SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 49
WELCOME
COLLEGE OF NURSING WANLESS HOSPITAL-
MIRAJ
SUBJECT: ADVANCED NURSING PRACTICE
TOPIC:APPLICATION OF EPIDEMIOLOGY IN
HEALTH CARE DELIVERY, HEALTH
SURVELLIANCE AND HEALTH INFORMATICS
PRESENTED BY:
MR.TUSHAR KEDAR
MSc (N)
APPLICATION OF EPIDEMIOLOGY IN HEALTH
CARE DELIVERY, HEALTH SURVELLIANCE AND
HEALTH INFORMATICS
Introduction:
 The ultimate goals of health care services are
to promote and protect health, to alleviate and
minimize suffering and disabilities and regain
health so as to lead socially useful and
economically productive life.
There are three major level of prevention
Primary prevention
Secondary prevention
 Tertiary prevention
PRIMARY PREVENTION:
“primary prevention can be defined as
“action taken prior to the onset of disease,
which removes the possibility that disease
will ever occur”.
The specific intervention are:
Health promotion
Specific protection
HEALTH PROMOTION
Improve the environment and favor healthy
living.
The health promotion activities are
summarized below:
health education
good standard of nutrition adjusted to
developmental stage of life
attention to personality development
provision of adequate housing and
recreation and agreeable working
CONT…
marriage and sex education
genetic screening
periodic selective
examination
SPECIFIC PREVENTION
 protection individual against specific
agents
e.g. immunization against
poliomyelitis, or pasteurization of milk or
chlorination of water.
The activities of specific protection will
include:
Use of specific immunization, e.g.
vaccination.
Attention to personal hygiene for self-care.
Use of environmental sanitation,
Use of specific nutrients.
Protection from carcinogens.
Avoidance of allergens.
Protection against occupational hazards
SECONDARY PREVENTION:
 “Secondary prevention focuses on the
individuals who are experiencing health
problems or illnesses and who are at risk
for developing complication.”
 The objective of secondary preventive
measures are :
 Early diagnosis and treatment
 Disability limitation:
Early diagnosis and treatment:
 Case finding measures: individuals and
mass.
 Screening surveys.
 Selective examination
 Cure and prevention of communicable
diseases and complication
Disability limitation:
 Adequate treatment to arrest disease process
and prevent complications.
 Provision of facilities to limit disability and
prevent death.
TERTIARY PREVENTION
 Tertiary prevention occurs when a defect or
disability is permanent.
Here the activities of restoration and
rehabilitation will include :
 provision of hospital and community
facilities
 Selective placement.
 Work therapy and hospital
Implication of epidemiology in community
health nursing
Essential to nursing practice.
 Epidemiology methods used in the study of
disease causation and the body of
knowledge arises
Epidemiology is a tool in conducting the
investigation to evaluate and explain
phenomena
As tools for assessing community needs and
evaluating the impact of community health
programmes
CONT....
 Epidemiological knowledge provides a
framework for planning and evaluating
community intervention programmes
for assessing individual and family health
needs and for planning nursing
interventions.
HEALTH SURVEILLEANCE:
Introduction
The surveillance means supervision or
close watch especially on suspected
person.
It involves identification of missed and
suspected cases and contacts, their
conformation by source of infection and
channel of transmission.
The epidemiological surveillance can be
done at the following levels
INDIVIDUAL / FAMILY SURVEILLANCE
It includes surveillance of an infected
person in a family as long as the individual
is the source of infection to other e.g.
typhoid case carriers.
Cont…
COMMUNITY / LOCAL POPULATION
SURVEILLANCE
It include surveillance of the whole
community for early detection and
prevention and control of disease
e.g. malaria.
NATIONAL SURVEILLANCE
 It include surveillance at the national level
e.g. surveillance of small pox after its
eradication.
INTERNATIONAL SURVEILLANCE:
 It include surveillance of some of the
diseases which are listed by WHO e.g.
malaria, influenza, filaria and polio etc. and
are to be reported to WHO which then
provides information to the countries in the
world to take timely actions.
SURVEILLANCE PROCESS:
 Surveillance is the systematic process .
The main steps involved are:
 Collection of relevant information about the
disease
 Effectiveness of surveillance system
depends upon identification of cases,
collection of relevant information about
disease, their recording and reporting.
 It may be easier to find some diseases and
may be difficult to identify some other.
because of this difficulty no single method
can be adopted for surveillance of all
 THE VARIOUS METHODS OF
SURVEILLANCE ARE AS UNDER:
Routine reporting of cases and death
recorded:
 To maintain record reported in their
outpatient departments and clinics.
i.e. address ,diagnosis date of onset
and remark
 The practice of recording of cases under
the routine reporting system is called as
passive surveillance
CONT…
ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE:
 The type of cases who have not been
recorded under the routine system
 It is done by health workers and
community people e.g. surveillance of
malaria or tuberculosis cases.
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS:
 when there is sudden outbreak of any
disease and when a communicable
disease which has never occurred now.
SENTINEL CENTERS
 Sentinel centers are those hospital, health
centers, laboratories etc. which are
identified for collecting information for
selected diseases.
 The information is collected complied and
forwarded to higher action and for making
future plans and policies.
SPECIAL SAMPLE SURVEY:
 There are different sample of survey but
the survey by cluster sampling technique is
recommended by the WHO.
 The target population , the sample size
vary from disease to disease
e.g. the target population for
poliomyelitis is 5-9 years for diarrhea 0-4
years ,
CONT….
REPORTING OF DATA AND PROVIDING
FEEDBACK:
 once the data is analyzed a report is to be
prepared in the format prescribed by the
authority
 The report is sent regularly for each
reporting period.
 The report should be complete
 If there is nil information , it should be
reported.
 If some information is missed or received
late, it should be included in the next
reporting period
 feedback should be given to all the
members of health team as to how the
data are used which are collected by them
and reported through regular meetings and
when desired by anyone.
 Introduction:
Health information system is an integral
part of the national health system
Definition:
“A mechanism for the collection
,processing analysis and transmission of
information required for organizing and
operating health service and also for
research and training.”
OBJECTIVES
 To provide reliable , up to date , adequate ,
timely and reasonably complete
information
 To share technical and scientific
information
 To provide periodic intervals the data that
will show the general performance of the
health services.
Requirements to be satisfied by health
information system:
 The system should be population based
 The system should avoid the unnecessary
data
 The system should be problem oriented.
 Express information briefly and
imaginatively
(e.g. tables, charts, percentage)
 The system should make provision for
feedback of data
 COMPONENTS OF
SYSTEM :
 Demography and vital events
 Environmental health statistics
 Health status ;mortality ; morbidity ;
disability and quality ,of life
 Health resources ;facilities
 Utilization and non-utilization of health
services ;attendance ,admission waiting
list.
 USES OF HEALTH INFORMATION
 To measure the health status of people
 For local national and international
comparison of health status
 For assessing the attitude and degree of
satisfaction of beneficiaries with the health
system.
 For research into particular problems of
health and disease
Sources of health informatics:
 CENSUS:.
 at regular intervals usually of 10 years.
 A census is process of collecting
,compiling and publishing demographic
,economic and social data
 The first regular census in India was taken
in 1881
 The supreme officer who directs ,guides
and operates the census
REGISTARION OF VITAL EVENTS:
 Registration of vital events
i.e. live births, deaths, fetal deaths,
marriages ,divorces, adoptions, legal
limitations, recognitions, annulments and
legal separations.
 The time event for registering the event of
birth is 14 days and that for deaths is 7
days.
SAMPLE REGISTRATION SYSTEM:
 SRS was initiated in mid-1960’s to provide
reliable estimates of births and death rates
at the national and state level.
 It is a Independence survey every 6
months by an investigator supervisor.
 This system is more reliable for information
on birth and death rate , age specific
fertility and mortality and mortality rates,
infant and adult mortality etc.
NOTIFICATION OF DISEASES:
 Focus on prevention and control of the
disease.
 Notification is also a valuable source of
morbidity data
 It covers only a small part of the total
sickness in the community
HOSPITAL RECORDS:
 hospital data constitute a basic primary
source of information about diseases
prevalent in the community.
 They provide information on only those
patients who seek medical care.
DISEASE REGISTERS
 Morbidity registers exist only for certain
diseases such as stroke, myocardial
infarction, cancer blindness, and
congenital defects.
 The useful information can be obtained
 provide useful data on morbidity
RECORD LINKAGE
 the process of bringing together records
relating to one individual the record
originating in different times or places.
 The events commonly recorded are birth ,
marriage death , hospital admission
 It has been applied only on a limited scale
e.g. measurement of morbidity, chronic
disease epidemiology
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE
 set up to report on the occurrence of new
cases and on efforts to control the
diseases.
E.g. immunization is performed.
 considerable morbidity and mortality data
for specific disease.
OTHER HEALTH SERVICE RECORDS
 These are hospital OPD, PHC and sub
center, MCH centers; school health
records diabetics and hypertensive clinics
etc.
For E.g. records in MCH centers provide
information about birth weight, height,
immunization disease specific mortality
and morbidity.
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH DATA
 provide data on various aspect of air water
and noise pollution; harmful food additives;
industrial toxicants etc.
 It is helpful identification and quantification
of a factors causative of diseases.
ROLE OF NURSE:
 The prevention and control of diseases at
various levels.
 The nurse participates in prevention and
control of communicable diseases .
 The nurse provide health education
 Investigates regarding frequency and
distribution and possible determinants and
analyzes the information collected.
 provides ongoing in-service training .
Cont.
 The nurse conducts studies to
determine risk factor leading to
infections.
 She participate in data collection , data
analysis ,planning, implementation and
evaluation.
 She also participates in national
programs
CONCLUSION:
 Epidemiology is very important to study in
order to find out the disease causation in
our country in an earlier stage and to find
proper solution for it. Epidemiology can be
well utilized by the health care
professionals to protect and saves the life
of people in our country.
SUMMERY:
 Today we discussed regarding the
levels of prevention , Epidemiological
surveillance level, surveillance process ,
health informatics definition, objective,
requirements to be satisfied by health
informatics system ,uses and sources of
health informatics system. I hope u
understood my presentation and use this
knowledge in clinical settings.
BIBLOGRAPHY:
 Basher SP, SY. khan, a concise textbook of advanced
nursing practice, Emmess medical publishers,
 S. kamalam, essentials in community health nursing
practice, jaypee brothers publication, 1st ed.2005,P.
555-9
 S.Soni, textbook of advanced nursing practice, jaypee
brother’s medical publishers,1st ed.P.228-6
 www.google.com
TOPIC:APPLICATION  OF  EPIDEMIOLOGY IN HEALTH CARE DELIVERY, HEALTH SURVELLIANCE AND HEALTH INFORMATICS
TOPIC:APPLICATION  OF  EPIDEMIOLOGY IN HEALTH CARE DELIVERY, HEALTH SURVELLIANCE AND HEALTH INFORMATICS

More Related Content

What's hot

Administration of nursing curriculum
Administration of nursing curriculumAdministration of nursing curriculum
Administration of nursing curriculum
Kavya Raju
 
Progressive Patient Care
Progressive Patient CareProgressive Patient Care
Progressive Patient Care
Nc Das
 
Nursing philosophies
Nursing philosophiesNursing philosophies
Nursing philosophies
Sandy Kaur
 

What's hot (20)

concept of faculty supervisor dual position
 concept of faculty supervisor dual position concept of faculty supervisor dual position
concept of faculty supervisor dual position
 
Distance education in nursing
Distance  education in nursingDistance  education in nursing
Distance education in nursing
 
Epidemiological approach
Epidemiological approachEpidemiological approach
Epidemiological approach
 
Administration of nursing curriculum
Administration of nursing curriculumAdministration of nursing curriculum
Administration of nursing curriculum
 
Innovations in nursing
Innovations in nursingInnovations in nursing
Innovations in nursing
 
Epidemiological approach and methods
Epidemiological approach and methodsEpidemiological approach and methods
Epidemiological approach and methods
 
Futuristic nursing
Futuristic nursingFuturistic nursing
Futuristic nursing
 
Master rotation plan
Master rotation planMaster rotation plan
Master rotation plan
 
Nursing education
Nursing educationNursing education
Nursing education
 
Oxygen insufficiency
Oxygen insufficiencyOxygen insufficiency
Oxygen insufficiency
 
Progressive Patient Care
Progressive Patient CareProgressive Patient Care
Progressive Patient Care
 
Current trends and issues in nursing education
Current trends and issues in nursing educationCurrent trends and issues in nursing education
Current trends and issues in nursing education
 
In service education
In service educationIn service education
In service education
 
Continuing Nursing Education
Continuing Nursing EducationContinuing Nursing Education
Continuing Nursing Education
 
Continuing education in nursing
Continuing education in nursingContinuing education in nursing
Continuing education in nursing
 
Nursing philosophies
Nursing philosophiesNursing philosophies
Nursing philosophies
 
Role of regulatory bodies
 Role of regulatory bodies Role of regulatory bodies
Role of regulatory bodies
 
Philosophy of nursing education
Philosophy of nursing educationPhilosophy of nursing education
Philosophy of nursing education
 
CURRENT TRENDS OF NURSING IN INDIA
CURRENT TRENDS OF NURSING IN INDIACURRENT TRENDS OF NURSING IN INDIA
CURRENT TRENDS OF NURSING IN INDIA
 
Curriculum research in Nursing
Curriculum research in NursingCurriculum research in Nursing
Curriculum research in Nursing
 

Similar to TOPIC:APPLICATION OF EPIDEMIOLOGY IN HEALTH CARE DELIVERY, HEALTH SURVELLIANCE AND HEALTH INFORMATICS

Chapter 19 Public Health InformaticsBrian Dixon PhDSaurabh .docx
Chapter 19 Public Health InformaticsBrian Dixon PhDSaurabh .docxChapter 19 Public Health InformaticsBrian Dixon PhDSaurabh .docx
Chapter 19 Public Health InformaticsBrian Dixon PhDSaurabh .docx
zebadiahsummers
 
Special techniques of disease control and preventions english
Special techniques of disease control and preventions   englishSpecial techniques of disease control and preventions   english
Special techniques of disease control and preventions english
MY STUDENT SUPPORT SYSTEM .
 

Similar to TOPIC:APPLICATION OF EPIDEMIOLOGY IN HEALTH CARE DELIVERY, HEALTH SURVELLIANCE AND HEALTH INFORMATICS (20)

Health survillence and informatics.pptx
Health survillence and informatics.pptxHealth survillence and informatics.pptx
Health survillence and informatics.pptx
 
Unit-IV Health Surveillance ANP m.sc I year.pptx
Unit-IV Health Surveillance ANP m.sc I year.pptxUnit-IV Health Surveillance ANP m.sc I year.pptx
Unit-IV Health Surveillance ANP m.sc I year.pptx
 
Health statisitic
Health statisiticHealth statisitic
Health statisitic
 
vital stastistics.docx
vital stastistics.docxvital stastistics.docx
vital stastistics.docx
 
Chapter 19 Public Health InformaticsBrian Dixon PhDSaurabh .docx
Chapter 19 Public Health InformaticsBrian Dixon PhDSaurabh .docxChapter 19 Public Health InformaticsBrian Dixon PhDSaurabh .docx
Chapter 19 Public Health InformaticsBrian Dixon PhDSaurabh .docx
 
Unit-V Health information system MHA II Semester.pptx
Unit-V Health information system MHA II Semester.pptxUnit-V Health information system MHA II Semester.pptx
Unit-V Health information system MHA II Semester.pptx
 
Surveillance & IDSP
Surveillance & IDSPSurveillance & IDSP
Surveillance & IDSP
 
EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PUBLIC HEALTH IN HEALTH SYSTEM MANAGEMENT
EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PUBLIC HEALTH IN HEALTH SYSTEM MANAGEMENTEPIDEMIOLOGY AND PUBLIC HEALTH IN HEALTH SYSTEM MANAGEMENT
EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PUBLIC HEALTH IN HEALTH SYSTEM MANAGEMENT
 
Surveilance
SurveilanceSurveilance
Surveilance
 
Chetan epidemiology
Chetan epidemiologyChetan epidemiology
Chetan epidemiology
 
Public Health Surveillance
Public Health SurveillancePublic Health Surveillance
Public Health Surveillance
 
Surveillance
SurveillanceSurveillance
Surveillance
 
Health care delivary system
Health care delivary systemHealth care delivary system
Health care delivary system
 
Special techniques of disease control and preventions english
Special techniques of disease control and preventions   englishSpecial techniques of disease control and preventions   english
Special techniques of disease control and preventions english
 
survalence.pptx
survalence.pptxsurvalence.pptx
survalence.pptx
 
Epidemiology
EpidemiologyEpidemiology
Epidemiology
 
Epidemiological Surveillance.pptx
Epidemiological Surveillance.pptxEpidemiological Surveillance.pptx
Epidemiological Surveillance.pptx
 
Surveilance
SurveilanceSurveilance
Surveilance
 
unit-iv application of epidemiology in health care delivery system (1).pptx
unit-iv application of epidemiology in health care delivery system (1).pptxunit-iv application of epidemiology in health care delivery system (1).pptx
unit-iv application of epidemiology in health care delivery system (1).pptx
 
Epidemiology ppt
Epidemiology pptEpidemiology ppt
Epidemiology ppt
 

More from tusharkedar2 (11)

Presentation on Accreditation
Presentation on AccreditationPresentation on Accreditation
Presentation on Accreditation
 
Seminar on health problem
Seminar on health problemSeminar on health problem
Seminar on health problem
 
disaster nursing
disaster nursingdisaster nursing
disaster nursing
 
Expanded and extended role of nurses
Expanded and extended role of nursesExpanded and extended role of nurses
Expanded and extended role of nurses
 
Rehabilitation ppt final
Rehabilitation ppt finalRehabilitation ppt final
Rehabilitation ppt final
 
Levels of health care ppt
Levels of health care pptLevels of health care ppt
Levels of health care ppt
 
Indigenous system of medicine
Indigenous system of medicineIndigenous system of medicine
Indigenous system of medicine
 
Family welfare services
Family welfare servicesFamily welfare services
Family welfare services
 
Information education and communication ppt (IEC)
Information education and communication ppt (IEC)Information education and communication ppt (IEC)
Information education and communication ppt (IEC)
 
Dorthy jonson ppt tk
Dorthy jonson ppt tkDorthy jonson ppt tk
Dorthy jonson ppt tk
 
Occupational health & Hazards
Occupational health & HazardsOccupational health & Hazards
Occupational health & Hazards
 

Recently uploaded

Sonia Journal club presentation (2).pptx
Sonia Journal club presentation (2).pptxSonia Journal club presentation (2).pptx
Sonia Journal club presentation (2).pptx
palsonia139
 
Connective Tissue II - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose Academics
Connective Tissue II - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose AcademicsConnective Tissue II - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose Academics
Connective Tissue II - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose Academics
MedicoseAcademics
 
Failure to thrive in neonates and infants + pediatric case.pptx
Failure to thrive in neonates and infants  + pediatric case.pptxFailure to thrive in neonates and infants  + pediatric case.pptx
Failure to thrive in neonates and infants + pediatric case.pptx
claviclebrown44
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Sonia Journal club presentation (2).pptx
Sonia Journal club presentation (2).pptxSonia Journal club presentation (2).pptx
Sonia Journal club presentation (2).pptx
 
Video capsule endoscopy (VCE ) in children
Video capsule endoscopy (VCE ) in childrenVideo capsule endoscopy (VCE ) in children
Video capsule endoscopy (VCE ) in children
 
Varicose Veins Treatment Aftercare Tips by Gokuldas Hospital
Varicose Veins Treatment Aftercare Tips by Gokuldas HospitalVaricose Veins Treatment Aftercare Tips by Gokuldas Hospital
Varicose Veins Treatment Aftercare Tips by Gokuldas Hospital
 
Overview on the Automatic pill identifier
Overview on the Automatic pill identifierOverview on the Automatic pill identifier
Overview on the Automatic pill identifier
 
Premium ℂall Girls In Mumbai👉 Dail ℂALL ME: 📞9833325238 📲 ℂall Richa VIP ℂall...
Premium ℂall Girls In Mumbai👉 Dail ℂALL ME: 📞9833325238 📲 ℂall Richa VIP ℂall...Premium ℂall Girls In Mumbai👉 Dail ℂALL ME: 📞9833325238 📲 ℂall Richa VIP ℂall...
Premium ℂall Girls In Mumbai👉 Dail ℂALL ME: 📞9833325238 📲 ℂall Richa VIP ℂall...
 
Connective Tissue II - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose Academics
Connective Tissue II - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose AcademicsConnective Tissue II - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose Academics
Connective Tissue II - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose Academics
 
The Clean Living Project Episode 24 - Subconscious
The Clean Living Project Episode 24 - SubconsciousThe Clean Living Project Episode 24 - Subconscious
The Clean Living Project Episode 24 - Subconscious
 
VIP Pune 7877925207 WhatsApp: Me All Time Serviℂe Available Day and Night
VIP Pune 7877925207 WhatsApp: Me All Time Serviℂe Available Day and NightVIP Pune 7877925207 WhatsApp: Me All Time Serviℂe Available Day and Night
VIP Pune 7877925207 WhatsApp: Me All Time Serviℂe Available Day and Night
 
Bangalore whatsapp Number Just VIP Brookefield 100% Genuine at your Door Step
Bangalore whatsapp Number Just VIP Brookefield 100% Genuine at your Door StepBangalore whatsapp Number Just VIP Brookefield 100% Genuine at your Door Step
Bangalore whatsapp Number Just VIP Brookefield 100% Genuine at your Door Step
 
Sell pmk powder cas 28578-16-7 from pmk supplier Telegram +85297504341
Sell pmk powder cas 28578-16-7 from pmk supplier Telegram +85297504341Sell pmk powder cas 28578-16-7 from pmk supplier Telegram +85297504341
Sell pmk powder cas 28578-16-7 from pmk supplier Telegram +85297504341
 
Failure to thrive in neonates and infants + pediatric case.pptx
Failure to thrive in neonates and infants  + pediatric case.pptxFailure to thrive in neonates and infants  + pediatric case.pptx
Failure to thrive in neonates and infants + pediatric case.pptx
 
Unveiling Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: exploring it's hidden depths
Unveiling Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: exploring it's hidden depthsUnveiling Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: exploring it's hidden depths
Unveiling Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: exploring it's hidden depths
 
Dermatome and myotome test & pathology.pdf
Dermatome and myotome test & pathology.pdfDermatome and myotome test & pathology.pdf
Dermatome and myotome test & pathology.pdf
 
Mgr university bsc nursing adult health previous question paper with answers
Mgr university  bsc nursing adult health previous question paper with answersMgr university  bsc nursing adult health previous question paper with answers
Mgr university bsc nursing adult health previous question paper with answers
 
Quality control tests of suppository ...
Quality control tests  of suppository ...Quality control tests  of suppository ...
Quality control tests of suppository ...
 
Vip ℂall Girls Shalimar Bagh Phone No 9999965857 High Profile ℂall Girl Delhi...
Vip ℂall Girls Shalimar Bagh Phone No 9999965857 High Profile ℂall Girl Delhi...Vip ℂall Girls Shalimar Bagh Phone No 9999965857 High Profile ℂall Girl Delhi...
Vip ℂall Girls Shalimar Bagh Phone No 9999965857 High Profile ℂall Girl Delhi...
 
Cas 28578-16-7 PMK ethyl glycidate ( new PMK powder) best suppler
Cas 28578-16-7 PMK ethyl glycidate ( new PMK powder) best supplerCas 28578-16-7 PMK ethyl glycidate ( new PMK powder) best suppler
Cas 28578-16-7 PMK ethyl glycidate ( new PMK powder) best suppler
 
Signs It’s Time for Physiotherapy Sessions Prioritizing Wellness
Signs It’s Time for Physiotherapy Sessions Prioritizing WellnessSigns It’s Time for Physiotherapy Sessions Prioritizing Wellness
Signs It’s Time for Physiotherapy Sessions Prioritizing Wellness
 
CONGENITAL HYPERTROPHIC PYLORIC STENOSIS by Dr M.KARTHIK EMMANUEL
CONGENITAL HYPERTROPHIC PYLORIC STENOSIS  by Dr M.KARTHIK EMMANUELCONGENITAL HYPERTROPHIC PYLORIC STENOSIS  by Dr M.KARTHIK EMMANUEL
CONGENITAL HYPERTROPHIC PYLORIC STENOSIS by Dr M.KARTHIK EMMANUEL
 
NDCT Rules, 2019: An Overview | New Drugs and Clinical Trial Rules 2019
NDCT Rules, 2019: An Overview | New Drugs and Clinical Trial Rules 2019NDCT Rules, 2019: An Overview | New Drugs and Clinical Trial Rules 2019
NDCT Rules, 2019: An Overview | New Drugs and Clinical Trial Rules 2019
 

TOPIC:APPLICATION OF EPIDEMIOLOGY IN HEALTH CARE DELIVERY, HEALTH SURVELLIANCE AND HEALTH INFORMATICS

  • 2. COLLEGE OF NURSING WANLESS HOSPITAL- MIRAJ SUBJECT: ADVANCED NURSING PRACTICE TOPIC:APPLICATION OF EPIDEMIOLOGY IN HEALTH CARE DELIVERY, HEALTH SURVELLIANCE AND HEALTH INFORMATICS PRESENTED BY: MR.TUSHAR KEDAR MSc (N)
  • 3. APPLICATION OF EPIDEMIOLOGY IN HEALTH CARE DELIVERY, HEALTH SURVELLIANCE AND HEALTH INFORMATICS Introduction:  The ultimate goals of health care services are to promote and protect health, to alleviate and minimize suffering and disabilities and regain health so as to lead socially useful and economically productive life.
  • 4. There are three major level of prevention Primary prevention Secondary prevention  Tertiary prevention
  • 5. PRIMARY PREVENTION: “primary prevention can be defined as “action taken prior to the onset of disease, which removes the possibility that disease will ever occur”. The specific intervention are: Health promotion Specific protection
  • 6. HEALTH PROMOTION Improve the environment and favor healthy living. The health promotion activities are summarized below: health education good standard of nutrition adjusted to developmental stage of life attention to personality development provision of adequate housing and recreation and agreeable working
  • 7. CONT… marriage and sex education genetic screening periodic selective examination
  • 8. SPECIFIC PREVENTION  protection individual against specific agents e.g. immunization against poliomyelitis, or pasteurization of milk or chlorination of water. The activities of specific protection will include: Use of specific immunization, e.g. vaccination. Attention to personal hygiene for self-care. Use of environmental sanitation,
  • 9. Use of specific nutrients. Protection from carcinogens. Avoidance of allergens. Protection against occupational hazards
  • 10. SECONDARY PREVENTION:  “Secondary prevention focuses on the individuals who are experiencing health problems or illnesses and who are at risk for developing complication.”  The objective of secondary preventive measures are :  Early diagnosis and treatment  Disability limitation:
  • 11. Early diagnosis and treatment:  Case finding measures: individuals and mass.  Screening surveys.  Selective examination  Cure and prevention of communicable diseases and complication
  • 12. Disability limitation:  Adequate treatment to arrest disease process and prevent complications.  Provision of facilities to limit disability and prevent death.
  • 13. TERTIARY PREVENTION  Tertiary prevention occurs when a defect or disability is permanent. Here the activities of restoration and rehabilitation will include :  provision of hospital and community facilities  Selective placement.  Work therapy and hospital
  • 14. Implication of epidemiology in community health nursing Essential to nursing practice.  Epidemiology methods used in the study of disease causation and the body of knowledge arises Epidemiology is a tool in conducting the investigation to evaluate and explain phenomena As tools for assessing community needs and evaluating the impact of community health programmes
  • 15. CONT....  Epidemiological knowledge provides a framework for planning and evaluating community intervention programmes for assessing individual and family health needs and for planning nursing interventions.
  • 16. HEALTH SURVEILLEANCE: Introduction The surveillance means supervision or close watch especially on suspected person. It involves identification of missed and suspected cases and contacts, their conformation by source of infection and channel of transmission.
  • 17. The epidemiological surveillance can be done at the following levels INDIVIDUAL / FAMILY SURVEILLANCE It includes surveillance of an infected person in a family as long as the individual is the source of infection to other e.g. typhoid case carriers.
  • 18. Cont… COMMUNITY / LOCAL POPULATION SURVEILLANCE It include surveillance of the whole community for early detection and prevention and control of disease e.g. malaria. NATIONAL SURVEILLANCE  It include surveillance at the national level e.g. surveillance of small pox after its eradication.
  • 19. INTERNATIONAL SURVEILLANCE:  It include surveillance of some of the diseases which are listed by WHO e.g. malaria, influenza, filaria and polio etc. and are to be reported to WHO which then provides information to the countries in the world to take timely actions.
  • 20. SURVEILLANCE PROCESS:  Surveillance is the systematic process . The main steps involved are:  Collection of relevant information about the disease  Effectiveness of surveillance system depends upon identification of cases, collection of relevant information about disease, their recording and reporting.  It may be easier to find some diseases and may be difficult to identify some other. because of this difficulty no single method can be adopted for surveillance of all
  • 21.  THE VARIOUS METHODS OF SURVEILLANCE ARE AS UNDER: Routine reporting of cases and death recorded:  To maintain record reported in their outpatient departments and clinics. i.e. address ,diagnosis date of onset and remark  The practice of recording of cases under the routine reporting system is called as passive surveillance
  • 22. CONT… ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE:  The type of cases who have not been recorded under the routine system  It is done by health workers and community people e.g. surveillance of malaria or tuberculosis cases. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS:  when there is sudden outbreak of any disease and when a communicable disease which has never occurred now.
  • 23. SENTINEL CENTERS  Sentinel centers are those hospital, health centers, laboratories etc. which are identified for collecting information for selected diseases.  The information is collected complied and forwarded to higher action and for making future plans and policies.
  • 24. SPECIAL SAMPLE SURVEY:  There are different sample of survey but the survey by cluster sampling technique is recommended by the WHO.  The target population , the sample size vary from disease to disease e.g. the target population for poliomyelitis is 5-9 years for diarrhea 0-4 years ,
  • 25. CONT…. REPORTING OF DATA AND PROVIDING FEEDBACK:  once the data is analyzed a report is to be prepared in the format prescribed by the authority  The report is sent regularly for each reporting period.  The report should be complete  If there is nil information , it should be reported.
  • 26.  If some information is missed or received late, it should be included in the next reporting period  feedback should be given to all the members of health team as to how the data are used which are collected by them and reported through regular meetings and when desired by anyone.
  • 27.  Introduction: Health information system is an integral part of the national health system
  • 28. Definition: “A mechanism for the collection ,processing analysis and transmission of information required for organizing and operating health service and also for research and training.”
  • 29. OBJECTIVES  To provide reliable , up to date , adequate , timely and reasonably complete information  To share technical and scientific information  To provide periodic intervals the data that will show the general performance of the health services.
  • 30. Requirements to be satisfied by health information system:  The system should be population based  The system should avoid the unnecessary data  The system should be problem oriented.  Express information briefly and imaginatively (e.g. tables, charts, percentage)  The system should make provision for feedback of data
  • 31.  COMPONENTS OF SYSTEM :  Demography and vital events  Environmental health statistics  Health status ;mortality ; morbidity ; disability and quality ,of life  Health resources ;facilities  Utilization and non-utilization of health services ;attendance ,admission waiting list.
  • 32.  USES OF HEALTH INFORMATION  To measure the health status of people  For local national and international comparison of health status  For assessing the attitude and degree of satisfaction of beneficiaries with the health system.  For research into particular problems of health and disease
  • 33. Sources of health informatics:  CENSUS:.  at regular intervals usually of 10 years.  A census is process of collecting ,compiling and publishing demographic ,economic and social data  The first regular census in India was taken in 1881  The supreme officer who directs ,guides and operates the census
  • 34. REGISTARION OF VITAL EVENTS:  Registration of vital events i.e. live births, deaths, fetal deaths, marriages ,divorces, adoptions, legal limitations, recognitions, annulments and legal separations.  The time event for registering the event of birth is 14 days and that for deaths is 7 days.
  • 35. SAMPLE REGISTRATION SYSTEM:  SRS was initiated in mid-1960’s to provide reliable estimates of births and death rates at the national and state level.  It is a Independence survey every 6 months by an investigator supervisor.  This system is more reliable for information on birth and death rate , age specific fertility and mortality and mortality rates, infant and adult mortality etc.
  • 36. NOTIFICATION OF DISEASES:  Focus on prevention and control of the disease.  Notification is also a valuable source of morbidity data  It covers only a small part of the total sickness in the community
  • 37. HOSPITAL RECORDS:  hospital data constitute a basic primary source of information about diseases prevalent in the community.  They provide information on only those patients who seek medical care.
  • 38. DISEASE REGISTERS  Morbidity registers exist only for certain diseases such as stroke, myocardial infarction, cancer blindness, and congenital defects.  The useful information can be obtained  provide useful data on morbidity
  • 39. RECORD LINKAGE  the process of bringing together records relating to one individual the record originating in different times or places.  The events commonly recorded are birth , marriage death , hospital admission  It has been applied only on a limited scale e.g. measurement of morbidity, chronic disease epidemiology
  • 40. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE  set up to report on the occurrence of new cases and on efforts to control the diseases. E.g. immunization is performed.  considerable morbidity and mortality data for specific disease.
  • 41. OTHER HEALTH SERVICE RECORDS  These are hospital OPD, PHC and sub center, MCH centers; school health records diabetics and hypertensive clinics etc. For E.g. records in MCH centers provide information about birth weight, height, immunization disease specific mortality and morbidity.
  • 42. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH DATA  provide data on various aspect of air water and noise pollution; harmful food additives; industrial toxicants etc.  It is helpful identification and quantification of a factors causative of diseases.
  • 43. ROLE OF NURSE:  The prevention and control of diseases at various levels.  The nurse participates in prevention and control of communicable diseases .  The nurse provide health education  Investigates regarding frequency and distribution and possible determinants and analyzes the information collected.  provides ongoing in-service training .
  • 44. Cont.  The nurse conducts studies to determine risk factor leading to infections.  She participate in data collection , data analysis ,planning, implementation and evaluation.  She also participates in national programs
  • 45. CONCLUSION:  Epidemiology is very important to study in order to find out the disease causation in our country in an earlier stage and to find proper solution for it. Epidemiology can be well utilized by the health care professionals to protect and saves the life of people in our country.
  • 46. SUMMERY:  Today we discussed regarding the levels of prevention , Epidemiological surveillance level, surveillance process , health informatics definition, objective, requirements to be satisfied by health informatics system ,uses and sources of health informatics system. I hope u understood my presentation and use this knowledge in clinical settings.
  • 47. BIBLOGRAPHY:  Basher SP, SY. khan, a concise textbook of advanced nursing practice, Emmess medical publishers,  S. kamalam, essentials in community health nursing practice, jaypee brothers publication, 1st ed.2005,P. 555-9  S.Soni, textbook of advanced nursing practice, jaypee brother’s medical publishers,1st ed.P.228-6  www.google.com