [in the sky]
  29. 29. 7]“ 1/ V orange A’ Jr 7 pajamas llfilfil 1/‘ I,7)*< 1/‘ square (in shape) lfii '3 '6 arm 0 07‘ Eu [}FiL: ~] ['3 "NZ ~] attach to, wear on [one’s arm] ,5) Z: ‘é «E hometown in? L 7)‘ 97‘ 6 ti 73: L 73‘ 07‘ Z» speak to, address Z‘T£i¥r’fi%% «Sn E‘= “/ wit/ u E < 0 . ,t '3 ‘attempted delivery’ notice ~% ~f: < home, residence 32$ C '3 13 construction WEI 8 W2 '3 1:0 holiday, day off Ii)fj< ff / V?“ interruption to Water supply ‘J % : I V remote control I1 :1 V Robot Contest E? [in] 0: 73“? [it] weak point, something one is not good at r"6}F27f9Ln i§“I‘oé9Ln confusing E43? [72] %i'v>i7=< [726] accurate 1 “ 5 V 2 balance §| < [i‘>~§’i*~] U‘< Pd"/ u%~] draw [a line] %%‘ U o L = <= writer/ author (of a piece) V‘ i ff L: even now 2: A/ C‘ *6 72c kn Nothing of the sort! 53'L"—? i3/K '3 B »9> 3 CA alien, extraterrestrial being é‘< E o f: < entirely EU 0) «<0 0) another, different ~ E 5' ~ I: L A oneself ZUK V9) '3 I: /v friend i 7‘: moreover ‘3 l X cooked rice served with a Western meal 7’ F‘ 1/ X address, e-mail address 2‘ — 11/ 7’ F‘ 1/ 1 e-mail address 7’ 1/ -E V presentation Ex!
  30. 30. 74?V?4?4 : V7747VX Wifi ttifl fl‘5‘)‘V- %€' cfhm % N—tVt %fiK soak teiéfa %% 00:5 &<Tu&B&m W6 ea [n3Vx&~] ii £AL;5 m«a <B«5 um gift L/1(; &«_: _5 . ... .. O identity compliance for example policy, principles case, situation percent usually at this (late) stage, after all this time necessity indispensable achieve [a balance] essay, sentence compare (I’m sorry) to disturb you. ... Addressing someone, while giving regard to their situation. And. ... Listening to what thieytsay, and encouraging them to say more. . . . . no c= .=< l: LA. ‘ % ateanwa ---- w M: 7: iFI73"4iIf: °7N9f§‘ 6 tcwo P‘ . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . - . . . . . . . . c . . o . . o . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. The same goes for me too, though. I don't know What's what. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  31. 31. Lesson 3 4V9€; —¢é fi%¢% tAt5T% 711// Wt HE 7'11/N4’ has ~% ~53 EE Thexfi fifi UALw5 %Le5 uetefi fiflié Oiénfé chip W6? «er lilofid‘ U033" ~#E ~#: < %€L*E 7b>'Cn $% uc;5 fififl ragga Efife oanra fiflié %: <¢% Siéii B1/xi/ <= %fl& Lhemok %~ LA~ fiié ciowxfinwx voice Efi five chm: zhmurfi fi an fifié 56% [4y9E1—%~] 3% :5 5 74<fl:4.c: ii/ v '36: interview be in charge of, be responsible for part-time Workplace location, destination store manager training discuss commute until now reduce move (house) (number of) countries household, home, family circumstances, reasons kindergarten, preschool have (take) a daytime nap return to one’s home country come to visit (a company/ office) new product new, novel presentation indefinitely economy, business conditions any longer forest be interviewed, receive [an interview] request, wish really
  32. 32. 10 fikébw %[$E®~] Le&% %é[fifi&~] Tvrv fi %é[%%&~l as fifi b§b§ W6[%E%~] cane EET6 fifi fitie Wfl% éifi ~m[ee~] : VE1—7—§ ~§ fifi awe fifiwltl €77 fi aau 55-0 : z[L&A®~l 55 [75‘0DliJ: %~] ?4—vrv W? %6[cAb%~l UL; éxfibw 3: Z) [IL‘7b‘/ u>E~] / /V»: '3‘§‘Z> éwfilfi etié t0U$é% #<ewi5 ~l3[#<%m~] JVEJ-7—LO «,1/~Q li»9> 5 7:1» Luhmk vL§ Bxfie b)‘u= : 5 sea Uflhfeltl ké §w:5K e5U&o gentle, quiet voice [of the people], opinion talk dump, jilt [a girlfriend] T-shirt number hang up [the phone] secretary professor specially, going to the trouble of set aside [time] if possible change urgent business be concerned about client, customer for use by students for use by [students] computer room ~ room (traffic) jam, holdup instant, moment awareness, sense questionnaire investigation, survey trend avoid pessimistic graph time most another, one more
  33. 33. ~ 37) U > 73 While fififi ~13."/ u L »e former ? fi%‘ Z 5 L = ?= latter 5’ 61 V) after all : . 11> love $%i L 5 be? happiness lit"? Ii 5 75>/ u L‘; 5 feel E191‘? 5 in if 5 1‘ 5 oversleep fat 5% 3 V)‘ / v danger Eflfi #2175‘? face of a sleeping person (Vib V) E Lfco Hello, [name] here. 5‘ 5 75> L i L f: fro Is something the matter? 7b§°7b ‘é°~'C«= f: ff! /=7’: (7)lC. ''' "0 After you went to the trouble of. ... letting someone know. you are sorry for having made their kindness a wasted effort. E V) i L7‘:7lao Oh, dear. 'C‘ 8 ftiil ~'C«= 7*: 7‘: “b)‘7l: u'C‘ L I 5 75% If possible, I wonder if we could. ... Tactfully communicating‘ a wish. 3 io‘1n'C‘< ff e Inc Please come. E Lgtifi) V) ire“/ u'C‘L7‘: o I'm very sorry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . - - - . . . - - - - . - . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . - . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . - . u T ohoku I The Tohoku region of J apan, comprising the prefectures of Aomori, Iwate, Akita, Yamagata, Miyagi and F ukushima.
  34. 34. Lesson 4 WE? 5 0)‘ / V 5 5“ 5 examine, inspect 5) 3- tomorrow fi‘E7'J 0) 5 0 . t < capability bazaar nose and mouth mask suitcase @753‘ ‘é ab 5 wake up, realize E . t 5 ill» morning meeting C 5 73> school song 5&3? L)‘ In C honorific language ! i3’s3". E.3Z 7.7‘/ v% 5 «Si / V review (e. g., of a book one has read) 5§§iJi% 5 / u E 5 L 42 5 sports ground 11> 7’: '9“ [5 prank 12 % LU‘ 5 0 < L1» beautiful iflififl ab» 5 century ¥$El [tr] 'Nb [in] peaceful A4’ 0 t U1): people [FE 5 195*‘ 5 desire, wish for, hope for 3'6 5;‘ / V sentence, style $553/i5 7)‘€<7J= ;?.5 rewrite ’E: ‘7b*¢5 §)2‘9—t§. ‘5 combine 5 c‘: *6 k originally 335%‘ #95‘ 5 0) young person ~73] ~ C lake ~ ‘iz"é/ > «Sa7)w> deep ‘é 1* £53’ [it] various E” L W [§E¥‘E‘7b3‘~] < 5 LV‘ [~l3_'1/>7.‘2>O7)“~] hard ‘Fifi 4:” U ‘ 75‘ < character A5615‘ D: /u is 5 0) popular person
  35. 35. §< 752? [it] H55 [§%u": 'u75“~] 5 B 5&5? [726] %’3b5 "ififi §3”9"5 E9513 151%’ ‘E-§’? §%§fi X “/ 42-“/ “ '§’V)'5[(i'<§’i’~] JUVL5 [)<‘7~iz—“/ °’$: ~] ? §L_| :li’5 [%§‘E7$: ~] %®l5K tH5 [%§E‘l1~] $1» [72] A5 [fl: $7b“~] iii! ‘ [%E: T'r§75“~] P‘. / £2‘o‘< Jab/ u [fit] F5[%wUAfi~] #550 5AhA[&] Atb5 WAUO 5v*T5 Lwk ’C“/ V31‘/ u 55‘if/ i/C‘/ u7b 5 Muir»/ Va‘/ Ve~] WH5 5L$)l7‘°5 ['C‘/ ua‘9’$: ~] “G5 [’C‘/ u7bb: ~] 5@5[&] til/ =5 [LE. “1:7§“~] 2:V)l7‘5‘ 6w5v<Ew5 L: </‘V 5D5n 5A&vW: ;5 ~U;5 [L J: 5 7‘: z~] cEio‘IA [”C‘/ u7biJ“~] ~§y’o, x many worried [product] come on sale thunder we, us (cf. 5 750)? E‘ ii) I my children) disappointing, regrettable accept fact, reality love capital (city) message answerphone, voicemail message receive [a message] leave [a message] give [a call] like that (cf. C 0) J: 5 L: I like this) answer [the telephone] urgent [work] come in cancel, erase with a visitor bread sold out (bargain) sale (written) invitation letter, note, card [of invitation] faint, hard to hear [voice on telephone] dislike 13
  36. 36. 14 551% JIIELZ 9E$L [fie] 5fi&>5 )l’§. ’a‘: §:'C5 |12‘l”<2‘95 of: <‘‘ 115‘/ — F jilifiv‘ j¢~ [1155 / WW] LOCI/ $3 §i£El 5%-55 $55‘-7~E5“5 $Lw5 55% $55 50:‘ EXVJHH5 W55‘ 55 I; ‘f: “/ > Lu»/ ob: Loirw [Cc] 556755 cat 8 ’. aE7‘: “C5 5Lb5 7*: “u~5 Fol» 7:“/ =~ [55 / 5 Ibw] vhf‘/ ow/ V 55 to L555 %O5<55 5 5 L'C‘5 97”’: 5 . ,t< 5o%< &DoL)‘Z, ) L®o€5L% 0:55/U woss55u&o<sn:5. %/ b: _< . . . . . .O 8% L‘ Letting someone know you feel sorry fo V had hoped you would do. ; , V i‘j_7b§ ' ' ' ' "'0 A standard expression always used " whom one has to show respect. " ‘V 5 If it is all right the way it is. ... Z0)iEE“C‘J:5 L07‘7l’L]: f period, era, times in sequence rude recommend get angry experience, taste hold (hands), connect (lines) episode hate greatly [like/ dislike] persistent everyone a few days relative connect offer, propose in the end immediately beside install attendee fee, charge We are much obliged to you. Unfortunately. .. Excuse me for asking, but. ... r being unable to do what they when asking a favor of someone to 7
  37. 37. f: ff! » SE 0) X 7 -12- E : lo’%7b‘ V) L i L720 Your message has been recorded. 56?) Am Sorry. The Japanese Language Proficiency Test 2 A test for assessing and certifying the J apanese—language ability of non—native speakers of Japanese. infill Lake Mashu I A lake in Hokkaido. ffiéfifl Natsume Soseki I Novelist, critic, and English literature scholar. 1867-1916. 7—7 - l~ r7J‘—4' V Mark Twain 3 American author. 1835-1910. H. G. '7 111/}? H. G. Wells 1 British author and critic. 1866-1946. 7°? /A - Nib Alexander Graham Bell 5 American physicist and inventor. Invented the telephone. 1847-1922. I-- 1* 7 2‘ — F‘ Hartford 1 City in Connecticut State, on the East Coast of America. 15
  38. 38. 16 %)t$>l% Elfii 3’ 3 3: V) EE WEE %O < V) :1 V 15:. &7FL [~13] EEK? 75‘73‘o “C < 5 [%§§7.’J“~l ‘9U7l’LZ> [§§E‘7§“~] 35-3lf‘Z> [l5fl’¢i: ~] 339% 73? < ‘§‘[%%’E~l 7I': .Eu‘? »§§ [73] i§'? @‘ / —-, ’. “7; fififilfig lfi’) UlllZ~l iii V) H5179 [iii V) l: ~l lfillélfifiifi %%¥tU ififlfi flzfiw E’§’9J 5}75‘tLZ> [5E7b*‘~l fls. ese@rr’n %;5#L; v§“7I7=‘i° 7531?)/ u l; tuw9>’) #w§o[~C%l 5AfALo [Tr/ u#97.2i‘~l it tLZ> [”C‘/ u7b7b“~] %W5[hwE~l sew [%A%5%~l &L§[&l sea were #A:5%e< %5[#bK~l £3830 cMfi£E£DK~l :18 5 75/obi E’) Oébtb ‘li-/ V6 UC5#b $A§0 7b7b‘7l’LZ> [«W57b5‘~l textbook pub, tavern grilled chicken parts on skewers picture, screen actor looking exactly like convenience store ticket [inspection] barrier driver [telephone] ring [telephone] stop ringing, be cut off give [an example] future get rid of [war] strange, mysterious, wonderful increase about now sightseer, tourist ~ along [a river] main street, avenue come out [on the main street] pedestrian crossing end (of a street) railway line far side level crossing [road] divide
  39. 39. /° - page £47]? WV‘ U b9> 9 art iEl| [fi <7>'~ B 11 law / v way, route ififilk 9 5 C 5 lift, passer-by ii 0 c‘: is V) street, road llllfiv‘ 7N5 %‘1z> beside (along) a river ~‘2€rw ~%‘/ > along, beside ‘W. FVL 6 it if 7f’L Z2 flow ~96 ~ ‘:5 is [100 m] ahead [100 X ~ l‘ )1/~l ~fi [7E®~] ti 5 [<29 30)-] direction [to the right] Tililt tr / vi? < north and south :1? 3’ &= < opposite, reverse fiflifi r7>< 7;: 7% ti / V 3 vs» 5 Southern Hemisphere Illiiliifli ES 7‘: lat / u é W 5 Northern Hemisphere ’#3’§§t I: J: 5 L 3 customary behavior, common practice $31] ‘é “<0 discrimination 17 32% [Ct] Z)‘; 5 55 [it] equal tit? 11> 73 position, location Alia‘? l: /u L)‘/ v person, human being €fi§d‘Z> 7b= /u 2‘ 0”9"7.u observe E 8?) / u surface ‘FEE ‘V9 19> 5 is 5 center 9 1: LE / V l: naturally ? §7J T 5 E‘ V) I < 3‘ 7.» try, make an effort % F. ’C‘ so ‘ESE 5:9 5 usually fifilfi 0)‘ W V‘ E‘ latitude and longitude U1» L 3 l: unconsciously iii. 35 E 7b in sign, manifestation J: T ll . t 5 1)’ top and bottom, up and down, vertically E75 ? § 19> 5 left and right, laterally
  40. 40. 9‘te<k? £> 5'<t<‘<k%> atleast SW3 Pb / V < complaint #9 §° k deliberately fifif 17‘ In E longitude fifi W 3:‘ latitude ii)? 5‘ 6 L J: 5 *9“ 6 use l l VE Km .5; 5 5°»: East and West ~fi= f‘o. ~’C< 7’: °‘é«‘o “ Describing a route by mentioning landmarks so that the listener clearly, understands. E L I , , , 7 6 VIE“ Hakodate I Port city in the south of Hokkaido. 18 H]? ?? 5’ ‘7 - Tokyo Tower I Television tower erected in Minato Ward, Tokyo, in 1958. 7‘ 7 If 73% Arabic *7 ‘7 77 -*)‘— Stuart McArthur I Australian high—school teacher. 7 7 ‘) 7'7 Africa aarm W 7 X ‘) W South America
  41. 41. Lesson 6 7§E—‘é<& WE C. “«‘7B7l ‘Treasure each moment as a once-in—a— lifetime experience. ’ 7 7 E1 '7 owl E 7.2 5%‘ study, learn —$ ‘A o L I 5 one’s whole life FEE “C M» / u shop assistant §lEH5i7‘6 Lv9>5L. t<T6 getajob E §7"C‘ lat 1:83‘/ u“C‘ ii Personally, ... . 63- A game 5 7.511‘ gargle 15573?/ C E5573‘/ “/— vitaminC H16 2: 6 take [a vitamin] [E 57 $ ‘/ 72~] ii < 3: 28 < far off iii‘)? 7‘: u > C drum 97‘ V‘ 1 training, practice, rehearsal ii‘ '7 salmon %@3‘6 5 e < V0 < 5'6 land (an aircraft lands) l’)1E6 [$7i'~] «$6 [’C%~l wave [one’s hand] 5’ 7 7 7” (movable) steps J: 5 C % welcome If if Z V *1‘ - business etiquette -I: E 5' — seminar, workshop % W 36 / v 72¢ b = information, description EH3 U I 5 cost 2751576 1 5 L . .t 5 '9"6 negotiate 3%? L . t 5 life conditions fill)? €11‘ 3:“ system
  42. 42. 20 ilfifi tH'9" [EH3 %~] ’c7h. 'C‘l; t %fif'aEJ EH33? %0>J: ’)tc 3l‘§'.1%? ’9"Z> 4’)! -—°/ “@’7.. > E42!-‘E41 [72] @3125. i&“5< C%&)t“ #33’ %‘%E. ‘null fLl 2: D 1/7(1.%> Lofi €A#< ii/ v7J§< fi¢[U;5%~] 375% MED Ew§;5b;5 ~D:5 (M175 thkfibv aware 7b= u>7)= ;i7.; Cfiikfim ~#w[:5ia~] E;5L %’)%")3"r: > <“7‘: ln’C§-3 [726] [0765 *67b= o‘< $3‘ ébefiwfih mental training include, incorporate, adopt business level week full price half price allow [an expense] in that case period (of time) date and time lesson fee ~ fee date (of a meeting, etc. ) person in charge, coordinator postpone replace [by buying a new one] lecture [lecture] meeting boss, person one reports to grasp that kind of imagine visualize specific, concrete ideal approach demonstrative and interrogative words that begin with the syllables C. , *2‘ , 5) and 5:“ indicate, refer to press conference
  43. 43. Efi‘ ébe éfi mwwa ~59: H&%fi%E#~l<Bw[%%E#~] flow imam 7$ Ei5[7$K~J $25 E9$x7V Wtifit fittlfifi %Ué tté tV—: VV OED ifif 73>: W%€5 n§&5 %5ihw EE Wafiw %: #6 %%T5 Wwfioié 757 E16 tfb [75y&~] flfi Ewkwh [, ;;{a% . . . . . .o gE; okl5LWTLI5#o §m~®: k&Af¢#. ---- ~. reporter interview playing at ~ gloomy the world stupid, ridiculous appear/ seem [stupid] businessman same kind of close training that is to say, in other Words past face one another if you do so, then, if so present, now from there solve plan make [a plan] order, sequence No. ... Have you got a moment? As a matter of fact, it's about. ... An expression used for announcing what you want to " talk about when “339fi? flP89t3§§n8§fi“©fi. ., Oh, really? 21
  44. 44. Pb l, ~7b§, fif:5¥7:e E. ---- --O If. ..is too much to ask. ... L Showing that one is prepared to negotiate, and proposing an alternative. '1 Students I Test of Japanese-language proficiency and basic [75 . ,t '3 B .1: J ‘Butterfly’ I Nursery rhyme. X If 21/ The Pleiades 2 Star cluster in the constellation of Taurus, visible to ‘E: the naked eye. L; Li/ s.UI¢’)7{: < _L GT/ x. . _ _ . _ . _ El ‘[5733 S1“: . Examination for Japanese University Admission for International [[5 4 academic ability for non-Japanese students wishing to enter a Japanese university. 3;), A >> ‘ Haneda Airport I Airport in Ota Ward, Tokyo. 22
  45. 45. Hid" [5F3r¥_¥%~l fitiflfia‘ ififirlii 5 — X V iii 0 at 1:’ V 7 iifillé‘ $$uxb3V ffiiiéa‘ ~% [%§”‘%~é$~l éfi . I.’—‘. i& fa! » L7‘: %I: I 96111? ~07“/ o7)= [3E! zii'i~l Eiifli ~%l3 [E$~l fiiay is E: ~7’: E [%~l emu wtbé ! §<. :IL~'9‘z> | ll| %BtbT [: .@$$@l"rT, 7 fi? [0;50%~l 7): /VLj"1,7§x1, Lifitmuifi : i5V)7§“a7>« %«)«<o7)= i/x B@5#DXt? V 0n5fi<ew#w A/ yjxyx U) v€D’)7§“<~t2‘z>~] WWEI5 rarfi b6¢E 5:55: [5a’)£a~: | x/ »7)*‘<, s;‘ ~$[wfi<~l J:7:: .5§ L‘L. ;")7*: “/u [3&: ~] sew 7)‘/ V I, /uTZ> 16'? ’ I/ ol, b¢") serve [food] welcome party, reception (written) invitation ramen (Chinese noodles in broth) origami (the art of paper folding) pink farewell party Chinese restaurant International Students’ Association ~ association [International Students’ ~ ] chairperson score [no] big deal badmouthing, derogatory remarks married couple quarrel [between husband and wife] medical faculty [medical] faculty (department) lion be pleased joke (plural suffix) ghost, specter bully be impressed parent[s] again, afresh, anew once around 23
  46. 46. ~ IJJ ~ 5 / u Mt. (e. g., Mt. Fuji) 2% 1, of»: play, show ii‘ V) /5» lines (in a play) ~21 ( 7;: < cry (with emotion) 7 : _ ; < cartoon film, animation , F‘3EiJ5” 6 7%/ V 3:‘ 5 ’9“ 6 be moved by C 5 Z / V lecture $6 W’? 6 hand over to ‘Y 7’ - tour [xi 3 O In tough [schedule, etc. ] [x#V1~wfi~] 7'}—'7-*7‘) l~ fleamarket ii? ??‘ 6 xi AM’) J: 5‘6 decline 961%. L0 7l’Ll« impoliteness 5 3%? ” 55) B 19'9" show '§i'l)‘6 [§?73l«‘ ’$: ~] 5016 [e %l«‘ 75: ~] accept [an invitation] [7 24 fililiiii 3 097‘ § 1 5 L0 class for learning how to put on and wear kimono correctly T‘v'F7”o’E. ‘7l94i‘6 i’6$)i9'ti’6 meetup %< [H%”°[r'a'l75“~l 2:? ) < iliil‘/ v7.J§”"] be free [have some free time] Z 5 5 ma 5 7§>1z= get-to-know-you party v = 6 / J 7.: various -If E seminar as 7b= < kindly / —7‘lEl : /u7bw> on this occasion lfifi E‘ 5 V) I 5 colleague p 7§'_‘IJJ £ ES“/ V mountain climbing iii 1 5 J: 5 gorgeous autumn foliage fill? ) I7‘ / W531’) sightseeing, viewing ii ‘é"7'ié’£ is / V7?‘ < 75w» recital, concert i / V Ii vfiv 5 bean—jam bun / If snake
  47. 47. %$ 07‘ ii’ L caterpillar 1z>l; E‘6 throw one’s weight around xi 6 «S: 6 Z 6 tremble, shiver 5‘ 6 k thereupon 255 it 1, me (used by men) ~ <“ B In at least BEE #5 i %. you (used by men) imr‘ i 6 In round In-i’ no % K ff? /3: 6 X’. f5 5‘ begin to tremble E71 07‘ 6 f: 5‘ I7‘ 6 help, save 7}? /<7 ll 0 3”) 3‘ [1 one after another E mfiii 6?) 0) i ; ?_ in front of one’s eyes ‘7 ‘J 3: mutteringly 7l= — A ’°—- website '§§lm%”i§ Fbibl/ lf7.ZcL funny story fig 15 < 3 Rakugo (traditional Japanese comic storytelling) “C‘5‘7b= o Really? =cr‘o: s[iiiw L $53 Oh, yes, please. Gladly accepting an invitation. . g 43:9 75‘ < $50 “On f: ffwfc 0) 0:. Lg»-iii? ) I really appreciate the invitation, but I'm ; /mm Hm : V) E -ti: /uo /5151 iii? 6 iv_”’C < ff 3 we afraid I’ll have to decline this time. V, Politely declining an invitation while expressing great regret. ---- --75>! » ? (suffix indicating a question) iii in < an 1 Help! - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
  48. 48. 26 55.6 Eiié H16 [/ — l~ €*~] i€§ir %l)“Z> lfi7h. Z.> EFFL [Zr] Ai fiii‘ H16 [%§i‘%~] SEHET6 ¥)o7‘. :1«>7§C‘I‘ fill : klfifim E 3'3-F5139 [726] l‘i”: ’a‘? E}l9§ Efii ii? LE 351% fly? x7J— l‘ 7l<£ U177 EE5 ‘l7‘—EZ7J'7 ‘/57— iii nfié fiié :5 win Cbfé fidté / vnli’/ u [it] Chew bhéx &é[bA%; &~] 7:! /> L ; <'9"E> g& C k li‘o“7b>u> éi fikbkfélfil Le#w&A§;5 zacaew ilnl“ litcififb U1: fifti €35 6011* lf“' @ €59 $@mn<; K4 sleep remain silent take [notes] steal burn, get scorched Wither, dry up commonplace life license get [a license] retire wasteful pot use of language, way of talking raw specialized learning about the world high-school student lost child, getting lost stripe floral pattern check skirt unpatterned polka dots rucksack, backpack carry on one’s back service counter niece
  49. 49. ifllkllil fibw KE fibttfl Efl ~fi fiok:6 75}? ?? fiii %£i 75x v4+x fifi %b fififl 574’ Mb fifiu Wfi fifi 747"47’ lfi< %¥7'J 9‘$ #1:? fin 573-“/ “ k<B;5 LA%;5 7.‘r= v'§<7.’>*‘7’: #7: ¥) ‘6 1) 0) «77~@“l/ ‘72 fibttfi 35:35 1: ~ 1;‘ bokcé &U:5:< 13:/ ul, /o: < §:505 7)‘/ VI, /u ti 575‘ liktuwc rd’/ U3.” fcln L at '3 Li5U; fi‘7b“’<°< $U; < Lxfiha $/ :Cb c‘: % DC characteristic, feature height jeans hairstyle shoulder personal belongings pale blue folding blue background background handle plastic developing country developed country advantage disadvantage common interest diversification title conversely the front and the back subject young girl idea beam, dazzle, sparkle, brilliant buoyancy boy mushroom cloud sometimes damage 27
  50. 50. 5- xi 6 5) f: i 6 cause [damage] [Vx—9&~] 0 of beard 4$U= ‘7., 0) 036 grow éfiflfi‘ 6 [1 o “C AK? ‘ 6 develop %7.7 6% U i < attractiveness E75‘ [tel @7275‘ [it] affluent % D7” 6 5 I7‘ 6 receive, sustain [damage] [Vx—9%~] 7‘ ~ 7 topic 3234‘ 6 (D N‘ 6 state, speak l; EL7b ~7‘: kg! /‘iii, I'm pretty sure. .. was. ... jlikplaining ysojnagthing’ while recollecting ysbmgomaks Tappearance or L . 'm9¥’? °rY i T 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. '1’ 4 1 ‘J 7’ Nigeria l~ ‘J -157' - F‘ l~/ “: r‘ Trinidad and Tobago 4 V F‘ India '7 if V 57 Uganda
  51. 51. Lesson 9 fiti 6 % i 6 be decided ‘lfiir 311‘ be over Ellfi Kn/ V75‘/ u stamp, (personal/ official) seal 'li‘4 ‘/ signature ‘TEEE fit/ = 0) 5 performance 5’ 4 7” type l§Efi‘é % 0) '3 function 33 El “W1 [:0 weekday >| §‘7l§9:- L .1 5 3 shogi (Japanese board game resembling chess) Eli? “ 6 L‘; i / vi‘ 6 feel proud of, boast about Haw? /3: f: 01 < pork 43!’/3] if‘ v9> *3 63 < beef I i‘ 1/ —- -— )b volleyball 29 fifilfi é is / v (atmospheric) temperature l3$7J<E C '3 ’9"‘«‘ V) I 5 (amount of) rainfall Fl BU 9 3 “<0 month by month SW47 ’1« § / u average Tliiiiifil J: 635 B »9> 5 L J? vaccination 4' < [1 <‘‘lZ countries H5713 <‘: L city XT6 ll 09> '3 C. < 3‘6 enter a country filfi L 07”/ V (natural) resources 2: 7FL6 [%K7§“~] [C <3b7b“~] [rice] be grown/ be harvested 3?? is‘ #3 W9 § heavy snowfall $’z3l%? "6 75>/ U7: '3 ”9"6 dry out 3EE% E’) 6 road E‘/ V E/ V rapidly fifié ‘é V‘ Z‘ end
  52. 52. $36 W66 live fii f: A ll 1 5 birth $333.? ‘ 6 I20 07“/ v5‘ 6 become a reality $2? 5711/ 6 Ad 57* 11/ gold medal § 3 A gold 2‘ 5’ )I/ medal 2:2 5‘ 7 l~ ~)1x basketball i§$ 4i’/ V L »9> player, athlete ‘V V 771/ [T1] simple E § 556 7)‘ % C. is Writing iii 07‘ / u '25 < retrieval WJBZ mwsa‘ / V example sentence “V V 7"]§é‘E -v 7 7° % 0) 5 ‘jump function’ or ‘skip-search’ of electronic dictionaries ~v V 7° jump “@515: L 1 5 0A, product, commodity, merchandise ~4i ~ L 1» Co. §“éfi¥% C < Z‘ I: L 1 Japanese dictionary $fl%§¥% 7b ; ?_ In I: L 1 J apanese—English dictionary $6 [1§U3Z7§*‘~] <7) 6 Erma: A/7b“~] [examples] be given “/ )1// “— silver l? H7‘7JIl; E_6 9l7‘<7l9;? _6 addto i‘[i7%‘3‘6 '/ uLv9>5?‘6 edit L o 73‘ V) reliably, properly 5-’a’? % *5: 5' 6 6 ’9“ bf/ V E T 6 stay and look after [a house] while everyone else is out $3 75*‘ 5 pattern 3 1 5 O 5 3‘ common language ‘Fifi K‘. /V 6 5 performance E o if 1 patent EUE <‘: 5 ‘é / V bankruptcy, insolvency if? ?? 6 3 is 75*‘ 7h 6 B millionaire
  53. 53. 366 6&6 ”57"C“‘]i T S U N AMI 63% 756% $6656 I: ‘/ l‘ QLHM‘ t :67)“ $66‘ ‘ii/9|] fillifi |3§F:7S¢< [18] 3360 l“Pf'a'l @ ‘Z65’ $766 6 075*” 5’é‘fiET53/:3‘ Iiiili 6'6 L $30 éfiilflfi‘ gull ¢. ‘+l' C7)’§°o'C ~7’5H'li*<=7ZC < “C, ~0)i7“1«W‘/ u“C‘3‘7)" [L16 6r‘oab7tL6 I/ =i'C‘li “/5'5 zw615 I&>5aoml: /V 6<: l=3/V56 73‘LfE5‘ 61565 ~&-uvs‘-9 61«‘6 73‘/ uc)‘w: ;:< : °r6< [35] 6 L1 V) 71756 . ::6 7:c2‘6’9“ tA&6 C5V)»9>56157b= n :5fi5L <f‘oL @<fio 6A#L6 Adesiredtconditions regarding something one Wants to buy. be proud of be revealed in now, today tsunami, seismic sea wave influence famous person record hint rent out however competition sex, gender region regardless of amusement, recreation elderly person friend mind cure mere reason, catalyst exchange association public relations magazine, bulletin life be useful for participant Like this. ... Not just. .., but. .. would be good. 31
  54. 54. ’c7rL’C‘L7‘: E ~ (0)) 7b“J:7;I, In/ vii»? Inthatcase, wou1d’nt~bebest? 7?; «*’C‘L: 5 73% ii t / u V) E “E/ vino There’s hardly any difference. ~i; ta9)U i—l3.'/ vim Do you have. ..with. ..? 1, Asking forianf ariicileisthat is of aidifferent type , butsa'tisfies the. same conditions as, the one suigges_ted, bTytthe»shop assistant; iii} '7. =1 fj A if it , _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. F‘ 5 X’. *6 / U Doraemon I Robot—cat hero of manga and anime series, translated into many languages and popular wor1d—wide. 74 ‘/ ‘‘/ :L 5’ / f V Albert Einstein I German (American naturalized) theoretical physicist and Nobel Prize Winner. 1879-1955. 57 / F 1». Time 3 American Weekly news magazine, published in thirty countries. ff? - Gandhi I Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Indian politician and 32 thinker. 1869-1948. “fix” Mao Zedong 2 Chinese politician and thinker, founder of the People's Republic of China. 1893-1976. Eéiééiffig Akira Kurosawa 1 Film director, best known for ‘The Seven Samurai. ’ 1910-1998. Daisuke Inoue I Inventor of karaoke. 1949-. 8 . :L — 7 8-track jukebox I The first karaoke device, invented by Daisuke Inoue in 1971. $71232; X l~ U — bendy straw I Invented and patented by Takao Sakata after seeing a friend in hospital having difficulty drinking through a straight straw. 7° 11/ F ‘Y 7’ ‘J ‘/ 7’ ring pull 2 Ring-shaped tab for opening a drinking hole in the lid of a drink can.
  55. 55. %> '3 H6 [is/ £&~] E.7b= b7‘Z> §iHl§'9]'7.> 94A? ?? i”< ll %’u7‘: Z> [i< Iifi“~l 7-wFfiy7 7J: L)I/ TIE! $19,? ?? éooti: SEIL5 [%%1?7b“~l H? rFa'iiEl) ll fi>7b= Z> [xyVVfi~] FE ? .§Z> CO2 WEE ~%% 1%? Efiifiwn Hi? ‘ [ll%3:T£b: ~] | %l§5E3‘ “Co § V) Eli llll flsessrsrm fl © [2‘o‘7b=7la€*~] o7>~7)‘l7‘Z> Urwfié 7:i7"5< ll $3726 [f:7b= I‘o< l‘;7b“~] W"/ ‘7.')‘< lio §14> O 5 1:2.» ['6/u7b7b“~] I173‘/ ut“: a‘5 ‘O 6: El: 352% “/ -1‘-‘Y- Bwfifin uv9&5 t5U;5 Efiltfiwk fif[Lo5UK~] €<é’<7b‘; ?_@” %’)C make [money], earn notice, catch sight of deny time machine lottery win [a lottery] World Cup frog plan actuality seldom get through [on the telephone] on time [engine] start demon get angry CO2 draw, ballot first place voting each other send [for repair] ask to have something explained again definitely storeroom, warehouse 33
  56. 56. 34 7”) 77- }Z. > [%%)E7b*~] lin7.>[’C*/ vhf‘/ u7b§~] 7:17» ¥H. LIn L7:Ll/1 . ’%< i3é: “7)< ~4’C [60 ~] ~7L‘/ > 3%? E. “7b=1«> 531% §: ¥$< E! 73*f: ~73! ~75?? ? 75k L47 tat L60) fizivii‘ 3.795;‘ €751 $55 fifi <“55‘5 ii’/ u’§°V)3‘7.: Ebffi threw C7l’U5 l’. ‘:L--'~? ‘/: I:7-- $W Lwuoo 5% 75>/ Ulla» nlbflifi L/ uV)7b“< L= <= £W5[sx&~] 5 o75‘V) E X 5 o7J‘V) ? .5‘«‘5 '7‘: ‘7 7 ‘) Z l‘ $7b§7b= V) ’C7§*‘7b‘V) -73 I/ >oif5 f3i%< 5=7)>< [~|1§“%i5‘»Zu] [~C€$@5"9V‘Z>] printer [power] be on manual close, familiar be surprised -ies [sixties] misunderstanding memory type ~ type lost property fall over odd number even number daydream, woolgather careless person mistake these human error operation patient psychologist make [a mistake] careless mistake careless this kind of, such (cf. 7) 3) in 5 I that kind of) checklist hint, clue on the other hand [breathe] deeply
  57. 57. EAET 5%O% ifzii WotA %&5% Ofifié [x': B§l5$iC~] fl%$ Tfifi N%EC5 V97)‘ -Iilflli/ u< / VL CCi07:U‘k fikewié [pa: au~] ea: a &Eo5w 033:? E5w5:&cL;5aw %/ v7§¢li5“i; t29) V) iii’/ we “Co 3‘ V)~l’. ]§o“Cl/ ‘i L730 Expressing the feeling that you arejnonplussed by what you have just E #27.» fi&%<5% . been told. bfloféeihflmwhcyo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -<42: -E'mv'—‘ 4 97.’ R. ’ ‘*- 1 P‘ Telling the listener what you have believed up till now, and expressing the V I finger model of all virtues liar or error hopeless person complete lead to [an incident] incident carelessness cause, bring about What are you talking about? That can't be true! I was sure that. ... get upset I'm happy if you understand. feeling that you find it hard to believe what you have just heard. " JR I Abbreviation for Japan Railways. Okinawa Prefecture I The southernmost Japanese prefecture, comprising the main island of Okinawa, the Ryukyu Islands and other islands. The Okinawa Prefectural Office is located in the city of Naha. 35
  58. 58. 7413- - 7"‘ 1/4)‘ Mother Teresa I Albanian Roman Catholic nun renowned for her missionary work in India. Nobel Prize winner. 1910-1997. § E Shinjuku I One of Tokyo's subcenters. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office relocated there in 1991. ‘) -7? ‘/ James Reason I British psychologist. Books include Human Error and Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents. 36
  59. 59. Lesson 1 1 i 3‘ i *9” more and more 13% % § J: 5 business enterprise 47‘1"§ Z / V F. “ from now on "E ii 5 Vi: /V dialect %li’§' E» «Su 3 K0 5 T 79 become widespread E0 7”: 0 be built jiifiié 751/ = 732*? ‘ < large family 7C~ [~%? )i3": ] ff! />~ [~73>%‘< ] large [family] 1*‘ ‘Y 7 ‘7 7’ - package tour WA 1 11/0 individual l«75=iZ It) so, really, certainly, indeed, very iii? 6: in 5 7D“< L is (school/ college) entrance ceremony ‘Hit? [726] Li “C‘ [it] flamboyant 7735?. [)]/ v 3 vitality, cheerfulness 37 HM‘ [7T: §—? E€’~] 735” [bi]/ wig ’$: ~] cheer oneselfup IKE’? C 5 C < advertisement $55? 054: 5 WA) beauty parlor EW5“ < Z) 3” U35’ wheelchair $1556 [ifi[‘2"EL: 23 «Sa5'7.> [U‘X. t 5 In/ V donate [a wheelchair to the hospital] $«"9"75:~] Dl<7.>i1«‘5"2~] 7“ 1/ — grey iiiailfilt [72] ll <7>« [it] plain, understated 133$ L)“/ u i; f< atomic bomb f: f3 U & 0 only, unique 931973 Li‘ £%5Lf-5 horror 74 5‘? 4 1* dynamite E % I: f: < one’s home $2 7!? “C 7.) panic, get flustered %’6%< : l5’E>O< calmdown
  60. 60. 38 flit? ‘ 6 wnwbté ‘V .1 — / '5 O 7l¢7b§7.> [%I%7b“~] ififlili %lifi Chink Eli tiéifi iliiiiififi iflliifi ‘Po if V) ifijk E men i%%'9‘7.> $’a§< [~ii<tsié5‘%] % V9 in F185 [is V) 4nl: ~] : !)V V }~ age ififi arena, fifi iifit In < 073: E71? Eiifiin fiftfi ifibé ['0/u7b7§“~] u>«13:%§ [310 < ‘9 7;: /0% . t < 7‘: /ob)‘/ u 4i'7b= Wz>§/ V 73% 0u5U;5 cu5:5E5 TW5)/ v5"% 7b= Z>< [~7‘: ln%5'§‘7.>] 0)V) {>03 JI5 [0)V) 760)]: -] 7b=7c5 %b5 353A Fhfio -‘R919 ®5é<$o 3/V3/u isébé act spend one’s time leisurely shoes connect, get through [on the telephone] ruins, remains excavation until now South Pole exploration World Heritage (site) worth, value after all is said and done, at the end of the day ice floe acting at one’s own discretion propose, suggest [do] light [exercise] vehicle, means of transport feel [travel] sick comment furthermore disguise, fancy dress dye gold legend several roof crop gold and silver control
  61. 61. ’$ “C 0) U 13 palm of the hand ifiili C 5 ii / U latter part < 95‘ nail NA 723* B 0*‘ 3: villager 7§= V7‘6 [§)]3%~] [U42 5 ’£’~] spend [money] FIT) 3 if %< (wind) direction ? tEl‘ii3 _ “C In C 5 resistance "-E ~% 5 layered § 75>! » C silkworm 9<$ 75"? ’ < . gunpowder . %i%5‘6 1v_‘I/165 56 manufacture i§6 [$ifi%~] 2Vo‘< 6 [fitl/ =7b= O’$: ~] lead [one’s life] %l7‘lE¥ 7b>7§c1/> e / u 3 l 5 cottage industry $3 7]? /v <“ land tax, annual tribute E9?? ? 6 § f: V > T 6 expect, hope for fit V9 land EH5 if/ vii/ V first half 39 rt’ 9 “C < 6 I come along, turn up i$J9~% < 537%? < settle down, take up residence -555’: 1/ 75 6‘ < family ~i; & ~ 12 r 5 ~ castle [Kaerikumo ~] [)"7?§-: ‘~] [73>; %_ V) < ¥>~] fl L 6 castle iii V) %’i'C 6 ii V) 32C 6 strike (gold, etc. ) 7l‘§7I1%‘ V7‘/ u V) 1 < L s» powerful person fiil. § / u E‘ 3 / V famine ~$]‘ ~ of A1 (counter for houses) §3‘£T§A 5' 5 U ><= < ll/ v several hundred people (cf. %5]lU‘[j% I several dozen people, If’! /5 I several thousand people) —}U)‘§f‘o’9” U~<‘: D0)? _E»5“ tothelastman Viéi 71 6 ii 2. 6 be wiped out
  62. 62. 40 1;‘i’<‘§*9‘Z> life/ V3’ Z» keep, store 3E B J: 5 trillion 53%)‘ Z; 7b 0)‘ 7.» separate E 6 Z. ) [%‘75“~] O 1; 7.9 [P9 3 7b“~] [snow] accumulate fiifi % C. '3 climate EEi'fi%P‘~3 73> / V C '7 i) / V 7; 11 > tourist information Efiféilfl 73>/ u C 5 15 tourist spot ~ 9 ‘On 5 0) ti 5 5 'G‘fi‘7§‘o How about. ... , A ? :aijskf¢df for ; ;¢1v; ¢e, l thfs“? éx15r6ss; qn§; ndicateé. thatryou; :are merely :5 tr; akI{1’gga uggesnpn, leaving . p to the persqn YOU aréiéidvising, Whethért 3 $0 ? d°Pt. it. .0Tin°? e . F‘ .1 7 if A A .3 3 if 3 I ‘ A ‘ i A A it %7tL *6 < 726 z>'C‘1‘7l:1o Yes, that's not bad either. % 7h '6 % 5 'C‘@‘7ho Yes, I suppose that's right. 07‘ ---- "0 But. ... 137.7 %>? ’L¥>%< 7S¢1t"C‘§‘W' E "" "0 Giving one’s! own opinioniiwhile acknowledging: that the other persons 3 ; ... °Pi9?°9‘a1$9;h? s.mefit, . . 9 « ~ 1 That's not a bad idea, either, but. ... . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . - . - - . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . - . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . / -N‘ Iv Alfred Bernhard Nobel 2 Swedish scientist who invented dynamite. 1833-1896. -‘E~—‘7 7J1x l~ Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart I Austrian composer of over six hundred works including The Marriage of Figaro. ’ 17 56-1791. Wit” Shuri Castle 2 Former castle of Ryukyu Kingdom, at Shuri, Okinawa. 33:? V) Snow Festival I Tourist festival held in Sapporo, Hokkaido, famous for its giant snow sculptures and illuminated trees. Wlxlilm Shirakawa-go 2 Mountain village on upper reaches of River Sho in Gifu Prefecture, where extended families have traditionally lived together in large houses built in the gassho-zukuri style.
  63. 63. LO<L§U/ »l: =(> fl 1‘ ‘P < Li EA tilt: [I H‘/ ,lf< ‘ . ' F-A Shirakami Sanchi I Mountainous area on border of Aomori and Akita Prefectures, with Shirakamidake at its center. Contains one of the world's largestprimeval Siebold’s Beech forests. Itsukushima Shrine I Beautiful shrine in Miyajima, Hiroshima Prefecture, With buildings constructed in the sea. Rich in historic remains and national treasures. Yakushima I One of the Osumi Islands in Kagoshima Prefecture, covered with virgin forest of Japanese cedars (Cryptomeria Japonica) called Yakusugi, some said to be several thousand years old. Shiretoko I A long, thin peninsula on the north-eastern tip of Hokkaido, which projects into the Sea of Okhotsk and Whose coastline is cliffs. A-Bomb Dome I Hiroshima Peace Memorial (the remains of a building destroyed when the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on 6th August 1945). Gassho—zukuri I Style of private dwellings in the Hida region, built for large families and sericulture, with steeply—pitched roofs to withstand heavy snowfalls. Edo Period I Same as Tokugawa Period, with Shogunate seated in Edo (present—day Tokyo). 1603-1867. Uchigashima Tameuji I Muromachi—period military commander who constructed Kaerikumo Castle in Shirakawa-go. Kaerikumo Castle 1 Built by Uchigashima Tameuji at Shirakawa- go, Gifu Prefecture, in about 1464. Destroyed in 1586 by the Great Tensho Earthquake. Oda Nobunaga 1 Military leader in the Azuchi—Momoyama period of the Sengoku (Warring States) period. 1534-1582. 41
  64. 64. 2 42 ififié‘ $Bif§§ §)< U‘ ZE/ iEv75>t)‘e 1’E”stE K-7’ cw? 9rvF- Z7‘! /— %%§d‘e E? El i"u7:e [El7§“~] E153‘ %iE fifitfl X11- N‘/ { 7 BE: l, H%‘r%t nee ilfiflfifi %$ <“-JTV) l~flE'ce] 7N7‘e [5$Fé? .€»~] Eliilifi ie V) serte ? s?'I§ []3@$$@llT W2 iA%5#w fi5:<L: ii/ vb: /v : ¥51z>7N)‘e ‘é 3°; 5 F) < 7b“%§'e Jitcfi‘ U‘ Zeke [U‘i7“~] <81‘ 1,; E5 Hwcbaé do ‘SE L Blitz ee sheet we [~hUe] bwb< [bwb<e~] 73>-E <“*9“9 wDe<he <D;5 concert, recital report yawn criminal chase work soup spill shutter spray draw graffiti, scribble in the middle of the night sunshine get [sunshine] live calligraphy fluorescent light menu motorbike alarm clock go off mild housework soundly [sleep] nuisance, trouble cause [trouble] cold medicine miss (a bus, train, etc. ) complaint
  65. 65. 5E< Eejfib ean E5Lre see 62% DVD E %‘ fiW? t—? a77 §He [9a77E~] %7rLE'C‘ %eLm Trfiyx fiM=7I’Le [§E7b*‘~] Wit 2‘o‘m'Cw=7’:7‘: “< fifié’ 43% a‘o‘7b= I,7;c 5?? » E—E— tiB&w arse t$%££ : B%< [$5] #719 lZ7‘97.‘Pl/ ‘ ¢<wA f4-74?4— fifinaw eéefibw 7b7NrLe E]/ ‘H’/ /7.? §"’] 2‘-3< ‘E5 E <e5 eo5De< : ‘:7bW U@5t<B UL Utah Leéw (hie late coming home too inevitably, like it or not community association, residents’ association officer DVD round-table discussion culture shock get/ receive [a shock] until then, before noisy announcement opinion [be divided] housewife kindly come hardship several paragraphs omitted funny sandal whistling sound (of a kettle) cannot stand city residential area insect sound of insects inside a vehicle platform add
  66. 66. 12 44 E» o if V) [~ 7.3; In] [not] completely %g I: I 5 3 J? < passenger fiéii ég / wet‘ / weft > safety EEJE5‘ Z» bi! » V) .1 5‘ 7.: consider fit? «S» < it include ‘f ’r / f A chime ’§§$’“ 11/ ti o L »t= I‘‘ 11/ train departure bell dZ~5‘l, ¥> [~7§? V*] 7.’7*tc f‘o5“l/6 [~t: «‘] [not] necessarily iVf. Ffi5 % 3) V‘ 5 / u I: .: 0° E‘ 25511‘ socializing with neighbors :1 <7 — ‘V 'l’’ 11/ commercial %7bi‘4?f is E rd"/ WC‘ I, to I didn’t notice that. 235 LT *6 ---- -- inevitably, always Communicating that you feel something is impossible, after having given due consideration to the circumstances. %i(Lli7b75‘ V) E 3%)‘ 51°. ---- -- I understand that, but. ... Indicating that you understand how the speaker feels, but it is nevertheless a problem for you. EB %fi>k%ili‘ ---- -- On the whole. ... W lflfiillfig L: 7:: e good for learning / 7 if ') — Hungary 7°57“’°/ “K l~ Budapest. xx‘ y : r 7 Bangkok Utsunomiya I Tochigi prefectural capital, located in the center of the prefecture. Urayasu I Tokyo satellite city, located on Tokyo Bay in the north- west of Chiba Prefecture, and home of Tokyo Disney Resort.
  67. 67. .. l,, . . l at , . M ? k"5;‘§> ’, ,»l ‘.29/. “«; ¥:‘5x W , - *_ . ., — V’ , ; _ . . , . , 2 . . . w». ,»5»» »--V1») who » _ . ;I. ,,, ,;; ;,, m,(”, ,;
  68. 68. Lesson 1 1. ~'C’En 51$-t1:A.7b - ~'CL7‘. ‘:7."3H'§E'l'. ’.'/1.75‘ ~'C’£v5i’. tatb’C‘L. J.:57b‘ - ~'C(. 7Z-.7’: -iH7.‘£(. 'C‘LJ:57b‘ "Ev53.$'| !.'/97')‘/ (.7'. ':7£'L"(v1'3E‘t’. '/1.73‘ "£v5iZ£U'C’bJ=575‘/ (~7f:7EH'7§tL'CLJ: ’57'J‘ [~’C ll) 8 i E if/ u7.’)‘J and [~'C1/>f: fit)‘ E -EA/73*] are used when politely asking VT-form + { someone to do something: ® eioamyeétrsazieeao Could you lend me your pen for a moment, please? Oi? ‘ 7J‘7': 2'31. ® : E—%®fiwfieaarwtfiw: eAa. Would you show me how to use the copier, please? [~ “C In 7‘: f3 0)‘ E “ht/ v7)= (polite request)J 3 twin‘ L . .t 5 am wn5'a§l3>5» {fig j; *L, 'c/ >7:f: °b)‘; -Ha. ‘/V73», (w tamgeoaaseeainul Lesson26) [~'C *6 F9 %_7:cv= 'C‘ L . t 5 75>] and [~’CIn7V:7:“b7‘tcIn“C‘ I, .1 5 75*] sound even politer “Y and softer than [~’C I) V5 %_ Ett/ u7}‘J and [~”Clnf: 7‘: “l)'E’d/ u7b‘J : ® ¢a: ea. %asfi%rweoe. s5EL%metreezemet;5a. Excuse me, my child’s asleep, so would you mind being a little quieter, please? {.5 in 3>‘§‘fJ @ $t¥: sw: ea#. iasenorwteeewetiaao I'm very sorry to trouble you, but could you possibly look after my child for me? 2. [:0)J1'}7E ° ~0)J= '37Zt~ ° ~0)J€5I: --- (simile; illustration) I J: '}7'. ‘:' N 0 + 4:67: N <K5IZV- HA’ Z'£A [~03 I 5 f5] is used at the end of a sentence when describing the characteristics of one noun (N1) by likening it to another noun (N2) (a simile): Uzéhh @ E) 0) )5 [5§‘‘cl. id< 7”‘ )1/0) J: 5 fie That hospital is like a hotel. ® 1 05%]: :1. — X 0) J: 5 ff}, This cocktail tastes like juice.
  69. 69. . ~Ztl1/75‘/ E: [OD E 5 f3] is changed into [OD J: 5 it] when modifying a noun: r: rm» U°;5L‘/ v zzw-an/ c ® Bathe / Vc: cn*~%2w>. ; 5 7:: )9? I916: X %Lrwe. . Mr. Tanaka is in a hospital like a hotel. @ etLuya—xoi5&e%La&: ew. I only drink cocktails that taste like juice. [ 0) J: 5 ff] is changed into [OD J: 5 ti] when modifying a verb or an adjective: tmivh Uz5UA @ E$§m$l%LfwefiEm$%w®i5tgnwfio The hospital Mr. Tanaka is in is as nice as a hotel. @ C 03%]: ‘)1 — X 0) J: 5 Kg]/ )0 This cocktail tastes as sweet as juice. [ODE 5 7;] is mostly used to describe something by citing N2 as an example (illustration): 33 k VJ‘/ cf: /x. U z 5 VJ ® xn. wu—@i5&n$eenLa%n: ea. My husband can only cook simple dishes like curry. fihah 3 #v; <UA Ufa trail 0). ; 5 éczlékéeli. )*t)tc: l.; t.kr ta fit Lt». Loanwords like ‘apo’ are very difficult for non-Japanese people. ELI] ['-- J: 5 ff (guessing from a situation)] : T#E%Eiorw: ¢e. ~E&®;5ern. §w5§w5Lv % / " l~77‘-c‘: iii $7§“§lé'Cl/ E‘§”JIo (E? tax/522:0 El Zlififiifliélz lll Lesson 47) V dic. -form + alt + it/7')"/ ’5: Adding [~ C 2:] turns a verb into a gerund; [C :2] is used to nominalize the verb: &§u? 8 HAZ5 CD $H$ < res e : & li@En§t: uw>o Getting up early in the morning is good for the health. ® / vtifiéie C. «E 753‘)? E “GT0 Mr. Tanaka likes dancing. w5L:5 M Q) tit H55‘ 57.) C <‘: *2 E 3% L “Cw E 50 I'm aiming to win the championship. [V dic. -form + C k 7b“’C‘ E E5‘/ C & ’C‘5‘J etLaa7/eE<: aaes: r. L0 77- it. ‘ 73‘ I3 abf: l,0)‘fl_Xl12’[€ti|1jl&E%E. e : 2: “C50 ow tzmaoazzxawnil Lesson 18) M
  70. 70. 4. N1 5.’ N2 E'; %5 l~ >5: ~ 3: 5 J is used when telling someone the name (N 2) of a thing or an event (N1). ®Lf§Tfi %§a%w: ¢. We call the 1st of January ‘Ganjitsu’ (New Year’s Day). L, .:"m‘0 cum 15 L‘ in - ® nnmaneaeufi<: aenava%5. We call visiting a shrine or temple at New Year ‘Hatsumode. ’ 5-IIIEII N1 2:95 N2 F~ E In 5 ~J is used to quote the name or title of a thing or person that the listener/ reader may not know about. N1 is a person’s name or other proper noun, While N2 is a common noun: &:0ab%’)fl"é wees i» L, G) EEWKEUI") /1* E‘3E%’”‘<’5:%[Io'C‘«‘i? ‘75‘o Have you heard of the novelist called Natsume Soseki? 3(7)’) i. L‘iJ‘ :9 C2) EVFEI. F7~57~-'7>r—: <“J at/ >")Fi7&E’$: RiLf: o Yesterday I saw a film called ‘Star Wars. ’ ’Il1ese express something that happens under all circumstances, whatever they might be. Use the form FT ‘bl after F1/"DJ, l<‘: ‘’_J. Vigil, |'7’: “7l’LJ, |_<‘: “/V726 LCJ, etc. : '&n~L~Uw«5 i"{'( ® na¢a: uw<aano: aa§n: eA. Wherever I am in the world, I never forget my family. 72/» E ii ® maaw<s%u: aLa%z<<naw. However many times I ask, they only tell me the same thing. »>M: « n» ® en#fia%o<s%za%z: ea. I’m not going to change my opinion, no matter what anyone says.
  71. 71. ~ 2 @ EA&K%<fs%wtwf¢o I want to buy it, regardless of how expensive it might be. With a noun, the expression takes the form FE‘/ Vic N 'C‘ *6 J , IEO) N ’C‘ *6 J or IE‘ / u it I: ~ N “C‘ *6 J : ® ea&TeaELwfi%%orwanffi. I'm convinced that everyone, whoever he may be, is kind at heart. <3‘f§n&aa.5o%fiet%nmonwe. When New Year arrives, shrines everywhere are packed with people. ® 5AnE¥%&anaea§<%zn. Enruiacgsaa However strong a suitcase might be, it can break if you use it for a long time. ifihfli l~'C¥) (adversative conjunction)J : 1/>< I5 4% if >5, 7b73=U iii-/ V0 (W lJ7~/ wit? ) Ellliifiiflifi I J Lesson 25) W2 '3' - EZa< llflflfllfllll The expression IN1 1: av it < "C. N2J negates N1 and proposes N2 instead: @ : hfiNVE@&<T. $a: D~lTTo§&6ni? ;0 This isn't a pen, it's chocolate. It's edible, you know. <3i§fiena%e%iL;5w. ~£$Ee&<T. %W%fifi<l5&K§@#&&:6K%§tmTTo Shall we go to see some temples while we’re in Kyoto? Not temples. I’d rather go somewhere lively, where young people go. as - %< Iflflfllflfliflfifll V U A 073 *7}: A plain form + J: *d)'C'l1btlo * N J -9? -> -7.‘: I - - - 0) “C‘fi‘J can be used in the following form when indicating a result that has arisen } plain form for a particular reason, or a guess based on certain logical grounds: 49
  72. 72. ® 3%®%%%K%e&Hhw&UEeAo%np. btLu§mew5®c¢o I have to get on the 3 o'clock plane, so I'm in a hurry. (reason / logical ground) (7‘: °7b> 5) / %7(L“C‘) (result / guess) ® finE%E§§t: ¢.%ne§%%a%%lrmaov¢. He's going to college in J apan. That's why he’s learning J apanese. F--- 0) “GI: 7?; K/ =J is used to negate everything except the final part of the sentence. For example, in ® , the ‘all by myself’ part is negated: DEV) #5‘ ® : ®v£—bu~An§mt®eu%0ieAo I didn’t write this report all by myself. 0&0 a x: ou£~rn~An%sieaeLt. 24:/ ulllu. tluffil- #1:. U iilkfi. iillfltv. II litfr" flL Fifi + counter IE1. + %>J indicates alarge number of something: éhfiu @ vy9aV®%KNlfl—fiWfisiiorwi¢o There are a lot of police cars parked in front of the apartment block.
  73. 73. Lesson 1.(fl m)EflflfllHE V 72: 5. {V - Al 77: (1) IX 7: 8 . Y 7‘: J indicates that Y happened as a result of an action (X): ® §%&ane. %%ueb: Lt. I felt better after I had taken the medicine. ® w~%>e%zte. aéfi%a<&ot. The room became brighter after I changed the curtains. (2) It can also indicate that Y was discovered as a result of an action (X): ® §u%ote. %#m&mot. After getting home, I noticed the cat wasn’t there. @ mmae%nte. %%#e<norwt. When I opened my bag, I found that my purse was missing. ® w$%o§wa%e&aeata. smLaot. On trying the fifty-year-old sake, I found it to be delicious. The same meanings as in (1) and (2) can also be expressed by | 'X E . Y 7‘: J : C9 $0 ’2fiol)WIr E . ;T‘: §%. l: 7:: V) E L 7:0 I felt better after taking the medicine. ® %m%aa. %#waaot. When I got home, I found the cat wasn’t there. mtr~ta<wmmmwu: n§#aota. %%L: ¢. r~taqmawwu: m%uaota. &ww: t;m (*5 ii»/ v& (7) E Zliiéillilll I J Lesson 25) 2. ~é: l:'50)l1~0)L'. t7'. '-I ' ~tl. '50)li---tl; ‘5Z. t:7‘. 'I N 0) S (plain form) EU’) IX E In’) 0)li~0)E. E f5J and | 'X E in’) 0)li--- E in 5 C E f: “J are expressions used N l: l.'50)l$ { }+ Ztfli when explaining the meaning of a term (X). C)sxawawnataw. sow. %%&&§o: ae. ‘3D' means dirty, difficult and dangerous work. (2) PC E u: 5 0) ii/ l’ ‘J :1 ‘/ 0) C E 'C‘5‘o ‘PC’ stands for ‘personal computer. ’
  74. 74. air 3* P‘ @ :7Ew5@nt@: a@ornmo&mEw5cacao E’ means that smoking is prohibited. *:3w5L<> (‘lilo ‘ (ls: E if E: (6% E x @ E Efitwowufi%ibTumH&w%%K$&¢btEwv: Ec¢. smite L‘ ‘. EEE’ means that you have parked a car in a place where a car should not be parked. 3-Ill! !! 3 (plain form) + EH5 N (noun expressing an utterance or thought) The form F- -~ E V‘ 5 ~J is used when giving the details of a noun signifying an utterance L‘ HA, I‘ L U 21/» or thought, such as (WEEK 5295. %”’i. fifi. iitltfl. 5-.1~ZJ (’talk, ’ rumor, ’ ‘thought, ’ ‘opinion, ’ ‘intention, ’ ‘criticism, ’ or ‘news')I l27.<L. L ®‘%: :n%notaw5neno<wara. Did you know that they say this area used to be under the sea? i)‘L‘LK> ‘T’ ® §$§Afi%5T¢%fi%fib6Em55bé&%%§Lto I heard a rumor that Mr. Tanaka is about to leave the company. l‘l/ ,€HI5LO %/ vi/ v L‘ HA. 6 ® 7‘J ‘J are Mi. fill % Elififll: Lf: li5 7b“uw= E In 5 fifiéfio “Claim Karina is of the opinion that it would be better to ban smoking in the office. V dic. -form V 7§tt -form -tin } &')l. '. + V (‘. ’§"'}.53¥%'§'6. E16. $8) (say, warn, tell, ask) This is used when reporting the details of an instruction or request. When the instruction or request is in direct speech, the sentence takes the form (~72: ‘:9 : ‘J. F~“Cli1:‘l7‘§v13:/ VJ or | '~'C< ff? I/ ‘J : 73‘<'l! 'l‘ E L, )-J1‘/ s. ¥: ® 1505 L‘ @ eamnsneneésawiaueatatt. I warned the students not to eat in the library. fi‘<-EL‘ E Lxf)‘/ x. E0) 7:: ~ iiuiwsficwefisruwnieniX§%LiLt. I warned the students, saying, “You mustn’t eat in the library. ” %. t'3l: Ka5 ® : o&¥eeamuea;5u%anztn. I was asked to finish this job today. it .2 5 1:05 -+fC®&%? %B$K%of<fiéwJE%ihiLto “Please finish this job today, ” Iwas asked.
  75. 75. ® E“%> fcé 03% < %6 J: 5 lC. ’%"1«‘ E 1,720 I told the children to go to bed early. ~ iatteur§<%eawJE%matt. I said to the children, “Go to bed early” Note that is an expression indicating an instruction or order. It is only used in certain situations, such as when parents talk to their children. It is also used for instructions on examination papers and so on. . ~69~7'. ':l. 7'; -‘I - ~¥}7". :L7§t~ ° ~é9~7.‘: l.l: --- (simile I illustration) 5&7’: -.(. 1.‘-1 N c7$7.': L7.‘£ N m: :w: v - (AA - EA f~J: 5 7:°J and f~J>af: u>fEJ mean the same, but (~54/~kf: «‘f: °J is less formal: ® bn. :ma%. v;—xatmfin. Whoa! This cocktail tastes like juice, doesn't it! ® btLnV1—xatmas%L#§: aw. I only drink cocktails that resemble juice. Q) C wfiifili “/ ‘L-L — X :7>tf: Ix‘ lifib‘ J: 0 Hey, this cocktail is as sweet as juice. 339E 71‘/ pf: /. 0:5 V) 0( @ xu. av—atwa%$nfinL#Wn: eao My hubby can only cook easy stuff like curry. IE H0); 57:‘ - ~a>. .t5 z: c~ - ~®. t5 0:---J: (F. :5I. ‘/o $0) in istcirkfivwi 5 #5.. (us tamzzoazsaaerirl Lesson 1) l##T. fi< II! !! F~ E C 79J means l~ E §J (when), but it is only used in conjunction with certain win‘ words in polite situations, such as H5 ‘l‘l'_‘ Lb‘ E 3. 6J (when you’re busy), liéagis 0) E C 6J (when you’re resting), I 33° 0) E C 7pJ (when you’re in a hurry) and l; l=3lE’p7l”L0) E C 7:J (when you’re tired). It is used when thanking someone or asking someone to do something: luff! ‘ ® anLma: a.raaaa. zioasfiwfiaaaermo I’m sorry to bother you when you’re so busy, but I have a little favor to ask. ... T 973 ® £R&®EC6.$Eof<fi§oT. %UfiE5$§m§Lto Thank you very much for helping me during your time off.
  76. 76. 54 1. Lesson 3 ~ (5) 'E: 'C€v5i.5E'l: ’.'/ »7'J‘- ~ (3) 'l: l'Tl. 7'. ‘.-.7'. ‘-ZH‘$'l‘. ’.'/ pi)‘ ~ (3) 't’. "C£v5i’.72ibT‘L. l:57b‘- ~ (3) ‘| :’. "Cl: 7":7'. ‘-; ’l'J't; tl. ’C*bJ:57'J‘ E *.3J't. $-l'«1'/975‘/ l.1::7‘: ’l'l'§-l'. ’.'/ »': 'J‘ E 5iZiL'C* DJ: '31:‘/ bt:7El7‘tl. '6’ L J: 575‘ These expressions are used when asking someone for permission to do something: 6) *9”o7>«iJct/ we :0)/ °‘/71/7 }~%: :11:"—§t‘f= b Fwiiit/ u7b= o V($)'l'l'T+{ Excuse me, may I copy this pamphlet? Hoati 0* ‘C/ aaxiiyw ax’ ® Hues are e a>. §.ar-$i%. é:w¢n»r: ¢sca~: »e2/.75». Could I make a report at the store manager’s meeting on Monday? @ 5%. ii’t§e%§s= en»7.~rso>: .m<~t J: 5 73>. I wonder if we might be allowed to tour the factory sometime? l~ §’d"C1/‘f:7‘: “l7‘ SE ‘ii’/ v7§‘J is politer than l~ §%°_"C i) I5 7?. i '11”/ o73‘J , and l~ é ai"'Cu=7‘: fEli7.‘. c1n“C‘ L I 5 7b‘J is politer than l~§'i*'Cu>f:7’El7‘i*d'/ u7)‘J : <5: . ». l~§~&’Cu‘7:7’: °l3‘i%2‘/ V75‘ (polite request)J3 Liffa < Ell: $ ’EJl: <V)é~tt ru>f:7‘: “l7‘iJ¢/ o7)= , (us ta/ wzoazséaiairiznl Lesson48) . (1) V dic. -form + zen: -rs V 7'. ‘il. -form -tit‘ (V56 C E l:5‘£>/ V Ltrm 3. E l:5’7.>J is used to indicate a decision to do or not to do V @ 5l5’$i‘~°Ell§3‘ 7.: C E ll L i L to We’ve decided to get married next year. 2 / vii/ v ‘E E L I < @ ’—“r‘EfEli57l~'G‘ fl iera C E ii L J: 5 o I have decided to eat out tonight. . (2) "'Z'. é:l-'. ' LTUE V dic. -form V 72:0 -form -72%‘ IV '9“ %> / V L 72 1/‘ C E L: L T V‘ 5 J indicates a habit one previously decided to or } + Ztll b'Cl: § not to continue to do:
  77. 77. EI. ‘L@5l J25 $27.: %E Lk( L2 @= anEe§oannea$dda: autrwa. We make it a rule to eat out on Sunday evening. ® ¢41yrLrwaoe. eEEa§&&w: tmtrma. I make it a rule not to eat any sweet things, because I’m on a diet. 3. (1) °"o'. ’.ElZ'.7§t6 V dic. -form V 7é: l. -form -726‘ IV 5‘ éJ and IV L it 1/‘ C E ii it Z>J indicate a decision that something is to happen } + Ztlztié or not. It E l:5‘Z>J is used to focus on who is going to take an action, while I: E 0: it 7.>J is used to focus on an action or event that happens voluntarily: ® %E7XUfi«fifi£Eé: EK&DELto (It has been decided that) I’m to go on a business trip to the States next month. C>i§E«n§$éa#%<: EmnacL;5o It will probably be Mr. Tanaka who is chosen to go to China. However, even when one has made the decision oneself, it E C: 7;: ?. >J may be used 55 in order to play down the fact that it was one’s own decision: &i‘Ev. k’) U0 3 EL 3) (Talk Ho: /. Lé’ Llaaatfé @ EB E . $61. / a‘$0>$‘§l: if»§fi§5‘%> C E (:73? V) E Ltd isfififiifill Hi I? L'CI«=7’: f:“l)‘ Ev‘? L J: 5 73». Department Manager, I'm getting married this autumn, and I was wondering if you would be kind enough to come to the wedding. 3. (2) "'Z. El:7§tOTb7.5 V dic. -form V 7§tl. -form -7.‘£l» When in the form (V 3' 'rZ> / V L it In C E l: 7.1‘ o “C V‘ E» J , these expressions indicate that something has been scheduled, or established as a rule: C)nLt®§9%deE%§%5:Eu&ormir. A test is scheduled for 9:00 a. m. tomorrow. ® 5aenfigfinaneueeooawzauaorwa. In our house, the television is not switched on after 9:00 p. m. } + Ztl: f£DTl: 6
  78. 78. 4. J~'ClELl. - ~t: L'C°l3:L(. V ‘C -form V til» -form -75tl. ’C“ (1) (N l: V “C (E L«‘J is used to indicate wishing that someone else (N) would do } + libh something (V): ® bttnfiinfitwfiuaorntmeio I would like my son to become a kind person. IN lCJ can be omitted when N is known: ® : o:aé%§e%%¢aE#§w#. Efiegorfiorutwo Many people use bicycles these days, but I wish they would obey the regulations when they ride. Wishing that N would not do V is shown by the negative form, (V it 1/‘ “G (E LWJ : ® I / flit E C. 7) ll C’. ‘7><’. a’_’i‘1’r. ‘§'C7Zg‘l/ ‘“C‘ii L1/‘o I wish people wouldn't dump rubbish in places like this. Although they become expressions of request or instruction when used about someone else’s actions, they would be too direct if used without any modification, so they are often softened by appending expressions like l0)“C°’9"7§§/ /u’C‘5‘75“J : @ ¢a: ea. a;oa%§orntmneEfi. Excuse me, but I'd like you to help me for a moment if you could. (2) They can also be used about matters other than people's actions, in which case, IN 7)“J is used instead of IN l: J : I16 E ® E’ < §73“§l%'C ii L1/>0 I wish spring would hurry up and come. @ E) L7’: lE%7b“l5:’ié I5 7.: x‘'C‘lE L we I hope it doesn't rain tomorrow. 5. (1) ~-I"37.'£~ ° ~"E'5l: --- V E? ‘ -form -= % +{%5tN MA -#7‘ -I"5l. '.V ZIA -# IV E 5‘ - % 5 7’EJ has a different meaning when appended to a verb (lV— plain — % 5 7‘EJ) than when appended to an adjective (IA 76 5 7EJ) . IV % 5 f5 J indicates that the speaker predicts that there is a high probability of V occurring, or indicates signs that V will occur:

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