Nutrition in animals

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Nutrition in animals

  1. 1. Nutrition in Animals Nutrition – A basic need
  2. 2. Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne 1 Different types of Animals – A brief Introduction • 1.1 Flowchart • 1.2 Food Intake 2 The food chain 3 Nutrition Based Division of Animals • 3.1 Nutrition Based Division of Animals 4 Why do animals require nutrition? • 4.1 Balanced diet • 4.1.1 Obesity • 4.1.2 Malnourishment • 4.2 Essential Nutrition 5 The digestive system • 5.1 Digestion • 5.2 Continuation Contents 2
  3. 3. 6 Modes of Digestion • 6.1 Intracellular Digestion • 6.2 Extracellular Digestion • 6.3 Digestive Systems in Different Animals • 6.3.1 AVES • 6.3.2 MOLLUSCA 7 Nutrition • 7.1 Nutrition and digestion chart 8 Modes of Nutrition • 8.1 Autotrophic mode of nutrition • 8.2 Heterotrophic mode of nutrition • 8.3 Examples • 8.4 Composition 9 Conclusion Thank you Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne 3
  4. 4. 1Different types of Animals – A brief Introduction Animalia Reptilia Mammalia Nematoda Arthropoda Mollusca Amphibia Aves Pisces Porifera Nutrition in Animals – Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne 1.1Flowchart Fig 1.1 4
  5. 5. 1.2 Food Intake • Bacteria • PlanktonPorifera • Insects • Other insectsArthropoda • Meat • VegetablesMammalia • Chicken • WaxwormsReptilia Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne 5
  6. 6. • Bug larvae • BacteriaNematode • Small Animals • AlgaeMollusca • Other Fish • PlanktonPisces • Worms • Small AnimalsAves • Worms • FliesAmphibia Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne 6
  7. 7. 2 The food chain Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne Fig 2.1 7
  8. 8. 3 Nutrition Based Division of Animals • Animals eat whenever they get the opportunity. • The categories of their diets are : Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne Animals Omnivores Ex : Humans Herbivores Ex : Cows Carnivores Ex : Bengal tiger 8
  9. 9. 3.1 Nutrition Based Division of Animals Ex : Humans, Bears, RaccoonsOmnivores • Omnivores are animals that eat both plants and animals or even algal matter Ex : Cows, Hares, GorillasHerbivores • They are animals that mainly eat autotrophs, i.e. Plants Ex : Sharks, Snakes, Lions, TigersCarnivores • They are animals that eat other animals and meat Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne 9
  10. 10. 4 Why do animals require nutrition? • Animals are heterotrophs that require food for various reasons. Three of them are : Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne Chemical EnergyFuel • The cells in the body require energy to work. Nutrition provides the energy required for cellular action to take place. BiosynthesisBone Growth • Bone cells grow rapidly during the growth of an animal. Nutrition provides energy for Biosynthesis in which the carbon cells make new cells. Ready-made formNutrients • Animals cannot make all the nutrients required all by itself using raw materials. These nutrients are fed to the animal in a readymade form. 10
  11. 11. 4.1 Balanced diet • It is important to consume the right amount of nutrition or calories. • Consuming too much can lead to Obesity. • Consuming calories less than the required amount can lead to Malnourishment. Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne 11
  12. 12. 4.1.1 Obesity • Obesity is the result of excessive consumption of Nutrients or calories, especially fats and cholesterol. • Obesity is a growing problem in Humans. It is important to control it for a healthy living. • Instead of using the excessive fat cells, the body stores it. Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne 12 Fig 4.1 Obese lab rats
  13. 13. 4.1.2 Malnourishment • Malnourishment is the result of deficiency of calories • It is important to consume enough nutrition for the body to function properly. Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne 13
  14. 14. 4.2 Essential Nutrition Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne Fig 4.1 14
  15. 15. 5 The digestive system • Digestion begins in the mouth where food is chewed with the teeth. The process stimulates exocrine glands in the mouth to release digestive enzymes such as salivary amylase, which aid in the breakdown of food, particularly carbohydrates. Chewing also causes the release of saliva, which helps condense food into a bolus that can be easily passed through the oesophagus. Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne 5.1 Digestion Fig 5.1 15
  16. 16. 5.2 Continuation • The food enters the stomach upon passage through the cardiac sphincter. In the stomach, food is churned and thoroughly mixed with a digestive fluid, composed chiefly of hydrochloric acid, pepsin and mucus ,to further decompose it chemically for a few hours. As the acidic level changes in the stomach and later parts of the digestive tract, more enzymes are activated or deactivated to extract and process various nutrients. Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne Fig 5.2 16
  17. 17. 6 Modes of Digestion Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne 6.1 Intracellular Digestion Intracellular Digestion takes place in the cytoplasm of an organism. This type of nutrition is observed in Amoeba and Paramecium Fig 6.1 17
  18. 18. 6.2 Extracellular Digestion • In this type of digestion, digestion takes place outside the cell. • It takes place either in the lumen of the digestive system or the gastric cavity or other digestive organs, or even outside the body • It is found in annelids, arthropods and vertebrates Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne Fig 6.2 18
  19. 19. 6.3 Digestive Systems in Different Animals • 6.3.1 AVES • Birds have no teeth so digestion does not begin in the mouth, all of the food breakdown must occur within the digestive system. Food enters through the mouth where it passes down the oesophagus into the crop. This organ is where the food is stored and begins to soften. From here it moves into the stomach, which churns the food and makes it more simpler to digest. • The food moves into the intestine, first into the small intestine and then onto the large intestine. At the point where the small and large intestine meet are two pouches or caeca, which absorb the water from the food. The food becomes harder and enters into a chamber called the cloaca. It then passes out of the body through a lining called proventriculus. Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne Fig 6.3 19
  20. 20. 6.3.2 MOLLUSCA • The mollusc digestive system has millions of microscopic hair like fibres along the main digestive tract and has several divisions for the different organs. The first section contains the mouth and oesophagus and is the site of the initial breakdown of food. There is a specialised file like radula found in the mouth, which acts like teeth or a tongue in the food breakdown. In many molluscs the stomach has a flexible rod, which is made up of mucus and proteins in a crystalline structure. This secretes the digestive juices and enzymes and acts as a kind of stirring stick, mixing up the stomach contents to aid digestion. The final section of the digestive tract contains the intestine and anus, from which the waste is removed. Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne Fig 6.5 20
  21. 21. 7 Nutrition • There are six major classes of nutrients carbohydrates, fats, minerals, proteins, vitamins, and water. • Nutrition is the process of breaking down food and substances taken in by the mouth to use for energy in the body. • All these components are essential for living animals for their everyday work Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne Fig 7.1 Nutrition sources 21
  22. 22. 7.1 Nutrition and digestion chart Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne 22
  23. 23. 8 Modes of Nutrition • Modes of nutrition mean methods of procuring food or obtaining food by an organism. • All the organisms do not obtain their food in the same way. • Different organisms have different methods of procuring food or obtaining food. In other words, organisms differ in their modes of nutrition Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne Mode of nutrition Autotrophic Heterotrophic 23
  24. 24. 8.1 Autotrophic mode of nutrition Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne • In autotrophic nutrition, the organism synthesizes its own food from the inorganic raw materials like carbon dioxide and water present in the surroundings by using the sunlight energy. • Organic material (food) is made from inorganic materials like carbon dioxide and water by utilizing the sunlight energy. The green plants have an autotrophic mode of nutrition. The autotrophic bacteria also obtain their food by the autotrophic mode of nutrition (though most bacteria are not autotrophic). The organisms having autotrophic mode of nutrition are called autotrophic organisms or just autotrophs. • Those organisms which can make their own food from carbon dioxide and water are called autotrophs. 24
  25. 25. 8.2 Heterotrophic mode of nutrition • In heterotrophic nutrition, the organism cannot make its own food from the inorganic raw materials like carbon dioxide and water, and uses the food made by autotrophic organisms directly or indirectly. Heterotrophic nutrition is that mode of nutrition in which an organism cannot make its own food from simple inorganic materials like carbon dioxide and water, and depends on other organisms for its food. • A heterotrophic organism is a consumer which derives its nutrition from other organisms. That is, a heterotrophic organism has to eat other organisms for its nutrition. All the animals have a heterotrophic mode of nutrition. Most bacteria and fungi also have heterotrophic mode of nutrition. The organisms having heterotrophic mode of nutrition are called heterotrophic organisms or just heterotrophs. • Those organisms which cannot make their own food from inorganic substances like carbon dioxide and water, and depend on other organisms for their food are called heterotrophs. Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne 25
  26. 26. 8.3 Examples Autotrophs Heterotrophs Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne Fig 8.3 26
  27. 27. 8.4 Composition 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Fats Protein Carbohydrate Other Nutrition composition in a regular diet Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne 27
  28. 28. 9 Conclusion • There is a diversity in animals and each type of animal intakes different type of food to satisfy their nutrition requirements. • Not all animals gain nutrition from the same source. • Different animals require nutrition in Various amounts. • Therefore, Animal Nutrition is a basic need. Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne 28
  29. 29. Nutrition in Animals - Jaideep Nalwade , Prathamesh Chavan and Nimish Tembhurne 29

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