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Digital image processing


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How actually image being processed?

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Digital image processing

  1. 1. Tushar Bhanarkar ( Elect & Telecom 3rd Year)
  2. 2.      Digital image is representation of image as a finite set of pixels. Digital image processing focuses on two major tasks, i.e., improvement of pictorial information for human interpretation and processing of image data for storage, transmission and representation for autonomous machine perception. Components of DIP consist of image sensor, digitizer, processor and display unit. The key stages of DIP consist of Image Enhancement, Image Restoration, Image Compression and Registration. Image Registration is a process of mapping between temporal sequences of image frames & covers Geometric Transformation & Stereo imaging.
  3. 3. • A digital image is a representation of a two-dimensional image as a finite set of digital values, called picture elements or pixels. Pixel values typically represent gray levels, colors, heights, opacities etc. Digitization implies that a digital image is an approximation of a real scene.
  4. 4.   1. 2. 3. The process of receiving and analyzing visual information by digital computer is called digital image processing. Important Stages of Digital image processing are, Discretization and representation Processing Analysis
  5. 5. 1. Image sensor:An image sensor intercepts the radiant energy propagating the scene, and transformations it to produce an intensity image.
  6. 6. 2. Digitizer:- A digitizer is required input images to a digital computer, produces digital image composed of discrete intensity values at discrete positions. 3. Processor :- Systems ranging from microcomputers to general purpose large computers are used in image processing. 4. Display unit :- A display device produces and shows a visual form of numerical values stored in a computer as image array. Principal display devices are printer, TV monitor and CRT’s.
  7. 7. Whenever an image is converted from one form to another, such as digitization, transmitting, scanning some form of degradation occurs at the output.
  8. 8. 1. Contrast intensification:One of the most common defects found in the recorded image is its poor contrast. This degradation may be caused by inadequate lighting, aperture size, shutter speed and/or non linear mapping of the image density.
  9. 9. 2. Smoothing:Smoothing operation is used primarily to diminish the effect of spurious noise and to blur the false contours that may be present in a digital image. Original Image Original Image with Noise Smoothed Image Image after Averaging Filter Threshold Image Image after Median Filter
  10. 10. 3. Image Sharpening:Image degradation generally involves blurring. Being an integration operation blurring attenuates high spatial frequency components which suggests that observed/ recoded image can be enhanced by differentiation in spatial domain. Original image sharpened image
  11. 11. 4. Image Restoration:One of the major application areas of image processing technique is improving the quality of recorded images. 5. Image Compression:Users of digital image processing techniques usually have to handle a large volume of data. Storing image data for future use needs large storage space. Similarly transmitting image data in reasonable time needs wide channel capacity.
  12. 12. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Office automation. Industrial automation. Bio-medical. Remote sensing. Criminology. Astronomy and space application. Information technology. Military applications
  13. 13.    Digital image processing enables the enhancement of visibility for detail in images using algorithms that apply arithmetic and statistical procedures to stored pixel values, instead of the classical darkroom manipulations for filtration of time-dependent voltages necessary for analog images and video signals. Even though many image processing algorithms are extremely powerful, the average user often applies operations to digital images without concern for the underlying principles behind these manipulations. The images that result from careless manipulation are often severely degraded or otherwise compromised with respect to those that could be produced if the power and versatility of the digital processing software were correctly utilized
  14. 14.     “Digital Image Processing”, Rafael C. Gonzalez & Richard E. Woods, Addison-Wesley, 2002 5pf.htm