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Introduction to computers


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The presentation given at MSBTE sponsored content updating program on 'PC Maintenance and Troubleshooting' for Diploma Engineering teachers of Maharashtra.
Venue: Government Polytechnic, Nashik
Date: 17/01/2011
Session-1: Introduction to Computers.

Published in: Education, Technology
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Introduction to computers

  1. 1. Introduction to Computers Tushar B Kute, Department of Information Technology, Sandip Institute of Technology & Research Centre, Nashik.
  2. 2. <ul><li>How is a computer defined? </li></ul>What is a Computer? <ul><ul><li>Electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory </li></ul></ul> <ul><ul><ul><li>Produces and stores results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Processes data into information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data that is organized, meaningful, and useful </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accepts data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raw facts, figures, and symbols </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What is a Computer? <ul><li>What is the information processing cycle ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Components of a Computer <ul><li>What is an input device ? </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to enter data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and instructions </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Components of a Computer <ul><li>What is an output device ? </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conveys information to one or more people </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Components of a Computer <ul><li>What is the system unit ? </li></ul><ul><li>Case </li></ul><ul><ul><li>containing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>electronic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used to process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>data </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Components of a Computer <ul><li>What are two main components on the motherboard? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Processing Unit (CPU) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also called a processor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The electronic component that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those instructions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Components of a Computer <ul><li>What is storage? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical material on which data, instructions, and information are stored </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Records and retrieves items to and from a storage medium </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds data, instructions, and information for future use </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Components of a Computer <ul><li>What is storage media ? </li></ul>Digital cameras Handheld computers <ul><ul><li>Portable, thin memory cards used in: </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Components of a Computer <ul><li>What is a floppy disk? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin, circular, flexible disk enclosed in rigid plastic shell </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Components of a Computer <ul><li>What is a USB flash drive? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides much greater storage capacity than a floppy disk or Zip ® disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small and lightweight enough to be transported on a keychain or in a pocket </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Components of a Computer <ul><li>What is a hard disk? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides greater storage capacity than a floppy disk, Zip disk, or USB flash drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are housed inside of the system unit </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Components of a Computer <ul><li>What is a compact disc? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat, round, portable metal disc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DVD-ROM </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Components of a Computer <ul><li>What is a communications device ? </li></ul>Hardware component that enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and information Occurs over cables, telephone lines, cellular radio networks, satellites, and other transmission media
  15. 15. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Computers <ul><li>What are the advantages of using computers? </li></ul> Storage Communications Speed Reliability Consistency
  16. 16. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Computers <ul><li>What are the disadvantages of using computers? </li></ul>Violation of Privacy Impact on Environment Impact on Labor Force Health Risks
  17. 17. Categories of Computers What are the categories of computers? Personal Computers (desktop) Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices Midrange Servers Mainframes Supercomputers Embedded Computers
  18. 18. Personal Computers <ul><li>What are the two most popular series of personal computers ? </li></ul> <ul><li>PC and compatibles use the Windows operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Apple Macintosh uses the Macintosh operating system (Mac OS) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Personal Computers <ul><li>What is a desktop computer ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed so all of the components fit entirely on or under a desk or table </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices <ul><li>What is a notebook computer ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portable, small enough to fit on your lap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called a laptop computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally more expensive than a desktop computer </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices <ul><li>What is a Tablet PC ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially useful for taking notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resembles a letter-sized slate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows you to write on the screen using a digital pen </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices <ul><li>What are mobile devices ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small enough to carry in a pocket </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet-enabled telephone is a “smart phone” </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices <ul><li>What is a handheld computer ? </li></ul> Used by mobile employees such as meter readers and delivery people Small enough to fit in one hand
  24. 24. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices <ul><li>What is a personal digital assistant (PDA) ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides personal organizer functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calendar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appointment book </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Address book </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calculator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notepad </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices <ul><li>What are smart phones and smart watches ? </li></ul> A smart watch is an Internet-enabled watch that automatically adjusts to time zone changes and stores personal information A smart phone is an Internet-enabled telephone that usually provides PDA capabilities
  26. 26. Servers <ul><li>What types of servers are there? </li></ul>Midrange server Powerful, large computer that supports up to a few thousand computers Mainframe Very powerful, expensive computer that supports thousands of computers Supercomputer The fastest, most powerful, most expensive computer. Used for applications requiring complex mathematical calculations
  27. 27. Embedded Computers <ul><li>What is an embedded computer ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A special-purpose computer that functions as a component in a larger product </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Desktop Microcomputer <ul><li>A microcomputer that fits on a desk and runs on power from an electrical wall outlet. </li></ul><ul><li>The CPU can be housed in either a vertical or a horizontal case. </li></ul><ul><li>Has separate components (keyboard, mouse, etc.) that are each plugged into the computer. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Laptop Computer <ul><li>A portable, compact computer that can run on an electrical wall outlet or a battery unit. </li></ul><ul><li>All components (keyboard, mouse, etc.) are in one compact unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually more expensive than a comparable desktop. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes called a Notebook. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Mainframe Computer <ul><li>Large expensive computer capable of simultaneously processing data for hundreds or thousands of users. </li></ul><ul><li>Used to store, manage, and process large amounts of data that need to be reliable, secure, and centralized. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually housed in a closet sized cabinet. </li></ul>
  31. 31. MiniComputers <ul><li>Mostly built between 1963 and 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller and less powerful than a mainframe, typically about the size and shape of a wardrobe, mounted in a single tall rack. </li></ul><ul><li>Were often used in applications such as industrial control, permanently assigned to one application. </li></ul><ul><li>These days they have been largely replaced by PCs. </li></ul>
  32. 32. History of Computers
  33. 33. Pre-Mechanical Computing <ul><li>From Counting on fingers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to hash marks in sand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to pebbles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to hash marks on walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to hash marks on bone </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Mechanical computers <ul><li>From The Abacus c. 4000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>to Charles Babbage and his Difference Engine (1812 CE) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Mechanical computers: The Abacus (c. 4000 BCE) Abacus The earliest device that qualifies as a computer is the abacus. The abacus was invented 5,000 years ago in Asia Minor and is still in use today. This device allows user to calculate, by sliding beads arrangement on rack.
  36. 36. Napier’s Bones and Logarithms (1617)
  37. 37. Oughtred’s (1621) and Schickard‘s (1623) slide rule
  38. 38. Blaise Pascal’s Pascaline (1645) Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) In 1642 Blaise Pascal, the 18 year old son of a French tax collector, invented a numerical wheel calculator to help his father in calculation. This device was known as “Pascaline” and was only able to add two numbers.
  39. 39. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibnitz’s Stepped Reckoner (1674) <ul><li>Invented by a German Baron, Gottfried von Leibnitz. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed through Pascal’s ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>It can add, subtract, divide and multiply. </li></ul><ul><li>Square roots are performed by series of stepped additions. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Joseph-Marie Jacquard and his punched card controlled looms (1804)
  41. 41. Preparing the cards with the pattern for the cloth to be woven
  42. 42. Charles Babbage (1791-1871) The Father of Computers Charles Babbage (1791-1871) An English mathematician, Professor Charles Babbage made a “difference Engine” in 1833, which was powered by steam to solve mathematical equations. After 10 years, in 1842, he made a general purpose computer named “Analytical Engine”. This analytical engine could add, subtract, multiply and divide in automatic sequence at a rate of 60 additions per second.
  43. 43. Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine
  44. 44. Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine
  45. 45. Lady Augusta Ada Countess of Lovelace Lady Ada Augusta Lovelace (1816-1852) Lady Ada Augusta Lovelace was an English woman. Charles Babbage was her ideal. She studied and translated his works, adding her extensive footnotes. She was called as a first programmer because of her suggestion that punched cards could be prepared to instruct Babbage’s engine to repeat certain operations.
  46. 46. Electro-mechanical computers <ul><li>From Herman Hollerith’s 1890 Census Counting Machine </li></ul><ul><li>to Howard Aiken and the Harvard Mark I (1944) </li></ul>
  47. 47. Herman Hollerith and his Census Tabulating Machine (1884) Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) In 1890, an American Herman Hollerith applied the idea of punchboards in the form of punch cards in computers for input and output. He invented a punched card tabulating machine.
  48. 48. A closer look at the Census Tabulating Machine
  49. 49. The Harvard Mark I (1944) aka IBM’s Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC)
  50. 50. Electronic digital computers <ul><li>From John Vincent Atanasoff’s 1939 Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) </li></ul><ul><li>to the present day </li></ul>
  51. 51. John von Neumann <ul><li>Designed the Von Neumann Computer Architecture, which is still used in today’s computers. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Allen Turing (1912-1954) The Turing Machine Aka The Universal Machine 1936
  53. 53. John Vincent Atanasoff (1903-1995) Physics Prof at Iowa State University, Ames, IA
  54. 54. Clifford Berry (1918-1963) PhD student of Dr. Atanasoff’s
  55. 55. 1939: The Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC)
  56. 56. 1943: Bletchley Park’s Colossus The Enigma Machine
  57. 57. 1946: The ENIAC John Presper Eckert (1919-1995) and John Mauchly (1907-1980) of the University of Pennsylvania Moore School of Engineering
  58. 58. The ENIAC: Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was made by Dr. John W. Mauchly collaborated with J. Presper Eckert, Jr. at the University of Pennsylvania. It was 1000 times faster than Mark I. It occupied 15000 square feet of floor spacing and weighs 30 tons. The ENIAC could do 5000 additions per minute. John Von Neumann designed the EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer).
  59. 59. EDVAC <ul><ul><li>Proposed by Mauchly and Eckert in August 1944. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stands for Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its conceptual design was completed by 1946 but it became fully operational by 1952. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contained approximately 4000 vacuum tubes and 10,000 crystal diodes. </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. UNIVAC <ul><ul><li>First commercially available computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stands for Universal Automatic Computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was based on the EDVAC design. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The development started on 1948 and the first unit was delivered on 1951, which therefore predates EDVAC’s becoming fully operational. </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Generations of Computers <ul><li>A term which refers to the different advancements of computer technology characterized by the way computers operate resulting to miniaturization , speed , power , and proportionally increased memory . </li></ul>
  62. 62. 1 st Generation (1940 – 1956) <ul><li>Computers are huge , slow , expensive , and often undependable . </li></ul><ul><li>They used vacuum tubes for circuitry. </li></ul><ul><li>They used magnetic drums for memory. </li></ul>
  63. 63. 2 nd Generation (1956 – 1963) <ul><li>Transistors (1947) were already used and replaced vacuum tubes. </li></ul><ul><li>Transistors allow computers to become smaller , faster , cheaper , more energy-efficient , and more reliable . </li></ul><ul><li>One transistor is equivalent to 40 vacuum tubes. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat generation problem that could inflict damage to computer is still existing. </li></ul>
  64. 64. 3 rd Generation (1964 – 1971) <ul><li>The emergence of integrated circuits was the hallmark of the 3 rd generation of computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer’s speed drastically increased as well as its efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Computers became accessible to the mass since it is smaller and cheaper. </li></ul>
  65. 65. 4 th Generation (1971 – Present) <ul><li>The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. </li></ul><ul><li>Computers are now very small. </li></ul><ul><li>Microprocessors was intended for calculators but applied to computers later. </li></ul><ul><li>Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs), mouse and handheld devices are introduced. </li></ul>
  66. 66. 5 th Generation (Present and Beyond) <ul><li>Artificial Intelligence is still under development although voice recognition are being used today. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum computation, and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and capable of learning and self-organization. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Thank You