Safety 1 2012-


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Safety 1 2012-

  1. 1. Paper-1(2012 PDIS exam) occurrence within twelve hours of the dangerous occurrence. List of1(i) Define safety policy? dangerous occurrence:-Ans- Safety policy is a guide line of an organization for achieving safety a) Bursting of steam lines/ plants.standard or safety objectives. Each policy is based on certain principles. b) Collapse of crane, debrick etc.Safety policy becomes effective only when it is signed by the occupier of c) Explosion, fire, leakage of gas or hot liquor causing damage to anythe factory. This is a social & legal obligation to provide a safe and health room or place.working environment to all his employees by any company. Policy (ii)What is the various costs of accidents?monitoring highlights four areas as follows: With the growth of industry and widespread use of mechanization, the(a) The accident and ill-health record. chances of workers being trapped into accidents are common. Accidents(b) The standards of compliance with legal requirements and codes of in industries are the unexpected situations in which workers loose theirpractice. partial or total organs and consequently the earning capacity. Cost of(c) The extent to which organizations specify and achieve - within a given accidents can be divided in to two main categories like: - (1) Reaction costtime scale - certain clearly defined objectives (of both short-term and long- & (2) Prevention costterm nature). (1)Reactive Cost: - It is that cost that a company incurs after an accident(d) The extent of compliance with the organization and arrangements has taken place in that of the organization’s own policy (discussed earlier), including in Reactive Cost are consists of two componentsparticular the written safe systems of work that have been developed by (a)Direct cost: - It is that cost which is immediately occur and visible likethe organization to meet its individual needs. (I)Compensation paid to the employee, or insurance premium(ii)What are the functions of safety committee? (ii) Medical cost for treatment,Formation of safety committee: (iii) Transport charges directly paid by employer.1. Factories employing workers more than 250. (iv) Wages paid to the employee with out any work,2. Factories listed in the first schedule of factory act 1948. (v) Repair to the machineries if damaged,Role of safety committee: (vi) Loss of raw material and finished products if any due to accident etc.1. A senior officer or manager shall be the chairman (b)Indirect Cost: - It is that cost which is incurred by the company2. It consists of equal no. of representative from management as well because of the accident & that cost dose not include the cost for the as worker site. injured person.3. It should have min. 6 members (3 from management and 3 from Damage to property worker sites) max. Members can be 20. Production loss.4. The tenure of the committee shall be 2 years. Loss of skilled workers.5. Atleast one meeting will be held in a month. Loss of motivation/moral value.Function of safety committee: Time loss due to investigation.1. Cooperation to implement health, safety policy. preparation of report.2. To conduct education training and promotional activities. Transportation cost: - The cost incurred for transporting the injured person3. To access hazardous conditions and investigate upon major from place of accident to place of treatment. accidents. Training cost: - It is the cost incurred by the organization for training a4. To corporate management to take decisions regarding purchase of substitute person in place of injured persons. PPEs. Legal Cost: -5. To thoroughly review, discuss and act upon accident reports. Cost for factory inspectorate.6. To act as a consulting body for those departments having high Investigation by police. frequency and or severity of accidents. If cases filed in a court of law by the legal authority then there will be7. For the prevention of injuries and suffering of workers. expenditure for fighting the case.8. Giving suggestion for the improvement of maintenances methods. Imposition of a penalty by legal cost.9. Improving the working conditions at shop floors. Loss of moral/name.10. To review the implementation of its own recommendation. Loss of productivity of the injured person.(iii)What are the theories of accident prevention? (2)Preventive Cost: - It is that cost which a company incurs to prevent anAns-the indusrial accident are very common in industries.The five E’s accident in a company.theory keeps the most priority for preventing the accidents. (a)Design Cost: - Design Cost is that cost which a company spent forEngineering: project stage is the a part time for planning safety.while additional safety devices, during the design has the obligation to make the work environment safer by Some Examples: -Provision of fire safety devices, Plant layout, Provisionusing all available latest techniques,govt.agencies should exercise more of entry exit, other safety devices like guards, limit switch, Safety valvecontrol in the project stage itself. Also updated technology shpuld be given etc.preference over our dated one even it these are granting (b)Operational Cost: - Operational Cost is that cost which factories spentindustrial license emphasis should be given to safety and anti –pollution for preventive accidents during day-to-day operations to preventmeasures. Highest level of safety could be achieved through engineering accidents.controls only. Safety can be integrated with engineering. Example: - Safety organization, Training, PPE’s, Publicity, propaganda &Education: research in india and abroad has led to the conclusion that promotional activity, Incentive or reward schemes, safety Audit, Periodicover 98% of accident are due to human failure. If adequate steps are Medical Health Check up.taken to overcome human failure by proper education, then accident (c)Research & Development Cost: - Research developments are thoseprevention will be a reality. The most important steps of education for cost which a company spent foe bringing out new safety devices orsafety consist of job training ,dissemination of knowledge of hazards and protection of workers.their controls ,procedures for repair /maintenance work etc. permit system (d)Consequence Limitation Cost: - This is a cost which the factories,fire –its prevention ,control and fighting equipments ,first-Aid measures. spent to limits the expenditure on the company in case of any accident.Enforcement:- when employee fall to observe safe practices which they Example: - Insurance for employees & plants & machinery.have been thought through the educational part of their training (iii)What is the role and function of a manager?programme ,it became necessary to enforce some instances Ans- The Managerial process includes the following functions which aredrastic measures or penalities may become necessary to prevent the performed by managers to achieve the desired objectives of thespread of unsafe practices . enforcing safety discipline to one and all is organizations. The functions are broadly classified in to the followingvital for the healthy growth of the nation. categories.Enthusiasm: as human failure account for almost all accident, it is 1.Planning, 2. Organizing, 3.staffing 4.Directing 5. Controlling.possible to eliminate by suitable, corrective methods. According to the Planning: - Planning involves the formulation, what is to be done, how,reports that product from industrial workers was 8 percent higher when when, where it is to be done, who is to do and how results are to bethey are happy. Maintaining the moral of workers is the prime duty of the evaluated. The process of planning involves: -management. All kinds of motivation techniques like individual safety (a) Crystallization of the corporate objectives. (b) Collection andawards, departmental safety contest , safety slogan, essay contest, spot classification of information. (c) Developing the alternative source ofthe hazard contest etc,goes alone way to motivate the people. Safety action. (d) Comparison of the alternatives in turns of objectives, feasibilitysuggestion programme to identify hazardous location is worth and consequences. (e) Selection of the ultimate course of action. (f)complementing .most important of all is the participation of workers in all Establishment of policies, procedures, methods, schedules, programmes,the deliberations of safety. Govt can appreciate good safety record by systems, standards and budgets.issuing medals, trophies and certificates. Organizing: - The work of task allocation, authority, delegation andEvaluation: continuous evaluation of programme, procedures and establishing relation ship by the manager is known as organizing. Theperformance is a must for improvement in safety. Safety7 committee can process of organizing involves:work in this line .job safety analysis and statistics also help in this direction (a) Division of the work in to component activities. (b) Assigning people to.quality of PPE is also to be evaluated work. (c) Defining responsibilities. (d) Delegation of authority. (d)2(i) Define Dangerous occurrences? Establishment of structural relation ship to secure coordination.Ans- A dangerous occurrence is an incident where no physically injury Staffing: - Success of any organization depends upon the ability,takes place but damage to property occurs. Report to the Inspector and qualification and experience of its employees. So in managing the affairsChief Inspector followed by notice in Form No. 18-A in case of dangerous smoothly the role of selection & recruitment is very important. The staffing function involves the following activities:
  2. 2. Forecasting of the number of personnel required. (b) Decide their  To organize is associations with concerned dept. campaigns,qualification which is required. (c) Their selection & Recruitment. (d) competition, contents, & other activity, which will developed theTraining and development of employees. (e) Performance evaluation of interest of workers to establishing & maintaining safe conditions ofemployees. (f) Decision making with respect to promotion, (g) Demotion or work & procedures.transfer of employees. (h) Preparation of a compensation package plan. (i)  To design & conduct suitable training programmers for prevention ofMaintaining personnel account plan. personnel injuries.Directing: - To physically carry out the activities resulting from the  To comply with safety laws, norms & standardsplanning and organizing is directing. It is necessary for the management to  To identify hazards, task & process as well as hazardous zone in thetake measures which will continue action in order to accomplish the task work the members of the group. The process of directing involves: - (a) 4(i)What is MBO?providing effective leadership. Definition: - (b) Integrating people and tasks. (c) Convincing them to assist in the Management or MBO can be describing as a process where theachievement of the overall objectives of the organization. (d) Effective superior and subordinate of an organization jointly identify its commoncommunication. (e) Providing climate for subordinate development. goal. Define each individual responsibility, in terms of results aspect fromControlling: - It is an exercise of introinspection. It involves checking the him and use these measures as guide for operating the unit andperformances by comparing with the desired results to see how much assessing the contributing each member.have been achieved or whether the direction of progress is right or wrong. MBO gas the following objectives: -Controlling involves the following activities: -  To change the behaviour and attitude of employee towards getting (a) Continuous observation and study of periodic results of performance job done. In other words result order to identify potential of the problems. (b) Selection of best mode of  MBO put emphasis on goals other than methods.control. (c) Comparison of the performance with the range of standards  It provides responsibility and accountability and recognizes thatestablished before hand. (d) Pinpointing significant deviations. (e) employees have needs for achievement and self-fulfillment. TheseAscertain their exact cause. (f) Initiation and implementation of the needs of employee are made by providing them opportunity forcorrective action. participation in goal setting process.3.(i)what is different between incident and accident? (ii)What is on the job training?Incident It is real work situation since most of the job in industry can be learn in a1 An undesired event which under slightly different circumstances, could relatively short period of time. This method of training is most widely use.have resulted in harm to people. damage to property, or loss of process It has the advantage of strongly motivating the trainees to learn. Since it event. not located in an artificial situation of a classroom. Under this method the2 an incident does not necessarily have to indicate negativity as incidents worker is trained by his immediate supervisor in real work situation. Thecan be positive as well. training is an explained method of handling the tools, operating the3 A usually minor event or condition that is subordinate to another. machine; the safety precaution would take the correct procedure ofAccident operation etc. The success of this method depends all most entirely in the1, An undesired event that results in harm to people,damage to property immediate supervisor.or loss of property. Advantage accidents on icy roads. (1) Supervisor takes an active port in training programme.2 An accident is a negative event which indicates a personal harm (2) The training is relatively cheaper and convenient no separatewhether physical or otherwise. equipment and recommendation is required for the training.3 An unforeseen incident: A series of happy accidents led to his (3) Since the training learns the job in actual job involvement. Nopromotion. adjustment is needed after the training programme.(ii)What are the qualities of a leader? (4) Employees are trained in accordance with job requirement. SoLeadership is influencing people to follow in the achievement of common the job is realist.goals Disadvantage :-Although no set of absolute traits or qualities have been identify the (1) If the supervisor’s method is defective, the trainer learns aindividuals who possess abilities to lead others must have certain wrong method. The effectiveness of training depends entirely on theattributes to perform the leadership roles. competence and motivation of the supervisor.The qualities of the leaders are – (2) This method of training is very time consuming.Physical and Nervous energy, Enthusiasm, Sense of purpose and (3) On the job training involves interference on the normal work. Sodirection the at the time of pressure on work concentration on learning becomesTechnical Mastery, Friendliness and affectation, Decisiveness, Integrity, difficult.Intelligence, Faith, According to Hill, (4) Training in the method may cause damaged the machineriesCourage,Self confidence,Moral qualities,Self Sacrifice,Paternalism and equipment.Care ness, Initiative, Decisiveness, Dignity, and Knowledge of men (5) There is no uniformity training as every supervisor is a differentAccording to George Terry the quality of leader – training unit.Energetic, Emotional Stability, Knowledge of Human relations (6) There is often tendency to ignore principle and theory in favourPersonal Motivation, Communication skill, Teaching ability, Social skill. of immediate result.(iii) What are the responsibilities of safety officer? (iii) Write the Difference between theory X and theory Y The duties of a safety officer shall be advice & assist the factory Theory – Y: - The theory “Y” which would better perception of the human management in fulfillment of its obligations, statutory or other wise behavior is: - concerning prevention of personnel injuries & maintaining a safe 1. Have integrity. (2) Work hard towards objectives to which they are working environment. committed. (3) Assume responsibility with their commitment. (4) Derive to Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions a safety officer achieve. (5) Are capable of directing their own behavior. (6) Want their shall include the following:- organization to succeed. (7) Are not passive and submissive. (8) Will To advice the concerns dept. in planning & organizing measures make decisions with their commitments. (9) Are not stupid. (10) Good necessary for effective control of personnel injuries and industrial decision widely dispersed. disease. Theory – X: - Theory “X” presumes that people by nature: - To advise a safety aspects in all job study & to carry out detailed job Lake of integrity. (2) Are fundamentally lazy and desire to work as little as safety analysis of selected jobs. possible. (3) Avoid responsibility. (4) Are not interested in achievement. To check & evaluate the effectiveness of the actions taken or (5) Are incapable of directing their own behavior so must be controlled . proposed to be taken to be prevent personnel injuries and industrial (6) Are indifferent to organizational needs. (7) Prefer to be directed by disease. others. (8) Avoid making decision when ever possible. (9) Are not very To advice the purchase & store dept in ensuring high quality & bright.(10)seek security availability of personnel protective equipments. To provide advice to the managements on matters related to carrying out of plant safety inspection. To carry out plant safety inspection in order to observe the physical conditions of works & the work practices & procedures followed by the workers. To render advice on maters related to reporting & investigation of industrial accidents & disaster. To investigate selected accidents. To investigates cases of dangerous occurrences. To advise a maintained of such readers necessary as necessary relating to accidents, dangerous occurrences & industrial disaster. To promote setting up of safety committee & act as advisor & contains to such committee.
  3. 3. 5(i) what is Line & staff organization function? 2. Failing to use PPE. Many organizations are line & staff organizations. In line organization, the 3. Throughing materials on the floor carelessly.line managers takes the final decisions at the work front where as the staff 4. Working at unsafe speeds, either too fast or too slow.managers aids and advise the line managers to perform the work. 5. Making safety devices inoperative by removing adjusting, disconnecting them.(ii)What are the Barriers in communication:- (ii)Describe maslow’s hierarchy of needs?Despite of growth in comm. System and modern electronics media The human needs can be classified into 5 types,the barriers are as follows: Self actualization (achieving what is capable of)1. Language- During the communication the language should be such that, it should be easily understood by the people.2. Filtering- It means people only talk those things which the other man Esteem need (self esteem, esteem from others) wants to listen and in that process the communicator hides something which the listener does not want to listen.3. Information overload- It means during communication if large number Social needs (love, affection, being a part of group) of informations are transferred then the receiver does not display interest in listening to the informations.4. Selective perceptions- It means the listener wants to listen those Safety needs (protection, security) things which interest in. It depends on listener’s background, experience and environment.5. Timeliness- the message doesn’t reach in time Biological and physical needs (food, water, shelter)6. Lack of attention by receiver- receiver should alert to receive message in comm.Process. 1. Physiological need:7. Improper order of information- message should be in proper order to These needs are inborn needs. They are the requirements of the body. Such needs serve some biological functions & therefore also known as understand properly. biological needs. Such needs includes food, water, air to breath, shelter,8. Improper channel- channel must be properly defined to fulfill the temperature, control, rest & relaxation sleep, muscular activities etc. communication. 2 . Safety & security need:9. Change of meaning during transmission- Safety & security need refers to avoidance of danger & harm from the10. Communication apprehension- It means while communicating some physical environment. Man needs protection against the attack of enemy people are good in written and some are good in oral and some are & wild animal, protective clothing during extreme cold financial security & security against all hazards of life. good in body language communication. If a communicator poor in any 3. Social Need: of these three aspects then the communicator develops in anxiety and it Social need refers to manifestation of the desire to belong and be becomes a hindrance during communication. accepted by others. Social needs are those needs which are connected with our relationship with others. These are the needs for belongingness(iii)what are the various methods of training? affection, the need to love & to be loved by others, co-operation etc.Training implies a systematic process of imparting knowledge, developing 4. Esteem Need:skills, aptitudes and insights to perform specific jobs. Training also helps Esteem needs comprises of the feeling of competence, autonomy,to effect changes in the behavior of the employees as well as to develop independence, freedom, achievement etc.aptitude to perform particular jobs efficiently Esteem need also comprises of the need for recognition attention,Different safety training methods: - appreciation, prestige, status. The satisfaction of these needs leads to1. Induction safety Training: - This is a macro basis of training. It is feeling of self confidence and prestige.imparted to new entrant/s (may be regular or contractual) to make them 5. Self actualization needaware of broad operational hazards and the safety measures to be taken The self actualization need is the ability to accomplish and achieveto prevent them in the Organization something in life in other words it is to minimize once potential and desire2. On the Job Safety Training: - Is that training where the employees are to become what one is capable.imparted with various safety aspects during execution of the job at site. In (iii)What are the leadership styles in safety management?this method workers get the opportunity of being trained under the same Leadership style can be classified under the following heading: -working atmosphere under which they have to work after completion of the Autocratic leadershiptraining. Even the materials, equipments and machineries etc remain the Consultative, participative, democraticsame during the training period. Bureaucratic Leadership3. Case study training:- accident case study is presented explaining how Manipulative or Diplomatic Leadershipan actual and imaginary accident can happened. Laissez-fair, free rein, individual4. Job instruction training:-it is useful to trained supervisors who interms Expert leadershiptrained the employees 1.Autocratic Leadership: -5. Trade wise Safety Training: - It is trade/job specific. People in the An Autocratic leadership is one who concentrate all authority and allsame job/trade are imparted with this type of safety training. decision making power in himself their is no participation by subordinates6. Department wise or Division wise Safety Training: - Covering the in the decision making process. He tolerates no deviation from the orders.workers of the whole department or division to impart training with respect His subordinates fully depend on him and are unaware of the goal of theto the hazards evolved and the safe working procedures for them.7. Refresher Safety Training: - It is a repeated type of training where the organisation. This is because the autocratic leader thinks that he is theemployees are reinforced about the various safety aspects on which they only competent and capable individual and his subordinates are isare trained earlier. capable. He expected obedience his decision. The subordinates are8. Safety Training based on Age group: - Training is imparted based on permitted little freedom or no freedom.different age group.9. Class room method of safety training: - This method lays more Autocratic leadership style works way when decision made and actedstress on knowledge sharing rather than development of skills. This is a on quickly and without question. On when their is no time to consult other.very useful method where employees are required to learn concepts, But employees often resent. These types of leadership are negativeprinciples, attitudes and solutions of problems. This method is very because the follower feels unsecured and are afraid of the leadersuitable for refresher training. The various methods of class room training authority.are : - (a) Conference and seminars method. (b) Lecture method. (c) Case Advantage: -study method. (d) Role playing method Quick decision-making.10. Apprenticeship safety training: - This is an age old as well as a Implementation is very easy.common method of imparting safety training. Apprenticeship training is Decisions are taken on the spot & implemented which really becomegiven both in public as well as in private sectors. During apprenticeship advantages the trainee learns the job under the close supervision of a 2. Democratic: -supervisor or a senior worker. The provision for stipend to be awarded to In this type of leadership takes decisions after consolation with histhe trainee and on successful completion of apprenticeship the trainee is followers and after their participation decision-making process. The leaderabsorbed in the organization. involves the member of his group in the decision making process, he6(i)Define unsafe act? believes that their cooperation in the attainment of the organizational goalsUNSAFE ACTS: - can be enlisted only if they are committed to the organization and thatThese acts may be the result of lack of knowledge or skill on the part of commitment can be ensures by participation.the employee, certain bodily defects and wrong attitudes. These acts The democratic leader call for subordinate to exercise high degrees ofinclude acts like responsibility and freedom. The democratic leader use a little authorization1. Operating without authority.
  4. 4. control as possible such leader cultivate the decision making abilities of 8(i)what is difference between hazard and risk?their subordinates and encouragement to assume greater responsibility. Hazard Risk Participative or democratic style is very useful in many ways. When thesubordinates feel that their ideas are important and made use of, they feel Hazard is a physical Risk is the likelihood of acommitted. On the other hand participative style very time consuming and condition with potential of specific undesired eventrequires a grate deal of energy.Advantages: - causing human injury, occurring within a specifiedBalanced decisions are taken. damage to equipment or period or under specifiedExpectance by the people is more in a democratic leadership. structure, loss of material, circumstances. It may be eitherIt helps in good from buildings. or lessening of the ability to a frequency or a probability3.Bureaucratic Leadership: - perform a prescribed depending on circumstances. The leaders behavior is characterized by a high degree of on rules function. When hazard is Risk is an expression ofregulations procedures etc to which he and his subscribes. The rules present, the possibility possible loss over a specificspecified the obligations of the subordinates and enjoin upon them to doparticular things in a specific way. There is no participation or initiatives on exists of these adverse period or number of operationalthe part of the subordinates. effects occurring. The cycles. It may be indicated by The demerit of Bureaucratic style the subordinates just now little they causes of accidents the probability of an accidentshould do remain secure in their jobs. The subordinates do not feel generally remain latent for times, damage in rupees, livescommitted to the work, as they are not emotionally attached to it. It was some time before an or operating units. Risk is fortoo much paper work unnecessary. accident occurs. These uncertain eventualities. Risk4.Diplomatic Leadership: - This type of leadership is based on the belief that employees are latent or potential causes and uncertainty are ingredientspersons who should be manipulated. The manipulative leadership are hazards. Hazard of life and we constantly havetherefore is opportunity and exploits under this type of leadership employ recognition, diagnosis and to take risk merely to stay know they are being manipulative and therefore recent full and bitter. elimination are essential toManipulative leader is very sensitive about the needs and desires in the any successful safetyemployees in the desire but the information gathered as a result of this programme.sensitivity is not used for the benefit of employees instead it is utilized byhim for his own personal profit.5.Freerein or Laisez Faire Leadership: - (ii)what is the role of union representative on safety management? Under this type leader delegates the authority for decision making into 1. Minimum seven members are require to organize a trade union.hands of the subordinates rather complete by. A task is ordinally present 2. Union is a form of association of the workman. Each union is affiliatedto group where after the group establishes its own goal and works out its to a certain political party.own goal and works out its own technique for accomplishing these goals 3. Ministry of labour gives registration number for trade union. It has threewithin the framework of the organizational policy. The leader expects his wings i.e. Director of Factories & Boiler, Chief Director of laboursubordinates to assume responsibility for their own motivation guidance commission, Director of Employment.and control. Except for stating of a minimum number of ground rules the 4. So the trade union deals with chief director of labour for trade unionleader provides very little guidance and supports for the followers. The license. It is a tripartite. A recognized union represents the views of thefree rein leader believes that are who leads the least leads the best. workman.Advantage: - Role of Union in Safety:-Time saving. 1. The union should play proactive role under Section-41(H) stipulates thatFewer burdens on the safety officer. workers have a write to warn the management on any matter whichResponsibility & accountability is more the line people in a free rein may likely to cause imminent danger to life and health of theleadership. employees.7(i)What is upward communication? 2. The union should actively participate in various participative forumsAns: The flow of communication from lower level to higher level. The up- likes safety committee, safety circles and safety councils etc.ward communication includes the information about 3. It is the duty of the union to educate the workman and createa. Sub-ordinate work performances. awareness with respect to safety health and environment.b. Problems relating to works. 4. Always helping in maintain safety in running the plant and save closurec. Feed back of orders, instructions. of the plant.d. Classification of orders. 5. Checking for physical work load, working hours, odd shifts, welfaree. Opinion, attitude feeling facilities and statutory requirements for health and safety.f. New ideas & suggestions. (iii)what are the human factor contributing to accident?g. Criticism Conventionally it was known earlier 90% of the accidents are caused due(ii)How do you assess safety needs? to unsafe acts & 10% due to unsafe conditions. The outpoint American1. Review your business objectives and identify critical activities. chemical company gave a new theory which says 96% of the accidents2. Monitor performance to identify problem areas, their occurrence and are caused due to human factors & 4% due to non human factors. A frequency. The root cause of accidents and the thrust area can be human factor consists of unsafe practices & unsafe decisions. There are known through analysis of the last five years accidents. basically 4 types of unsafe behaviors.Slip,Lapse,Mistake,Violation3. Get feedback from customers, suppliers and other key business Human factors consists of two things- partners; consider using interviews or surveys in areas such as Unsafe act committed by the work force. customer satisfaction. Unsafe decision taken by the line people management of the plant4. Ask employees to raise concerns and make suggestions; include organization. discussion of training needs in employee performance management. So the conclusion was of the behavior of the people in the organization5. Identify any dependencies, for example, where only one employee can be controlled such accident in the plant can be reduced. has crucial skills or knowledge. Initially the people in the factory are unconscious about safety because of6. Review any legal requirements such as health and safety training. lack of information and about the hazard & risk in side the factory. They7. Review any changes you plan or expect (eg new products, are also incompetent about carrying out job in the same manner due to procedures or technologies); identify potential weaknesses and lack of ability. problems. By sharing information and communicating with the people or workers in8. Consider how employees roles may change: for example, your side the factory became conscious about the hazard & risk in the factory plans to promote individuals and to develop new employees. but they are incompetent as they do not get any support from the line9. Prioritise problem areas or areas of weakness. management, they become competent to carryout the job in an unsafe10. Consider whether training will be an effective solution; assess manner. employees willingness to learn, and preferred learning style. 7(iii)differenciate between delegation and decentralization?11. Identify training options (eg job shadowing, distance learning or external training courses); set clear objectives for training activities.12. Implement a pilot training scheme and review the outcome before rolling the programme out.
  5. 5. 7(iii)Basis Delegation Decentralization Managers delegate some of their function and authority Right to take decisions is shared by top management and other level ofMeaning to their subordinates. management. Scope of delegation is limited as superior delegates theScope Scope is wide as the decision making is shared by the subordinates also. powers to the subordinates on individual bases. Responsibility remains of the managers and cannot beResponsibility Responsibility is also delegated to subordinates. delegated Freedom is not given to the subordinates as they have Freedom to work can be maintained by subordinates as they are free toFreedom of Work to work as per the instructions of their superiors. take decision and to implement it.Nature It is a routine function It is an important decision of an enterprise. Delegation is important in all concerns whether big or Decentralization becomes more important in large concerns and itNeed on purpose small. No enterprises can work without delegation. depends upon the decision made by the enterprise, it is not compulsory. It is a systematic act which takes place at all levels and at all functions inGrant of Authority The authority is granted by one individual to another. a concern.Grant of Responsibility cannot be delegated Authority with responsibility is delegated to subordinates.Responsibility Degree of delegation varies from concern to concern Decentralization is total by nature. It spreads throughout the organizationDegree and department to department. i.e. at all levels and all functions Delegation is a process which explains superior It is an outcome which explains relationship between top managementProcess subordinates relationship and all other departments.Essentiality Delegation is essential of all kinds of concerns Decentralization is a decisions function by nature.Significance Delegation is essential for creating the organization Decentralization is an optional policy at the discretion of top management. It is considered as a general policy of top management and is applicableWithdrawal Delegated authority can be taken back. to all departments.Freedom of Very little freedom to the subordinates Considerable freedomAction