Emotional Mapping of Museum Augmented Places


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Emotional Mapping of Museum Augmented Places (EMMAP) has been developed during the PhD program in “e-Learning” at the Faculty of Engineering, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy. EMMAP is devoted to promote mobile and ubiquitous learning environments in museums or in other places of historic-cultural interest.

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Emotional Mapping of Museum Augmented Places

  1. 1. Ancona, 24 February 2012 Ph.D. Dissertation of Giuliana Guazzaroni Scuola di Dottorato in Scienze dell’Ingegneria Curriculum in E-Learning Emotional Mapping of Museum Augmented Places EMMAP
  2. 2. Mobile <ul><li>Mobile phones, tablets and other handheld devices offer the possibility of interacting and staying fluidly connected to the mobile Internet </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mobile Internet <ul><li>The consequence is that the mobile Internet may facilitate the development and the popularity of informal learning environments </li></ul>Learning can be activated in different places e.g. Home, workplace, playground, library, museum, natural environment, street etc.
  4. 4. Interaction <ul><li>The increasing number of smartphones gives people the opportunity to interact with real objects , and the possibility to activate learning processes from a real situation </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mobile Learning <ul><li>A visit to a museum using handheld computer may offer a unique educational experience as described in the trials of EMMAP </li></ul>The boundaries between learning, gaming, simulating or role playing are not clearly defined
  6. 6. Mobile Technology <ul><li>Recent research indicates the acceptance of mobile technology in teaching and learning (Wexler, Brown, Metcalf, Rogers and Wagner, 2008; Saravani and Clayton, 2009) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mobile Technology <ul><li>The use of mobile technology for learning has established the legitimacy of “ nomadic ” learners </li></ul><ul><li>(Alexander, 2004) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mobile Technology <ul><li>Especially, teenagers and young adults have adopted a new mobile culture and have been identified as “ archetypal mobile superusers ” (Ling, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile is a social instrument allowing people to stay permanently connected to the network. (Bressler, 2006) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning
  10. 10. Mobile and ubiquitous Learning <ul><li>Smartphones and tablets are important for learning, but mobile and ubiquitous learning is more than just using mobile facilities to learn. </li></ul>Mobile Learning is rather referred to the MOBILITY of learner
  11. 11. Mobile Learning <ul><li>Mobile learning is characterized by a change in learning scenarios </li></ul>The facility of communication with tutors and peers offers the opportunity to design interactive and social activities to engage students in a real-world learning path.
  12. 12. What is M-Learning? <ul><li>There have been discussions about how to define what mobile learning is. </li></ul><ul><li>The difficulty in reaching an agreement is due to: </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid evolution of this educational field </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile learning is often involved with informal learning and it cannot be universally defined </li></ul>
  13. 13. Contextualization of Learning <ul><li>The word context is another key word to define the mobile learning practice </li></ul><ul><li>The contextualization of learning is one of the most innovative and distinctive features of mobile learning </li></ul><ul><li>The context plays a relevant role and participants are pervaded by an authentic learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile learning allows experiences that are impossible with desk computers. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Early Definitions <ul><li>Early definitions of mobile learning were centred on the assumption that its primary characteristic was the massive use of mobile technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Smartphones, MP3 players, netbooks and tablets are important for mobile learning, but mobile learning is more than just using handheld devices to learn </li></ul>
  15. 15. Definitions <ul><li>Mobile learning is “ learning that happens when the learner is not at a fixed, predetermined location, or learning that happens when the learner takes advantage of learning opportunities offered by mobile technologies ” (O ’ Malley, Vavoula, Glew, Taylor, Sharples, Lefrere, Lonsdale, Naismith and Waycott 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile learning can be defined as “ the processes (both personal and public) of coming to know through exploration and conversation across multiple contexts amongst people and interactive technologies ” (Sharples, Taylor and Vavoula, 2007) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Definitions <ul><li>A unique definition of mobile learning is elusive and the techno-centric approach tends to remain popular </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile learning has focused on the use of handheld computers and smartphones (Kukulsa- Hulme and Traxler, 2005; Ally, 2009; Elias, 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Authors try to define mobile learning using some categories… </li></ul><ul><li>According to Winters (2006), mobile learning falls into four categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Techno-centric : it is based on the technology used for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship to e-learning : it is defined in relation to conventional e-learning categories or principles </li></ul><ul><li>Augmenting formal education : it is used to support a traditional educational setting </li></ul><ul><li>Learner-centred : it is based on different students' needs. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Definitions <ul><li>Naismith, Lonsdale, Vavoula and Sharples (2004) and Traxler (2009) suggest that mobile learning can be seen as related to the activities the students have to accomplish.. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Students’ activities <ul><li>Behaviorist activity : the feedback or the reinforcement is facilitated by mobile technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivist activity : mobile phones allow immersive experiences (e.g. mobile investigations or games) </li></ul><ul><li>Situated activity : the learner uses a mobile device in an authentic learning environment or in a specific location (e.g. in a museum) </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative activity : mobile tools represent a mere means of communication to share information electronically </li></ul><ul><li>Informal and Lifelong learning : mobile phones support users ineveryday experiences with appropriate learning support </li></ul><ul><li>Support or coordination of learning : mobile tools helps users to organize learning, resources and scheduling of activities. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mobile learning can be adopted both inside and outside the classroom. Materials are generally delivered by mobile devices and students can actively collaborate. Ubiquitous learning is characterized by high mobility of students and high embeddedness of learning objects e.g. using RFID, QR-Code, GPS etc.
  20. 20. Theories of reference for mobile and ubiquitous learning
  21. 21. Theories of reference for mobile and ubiquitous learning Mobile learning is a flexible term used to cover various approaches that help learners in different ways Context represents a crucial variable that influences how people learn
  22. 23. Authentic Learning.. ..represents a helpful pedagogical paradigm to be used as a reference for mobile learning outside the classroom Authentic learning, also known as experiential learning, allows learners to explore, discuss, and connect concepts and relationships that are relevant to the real-world and are significant to the students
  23. 24. Situated Learning.. .. takes place in the same context where it is applied Lave and Wenger (1991) affirm that learning is not a transmission of abstract and decontextualised knowledge from an expert to a student, but a social process where knowledge is co-constructed; they suggest that such learning is situated in a real context and embedded within a particular social and physical environment
  24. 25. Learning by doing.. .. is learning in real life, which is the natural setting for learning something by doing it.. “ There is, after all, something inherently artificial about school ” and learning is a process that can be efficiently activated through action ” (Schank,1995)
  25. 26. Experiments The experiments of mobile and ubiquitous learning in museums and in other places of interest are aimed to develop a mobile and ubiquitous learning environment using QR codes, broadcasting and augmented reality (AR)
  26. 27. Emotions Brain research has pointed out the role of emotions in learning.. Damasio (2010) uses the term emotion to refer to internal changes in body state (e.g. chemical, visceral, muscular) and resulting changes in the nervous system. Emotions are not conscious. Emotions can be induced, for example by the sight of an object into a museum. They can create feelings, which supply the stimulus for action.
  27. 28. Emotions Mirror neurons.. Mirror neurons allow people to interpret the minds of others not through logical thinking but through direct simulation, by feeling and not by thinking. Mirror neurons unveil how students learn and why groups of people respond to certain sports, dance, music and art (Rizzolatti and M. Fabbri-Destro, 2008). If a learner observes an archaeological find (e.g. Shin-guard) he/she can experience the action behind it and, consequently, learn how the object was effectively used. The student can be empathetic engaged by a find and he/she can amplify his/her own cultural experience of the past.
  28. 29. Sentimental dimension A sentimental dimension should be cultivated in young students. In fact, today ’ s learners are subjected to a large amount of stimuli (e.g. School, television, sports, different baby-sitters etc.) in the absence of an authentic communication with adults. When stimuli are excessive, compared to the capacity of elaborating them, the young person tends to suppress the sentimental dimension and consequently intelligence riskily evolves without the anchor of sense (Galimberti, 2009).
  29. 30. Personalization of learning using the “Multiple Intelligences” theory and “ Five Minds for the Future ” Gardner's Multiple Intelligences (2004)
  30. 31. Personalization of learning using the “Multiple Intelligences” theory and “ Five Minds for the Future ” In Five Minds for the Future (2006), Gardner outlines the cognitive abilities that will be cultivated by future leaders as follows:   a. The Disciplinary Mind : The mastery of science, mathematics, and history, and of at least one professional expertise; b. The Synthesizing Mind : The ability to put together ideas from different disciplines; c. The Creating Mind : The capacity to find out and explain new problems, questions and phenomena; d. The Respectful Mind : awareness of differences among human beings and human groups and the consequent appreciation for them; e. The Ethical Mind : Awareness of personal responsibilities as a worker and as a citizen.
  31. 32. Emotional map When students are immersed in a real environment, the emotional map can offer the possibility to better understand how different people have interpreted the location trough their creations (e.g. Stories, draws, recorded interviews etc.). In the trials, the emotional map is created by the objects left in the location by the visitors. Thus, users are encouraged to use their Creative mind and produce, for example, narratives, drawings, interviews or reports in order to reinvent the map of the real location.
  32. 33. Gamification Recreational and educational activities can take place in formal contexts, such as school, or in informal settings, such as a museum, a park or a city. The elements that make a game intriguing or challenging can be applied to situations that do not belong to the sphere of gaming. Gamification is the term that expresses the processes of Game Design used in areas not previously involved in the dynamics of gaming.
  33. 34. The 7E learning cycle model and the 5 Step model In implementing the real experience in a museum or in another place of cultural or historical interest, the 7E learning cycle (Eisenkraft, 2003; Huang, Liu, Graf and Lin, 2008; Guazzaroni and Leo, 2011) and Salmon's 5 step model (2000)are crucial to build a successful experience <ul><li>Elicit : The teacher/facilitator prepares technologies and materials alone, there is no need of scaffolding; </li></ul><ul><li>Engage : The teacher/facilitator explains the experience to the students. This phase corresponds to the first step in Salmon's model (2000); </li></ul><ul><li>Explore : Students start reading QR codes while exploring the location; during this phase (second step in Salmon's model, 2000) the facilitator has to help students to positively interact and familiarizing with technology and artefacts; </li></ul>
  34. 35. The 7E learning cycle model and the 5 Step model <ul><li>Explain : Groups start an active interaction with real learning objects. Groups create contents for future visitors and discuss collected data to create their emotional map of the place; during this phase (third step in Salmon's model, 2000) the facilitator can help students to get information from real learning objects (e.g. Artefacts, information panels etc.); </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate : Each group develops the final version of their content to be left in the location; during this phase (fourth step in Salmon's model, 2000) the facilitator assists knowledge construction processes; </li></ul><ul><li>Extend : Students collect additional learning content; during this phase (fifth step in Salmon's model, 2000) the facilitator can help students providing additional material); </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate : The teacher/facilitator brings together useful information to evaluate the participants ’ learning achievement; there is no need of scaffolding. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Evaluation EMMAP is monitored ex ante and ex post in order to assess the effectiveness of the format (evaluation and assessment), in terms of achievement of learning objectives and participants satisfactions. Teachers: Interviews, ex ante and ex post, are based on the methodology developed by Learning for all (L4All: www.learningforall.it ), a three-year FIRB project, financed by the Italian Ministry of Education, the University and Research (MIUR). a. Interviews ex ante to monitor the reasons for adopting the format, the expectations, and the application context; b. Interviews ex post to monitor the results achieved and other impressions. Students: a. Questionnaires ex ante in order to monitor digital skills, motivation and expectations in relation to the format; b. Questionnaires ex post to monitor satisfaction and achievements.
  36. 37. Assessment   The assessment of students is carried out during a debriefing after the museum experience, and through the collection of responses from groups. Moreover, at the end of the experience each group writes and records a report about the visit. Students writing reports after the Archaeological museum tour
  37. 38. SWOT
  38. 39. Experimentations <ul><li>EMMAP was trialled at: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Museo della Carrozza ” Palazzo Buonaccorsi, Via Don Giovanni Minzoni 24, Macerata </li></ul><ul><li>“ Antiche Mura ” Macerata </li></ul><ul><li>“ Museo Civico Archeologico Giuseppe Moretti ” , Località Castello al Monte, San Severino Marche (MC) </li></ul>
  39. 40. Museo della Carrozza <ul><li>EMMAP was trialled at the Macerata Carriage Museum on June 7th, 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>The museum is characterized by two main themes: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The narrative motif based on the relationship between carriages and the territory; </li></ul><ul><li>The technical motif based on the mechanical development documented by the collection. </li></ul>
  40. 41. Participants A group of ten female students, in their twenties, accompanied by their teacher, participated in the research They were all 3 rd year students of Accademia di Belle Arti Moreover, they were all enrolled in a course called: “ Net Art ” , where QR-Code and other useful technologies are creatively used
  41. 42. Museo della Carrozza <ul><li>The “ Orange path ” was created for logical, linguistic and musical smarts. Their itinerary was primarily based on a reflection upon literary and musical contents created during the age of the “ Grand Tour ” of Italy </li></ul><ul><li>The “ Green path ” was designed for spatial, visual and naturalistic smarts. It was based on the perception of distance in relation to means of transport, the old cartography and the natural environment of the Umbrian-Marchean Apennines </li></ul>At the beginning of the experience ( Elicit ), students completed the entrance test to evaluate their expectations. In this phase, the group was split into two smaller groups. At the entrance of the museum, students received paper maps augmented with QR-Code ( Engage )
  42. 43. Museo della Carrozza <ul><li>The participants in the didactic experiment in the first two rooms of the Carriage Museum started the exploration of multimedia contents while observing the carriages and the stopping places of the “ Grand Tour ” in their region ( Explore ). </li></ul><ul><li>In the third room the participants were invited to interact with artefacts and to choose a specific role within the group: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The “ Carriage driver ” or leader of the group; </li></ul><ul><li>The “ Memory ” (one, or more people) who had to collect notes, useful information and interesting materials; </li></ul><ul><li>The “ Storyteller ” (one, or more people) who told a story, using the broadcasting, to be left playing for future visitors ( Explain ) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Berlina trasformabile, 1800 (www.maceratamusei.it)
  43. 44. Museo della Carrozza In the fourth room , QR codes diminished to give groups the opportunity to elaborate new contents and to record their stories ( Elaborate ). In the fifth room ( “ Playing with the Carriage ” ), groups had a break were they could play. In the sixth room ( “ Tools ” ), students collected everything they thought useful to bring back to the classroom (e.g. Notes, records, links etc.) ( Extend ). The visit to the museum finished with the filling out of the evaluation test ( Evaluate ).   Mylord, 1880 (www.maceratamusei.it)
  44. 45. Museo della Carrozza / Evaluation In the entrance test, all participants affirmed that they were able to master mobile technology Most of the students declared they made use of the mobile internet (80%), were familiar with QR-Code (70%) and were ready for a mobile and ubiquitous learning experience (80%) They thought informal learning experiences could improve the active involvement of participants of all ages with the museum artefacts
  45. 46. Museo della Carrozza / Evaluation In the final evaluation test, most of the pupils declared they had connection problems in the museum basement rooms (80%) <ul><li>The didactic benefits , revealed by the evaluation, were the following: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Social benefits : most of the participants felt that working in groups had improved their attitude to listening to their peers (70%); most of them said that everybody in the group had contributed to the construction of group knowledge (80%); but, they only moderately improved their awareness and respect for their peers (80%) </li></ul><ul><li>Creative thinking benefits : Most of the participants said that they improved their creative thinking during the experience (80%); the richness of different multimedia materials in the museum improved creative thinking (80%); moreover, they all agreed that the possibility to tell a story, and to leave it in the museum for future visitors, stimulated their creative mind (100%) </li></ul><ul><li>Techno-didactic benefits : All the students said that the use of technologies reinforced social participation and fostered group work; technology promoted a dialogue with future visitors (80%), and it improved the interest in artefacts (100%). </li></ul>
  46. 47. Museo della Carrozza / Evaluation <ul><li>The didactic benefits , revealed by the evaluation, were the following: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional benefits : Most of the participants said that the museum paths fostered the creation of an emotional bond with the location (80%); they believed that paths activated an “ emotional dimension ” with objects and people related to the past, present and future of the Carriage Museum (80%); they said that a “ sentimental dimension ” was fostered by the storytelling activity (80%) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>In the comments, four participants suggested improving the Wi-Fi connection in the museum basement; one said that QR codes should have been available near artefacts, and not on a map. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of them would have recommended EMMAP paths to other visitors (80%) </li></ul>
  47. 49. Augmented reality in Macerata During the Macerata Ospitale Art Festival 2011, an augmented reality experience was implemented all around the ancient Mediaeval walls of Macerata. Sixty of the most significant works of “ Street Poetry ” , a poetry prize, were prepared all along the perimeter of the city walls
  48. 50. Evaluation Most of the participants declared themselves to be familiar with technology (80%). Half of the visitors said they did not use Internet in their mobile phones; other users declared making some use of mobile Internet (40%); others said to connect in mobility frequently (10%). Most of the participants affirmed that they did not know augmented reality facilities (80%) and only a few admitted knowing something about it (20%). Nobody was familiar with augmented reality applications (0%)
  49. 51. The idea behind AR was not clear to the group of walkers and consequently they needed a demonstration of how to use Layar and other AR applications. Nevertheless, most of the participants considered themselves ready to use augmented reality (60%), the remaining part declared they needed more expertise to use AR facilities (40%). At the end of the tour, the absolute majority declared that an augmented reality path could improve the engagement of visitors and tourists (90%); on the other hand, one believed that AR could not improve people's interest in the visit (10%). Most of the visitors said they did not have technological problems during the walk (80%); the remaining part reported having some difficulty with mobile technology (20%). One declared that the iPhone and smartphone small-screens are inadequate for tours. However, most of the participants said they enjoyed the visit and would have promoted the walks around the walls to other people (90%). The remaining part of the group professed uncertainty about AR facilities and its benefits during a visit (10%). After the walk, one young man reported having some difficulty localizing virtual artefacts with AR. This is a question due to the GPS outdoor positioning of virtual objects.
  50. 53. Implementation of a mobile and ubiquitous learning experience at the “ Museo Civico Archeologico Giuseppe Moretti ” Castello di San Severino Marche Museo Archeologico EMMAP was tested at the Archaeological Museum with 115 students attending the first classes of the Istituto Tecnico Industriale Statale (ITIS) “ Eustachio Divini ” of San Severino Marche The study involved 115 teenagers (11 girls and 105 boys) aged from 13 to 16 (8 students were 13; 96 students were 14; 8 students were 15; 3 students were 16)
  51. 54. Implementation of a mobile and ubiquitous learning experience at the “ Museo Civico Archeologico Giuseppe Moretti ” Each Saturday a class of learners was taken to the Archaeological Museum, by two teachers In the museum a facilitator and a local tourist guide welcomed the students In the classroom students were previously informed about everything they needed and were divided into small groups as well ( Elicit ). In this phase the participants filled out the ex ante questionnaire. The classes are composed by a different number of students; from about twenty to thirty members each. Consequently, groups were formed by a minimum of four to a maximum of six students, depending on the number of phones, with useful software
  52. 55. Implementation of a mobile and ubiquitous learning experience at the “ Museo Civico Archeologico Giuseppe Moretti ” As soon as, the first group was ready to visit the museum, they entered in the first room devoted to the Prehistoric Period. Before entering the room, there was a corridor where the first QR-Code was located to welcome students and to engage them in the Archaeologist Game they were going to experience In this phase learners were welcomed and encouraged as described by Salmon (2000) in the first step of her model In the Prehistoric Period room, three points of interest (POI) were augmented by QR codes
  53. 56. Implementation of a mobile and ubiquitous learning experience at the “ Museo Civico Archeologico Giuseppe Moretti ” <ul><li>The archaeological finds, interested by the Archaeologist Game and augmented by QR codes, were the following : </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Double-faced mould made of black flint (Lower Palaeolithic Period); </li></ul><ul><li>Points (Neolithic period and Eneolithic Period); </li></ul><ul><li>Levigated semiprecious stone Axes (Neolithic period and Eneolithic Period). </li></ul>
  54. 57. Implementation of a mobile and ubiquitous learning experience at the “ Museo Civico Archeologico Giuseppe Moretti ” For each point of interest, the students had to write a proper classification based on: Population Period Usage   The QR codes provided narrations with gaps the a rchaeologists had to fill to classify an object
  55. 58. <ul><li>Different learners' intelligences (Gardner, 2004) could be activated trying to define: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The population habits (Logical intelligence; Linguistic intelligence; Inter-personal intelligence; Existentialistic intelligence etc.); </li></ul><ul><li>The Prehistoric Age (Logical/ Mathematical intelligence; Spatial intelligence; Naturalistic intelligence etc.); </li></ul><ul><li>The usage (Logical intelligence; Inter-personal intelligence; Kinaesthetic intelligence; Spatial intelligence; Existentialistic intelligence etc.). </li></ul>
  56. 59. Within the group, each member worked with a specific role:   The Leader who reads the QR-Code The Explorer searches and collects useful information in the museum The Reporter who at the end of the game collates all the information
  57. 60. Once groups completed the classification of each POI, they could enter the second museum room (Piceni) As a group entered, a QR-Code welcomed the students to the warriors' necropolis The second QR-Code asked students to observe attentively the different funeral outfits The activity, to be completed in groups, was to list an ideal warrior ’ s outfit and imagine the person who owned it ( Explain ).
  58. 61. <ul><li>Once teams completed their model of funeral outfit, another QR-Code indicated they had to leave their trace in the museum in different ways according to their skills and inclinations. Consequently, they could: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write a story about a Piceni warrior (the one they described his outfit); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview a Piceni individual; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report about their visit; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw a warrior dressed with the chosen armour. </li></ul></ul>
  59. 62. The possibility for each group to chose their output to be left in the museum for future visitors was aimed at empowering students and encouraging them to use their best skills ( Elaborate ) For the final activity (creating materials) students could return to the didactic room. On their way back to the didactic room, there was a corridor where they could scan messages (stories, drawings, interviews etc.) left by former peer visitors in a sort of bio map. They could scan other content ( Extend ). Before leaving, learners recorded their voices or geo-located their drawings for future visitors, and then they filled out the ex post questionnaire for evaluation ( Evaluate ). A Piceni warrior drew by a participant
  60. 63. Augmented Reality
  61. 66. <ul><li>Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure: </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless internet connection in the institute/museum or an independent data connection (e.g. 3G mobile internet connection) </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware: </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile devices as smartphones, iPhones, tablets, iPad, iPod etc. </li></ul><ul><li>USB pen drive </li></ul><ul><li>Software: </li></ul><ul><li>QR-Code generator software (e.g. i-Nigma, Kaywa etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>QR-Code reader app (e.g. i-Nigma, Kaywa, Scan etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Augmented reality browser (e.g. Layar etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting app (e.g. Broadcastr etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Audio file recorder app (e.g. Audioboo etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Microblogging app (e.g. Twitter etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Picture app (e.g. Flickr, Moby Picture etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Image editor app (e.g. Adobe Photoshop Express etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Dead Drops app </li></ul>
  62. 67. In the expectation questionnaire, most of them declared familiarity with technologies (93%). 74% said they also made use of the mobile Internet; within these users a 32% said they connected to the mobile Internet very often. A few participants reported knowing and currently use QR-Code (38%), the remaining part declared curiosity about it, but they had never seen or read it before (62%). Most of the teens considered themselves to be ready for a mobile and ubiquitous learning experience (80%). Evaluation Percentage of Internet mobile usage HIGH LOW AVERAGE
  63. 68. <ul><li>After the trial, the participants completed a questionnaire to evaluate the satisfaction. The questionnaire was negotiated between the different stakeholders in order to evaluate the quality of the experience. </li></ul><ul><li>It was divided into three parts: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Organization area </li></ul><ul><li>Content area </li></ul><ul><li>General evaluation </li></ul>
  64. 73. <ul><li>The general results of the evaluation reveal positive outcomes relating to: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening the awareness that mobile phones should be considered as new cultural resources that work within an individualized, mobile and convergent mass communication (Cook, Pachler and Bachmail, 2011); </li></ul><ul><li>The possibility offered by mobile phones to attract teens and consequently to shorten the distance between young people and heritage; </li></ul><ul><li>The possibility for the learner to use different multimedia materials, while interacting with peers in a social co-construction of meaning and improving a listening attitude; </li></ul><ul><li>The possibility for the student to experience active learning in an informal environment, such as a museum; </li></ul>
  65. 74. <ul><li>The general results of the evaluation reveal positive outcomes relating to: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The developing of “ The Creating Mind ” , a key attitude for the future (Gardner, 2006); </li></ul><ul><li>The development of different forms of intelligences, according to the theory of Multiple Intelligences (Gardner, 2004); </li></ul><ul><li>The development of an “ emotional dimension ” in young learners (Galimberti, 2009); </li></ul><ul><li>The production of different stories and drawings that remain available for future interactions and leaves emotional traces in the museum; </li></ul><ul><li>The possibility to create an emotional map using students ’ traces for future visitors. </li></ul>
  66. 75. Future directions In the very near future mobile and ubiquitous facilities will play a more and more important role in heritage. Mobile strategies will include education and interpretation. Consequently, more and more museums will adopt new interpreting strategies including mobile and ubiquitous learning, in addition with multisensory augmented experiences.
  67. 76. Acknowledgements If not specified, the source of images is: http://www.dreamstime.com/free-photos For EMMAP trials, I wish to thank the Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici delle Marche . I wish to express thanks to Comune di San Severino Marche . I also wish to express sincere thanks to Istituto Tecnico Industriale Statale “ Eustachio Divini ” . I wish to thank Istituzione Macerata Cultura Biblioteca e Musei I also wish to express sincere thanks to Licenze Poetiche and ADAM Accademia delle Arti Macerata I wish to thank Professor Tommaso Leo for being my supervisor, for his guidance, for his brilliant advice I also thank my Ph.D. colleagues
  68. 77. <ul><li>Grazie </li></ul><ul><li>dell’attenzione </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>www.giulianaguazzaroni.net </li></ul>
  69. 78. <ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li>Answers </li></ul>