Module 3 Using Linux Softwares.

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Sep. 14, 2013

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Module 3 Using Linux Softwares.

  1. Module-3 Linux Softwares and UseModule-3 Linux Softwares and Use Tushar B Kute
  2. Other: •Ubuntu •Mandriva •SuSE The right Linux desktop There are two major desktops in the Linux world: GNOME and KDE. Other are: Xmonad, Xfce, Xubuntu
  3. A Web browser: Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome Email: Mozilla Thunderbird Word processor : Writer Presentation program : Impress
  4. Default Fedora Desktop The default desktop has three distinct areas. From top to bottom, the areas are: The menu panel The desktop area The window list panel
  5. The Desktop AreaThe Desktop Area ● Computer - This contains all volumes (or disks) mounted on the computer. These are also listed in the Places menu. Computer is equivalent to My Computer on Microsoft Windows. ● Home - This is where the logged-in user stores all files by default, such as music, movies, and documents. There is a different home directory for each user, and by default users cannot access each others' home directories. Home is equivalent to My Documents on Microsoft Windows. ● Trash - Deleted files are moved to Trash. Empty Trash by right-clicking the icon and clicking Empty Trash.
  6. OfficeOffice SoftwareSoftware word processor, spreadsheet, presentation and database application
  7. Calc
  8. Writer
  9. Impress
  10. Web Browser:Web Browser: Firefox
  11. OOo Draw:OOo Draw: Drawing
  12. Other software installedOther software installed ● vlc media player. ● qmmp audio player. ● Cheese. ● Inkscape ● Gimp ● K3b ● Wine ● Latex ● Gambas ● Kazam
  13. Terminal Window 4 MONITORS
  14. Linux text-based interfaceLinux text-based interface command to show the content of current directory command to show the content of current directory with option -al The prompt $ shows that bash shell is using All LINUX commands start with the name of the command and can be followed by options and arguments.
  15. Linux ShellLinux Shell  Shell interprets the command and request service from kernel  Similar to DOS but DOS has only one set of interface while Linux can select different shell – Bourne Again shell (Bash), TC shell (Tcsh), Z shell (Zsh) Kernel Bash, Tcsh, Zsh ls pwd whoami  Different shell has similar but different functionality  Bash is the default for Linux  Graphical user interface of Linux is in fact an application program work on the shell
  16. File managementFile management
  17. Directory TreeDirectory Tree (root) When you log on the the Linux OS using your username you are automatically located in your home directory.
  18. The most important subdirectoriesThe most important subdirectories inside the root directory are:inside the root directory are: ● /bin : Important Linux commands available to the average user. ● /boot : The files necessary for the system to boot. Not all Linux distributions use this one. Fedora does. ● /dev : All device drivers. Device drivers are the files that your Linux system uses to talk to your hardware. For example, there's a file in the /dev directory for your particular make and model of monitor, and all of your Linux computer's communications with the monitor go through that file. ● /etc : System configuration files. ● /home : Every user except root gets her own folder in here, named for her login account. So, the user who logs in with linda has the directory /home/linda, where all of her personal files are kept. ● /lib : System libraries. Libraries are just bunches of programming code that the programs on your system use to get things done.
  19. The most important subdirectoriesThe most important subdirectories inside the root directory are:inside the root directory are: ● /mnt : Mount points. When you temporarily load the contents of a CD-ROM or USB drive, you typically use a special name under /mnt. For example, many distributions (including Fedora) come, by default, with the directory /mnt/cdrom, which is where your CD-ROM drive's contents are made accessible. ● /root : The root user's home directory. ● /sbin : Essential commands that are only for the system administrator. ● /tmp : Temporary files and storage space. Don't put anything in here that you want to keep. Most Linux distributions (including Fedora) are set up to delete any file that's been in this directory longer than three days. ● /usr : Programs and data that can be shared across many systems and don't need to be changed. ● /var : Data that changes constantly (log files that contain information about what's happening on your system, data on its way to the printer, and so on).
  20. Home directoryHome directory ● You can see what your home directory is called by entering • pwd (print current working directory)
  21. Commands: / (root directory) /root – home directory of the user root pwd – you can see your home directory df – to see disk space available cd – to change to different directory or to go back to home dir .. - move to parent directory ls – list the contents of a directory; Options: -l (more info) -a (displays hidden files) -t (sort by time) -r (oldest first) Example: ls –ltr : display an long list of files that are sorted by time, display the oldest ones first Some of the basic commands you should learn are the ones that help you navigate the file system.
  22. cp : copy one file to another rm : remove a file man : ask for the manual (or help) of a command e.g. man cd ask for the manual of the command cd cat : to show the content of a text file e.g. cat abc.txt show the content of abc.txt whoami : to show the username of the current user Directory is denoted by a / (slash) character Executable program by a * Hidden file preceded by a . (dot)
  23. Names in blue are directories, indicated by a letter d at the beginning of the line The concept of simple file and directory is similar to DOS
  24. Text editorsText editors 1. Emacs 2. VI editor 3. gedit Advanced editorsAdvanced editors 1. Netbeans. 2. Eclipse.
  25. One way to install: Package Install tool Go to "System->Administration->Synaptic Package Manager" 1. Put the keyword in the "Quick Search" Box 2. Click "Search" 3. Browse and look for the software package 4. Right click it and Select "Mark for Installation" 5. Click the button "Apply" It looks for the packages on the Ubuntu Repository server and download, install, configure the software automatically for you. i.e. Try to install wireshark
  26. Another way to install: Binary Install Look for the software on the Internet Download the prebuilt binary Follow the installation instructions if it is .deb package, double click and install it if it is a self-extrating package, make it executable and run it Try to install chrome browser
  27. One more way: Command Line There is a command for install the package: "apt-get" • Open a terminal window Click "Applications->Accessories->Terminal" • Search a package and get the package name Type on the terminal "apt-cache search xxxxx | more" Notes: press "Space bar" to display next page • Install a package from Internet Type the command "sudo apt-get install xxxx" Notes: You may be asked to your login password You also may be asked "Y/N" for confirmation i.e. Try to install gdb, Java, etc.
  28. The last way to install Download the source code Compile and install it, using the command "make install" That's how you programmed and executed it.
  29. != Linux is Not WindowsLinux is Not Windows Problem #1: Linux isn't exactly the same as Windows. Problem #2: Linux is too different from Windows Problem #3: Culture shock
  30. This presentation is created using LibreOffice Writer available freely under GNU public license. Thank you