Income Statement Basics


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This brief presentation provides students with an introduction to, and overview of, the income statement

Published in: Business, Technology

Income Statement Basics

  1. 1. Income Statement Basics
  2. 2. The Income Statement A historical record of the trading of a business over a specific period (normally one year) Shows the profit or loss made by the business – which is the difference between the firm’s total income and its total costs
  3. 3. Example income statement
  4. 4. Revenue, Cost of Sales & Gross Profit Category Explanation Revenue Revenues (sales) during the period. Sometimes referred to as the “top line” Cost of sales Direct costs of generating revenues go into “cost of sales”. Includes the cost of raw materials, components, goods bought for resale and the direct labour costs of production Gross profit The difference between revenue and cost of sales. A simple but very useful measure of how much profit is generated from every £1 of revenue before overheads and other expenses are taken into account. Is used to calculate the gross profit margin (%)
  5. 5. Overheads and Operating Profit Category Explanation Distribution & administration expenses Operating costs and expenses that are not directly related to producing the goods or services are recorded here Includes distribution costs (e.g. marketing, transport) and the wide range of administrative expenses or overheads that a business incurs Operating profit A key measure of profit. Operating profit records how much profit has been made in total from the trading activities of the business before account is taken of how the business is financed
  6. 6. Net profit Finance expenses Interest paid on bank and other borrowings, less interest income received on cash balances. A useful figure for shareholders to assess how much profit is being used up by the funding structure of the business Profit before tax Calculated as operating profit less finance expenses Tax An estimate of the amount of corporation tax that is likely to be payable on the recorded profit before tax Profit attributable to shareholders The amount of profit that is left after the tax has been accounted for. Shareholders then decide how much of this is paid out to them in dividends and how much is left in the business (“retained earnings” in the equity section of the balance sheet)
  7. 7. What is profit quality? Profit quality looks at whether the reported profit can be sustained
  8. 8. High v Low Quality Profit High quality profit Low quality profit Profit which can be repeated or sustained Not reliant on one-off profits Shareholders can have some confidence in the profit trend Difficult to repeat Includes one-off profits (e.g. from the sale of surplus assets or businesses) Shareholders need to adjust reported profit to assess what the likely profit is for next year
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