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Com120 05 verbal_13ed

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Com120 05 verbal_13ed

  1. 1. Verbal MessagesChapter 5
  2. 2. Principles of Verbal MessagesGuidelines for using Verbal Messages Effectively
  3. 3. Principles of Verbal Messages1. Messages are packaged ◦ Verbal & Nonverbal together
  4. 4. Principles of Verbal Messages1. Messages are packaged2. Message meanings are in people
  5. 5. Principles of Verbal Messages1. Messages are packaged2. Message meanings are in people ◦ Language is a symbol system. ◦ Symbols are interpreted differently by different people. ◦ Words we use are not the reality, but they are used to express and shape reality.
  6. 6. Principles of Verbal Messages1. Messages are packaged2. Message meanings are in people3. Messages are denotative & connotative ◦ Denotation: Objective definition ◦ Connotation: Subjective, emotional meanings. Feelings and associations.
  7. 7. Principles of Verbal Messages1. Messages are packaged2. Message meanings are in people3. Messages are denotative & connotative4. Messages vary in abstraction
  8. 8. Principles of Verbal Messages1. Messages are packaged2. Message meanings are in people3. Messages are denotative & connotative4. Messages vary in abstraction5. Messages vary in politeness
  9. 9. 5. Messages vary in PolitenessDirectvs IndirectAdvantages of Indirect MessagesDisadvantages of Indirect Messages
  10. 10. Principles of Verbal Messages1. Messages are packaged2. Message meanings are in people3. Messages are denotative & connotative4. Messages vary in abstraction5. Messages vary in politeness6. Message meanings can deceive
  11. 11. 6. Message meanings can deceiveDefinition of lyingTypes of liesHow people lieThe behavior of liars
  12. 12. Principles of Verbal Messages1. Messages are packaged2. Message meanings are in people3. Messages are denotative & connotative4. Messages vary in abstraction5. Messages vary in politeness6. Message Meanings can deceive7. Messages can criticize and praise
  13. 13. 7. Messages can Criticize and PraiseWhen does a person need praise? Or criticism?Guidelines for expressing negative information: ◦ Focus on the event and behavior, not person ◦ Try to state in positive terms ◦ Own your thoughts and feelings; “I-messages” ◦ Avoid ordering or directing ◦ Choose appropriate context
  14. 14. Principles of Verbal Messages1. Messages are packaged2. Message meanings are in people3. Messages are denotative & connotative4. Messages vary in abstraction5. Messages vary in politeness6. Message Meanings can deceive7. Messages can criticize and praise8. Messages vary in assertiveness
  15. 15. 8. Messages vary inAssertivenessNonassertiveness: Fail to assert your rights.Aggressiveness: Care little about the rights of others.Assertiveness: You act in your best interest without denying the rights of others.
  16. 16. Communicate Assertively? What are some guidelines?
  17. 17. Principles of Verbal Messages1. Messages are packaged2. Message meanings are in people3. Messages are denotative & connotative4. Messages vary in abstraction5. Messages vary in politeness6. Message Meanings can deceive7. Messages can criticize and praise8. Messages vary in assertiveness9. Messages can confirm and disconfirm
  18. 18. 9. Messages can confirm and disconfirm Disconfirmation Rejection Confirmation
  19. 19. DisconfirmationWhat are some ways we show disconfirmation in our conversation?Why is racist, sexist, heterosexist, or ageist language disconfirming?
  20. 20. Part 2: Make verbal messages moreeffectiveExtensionalize ◦ Intensional orientation ◦ Extensional orientationAvoid allnessAvoid Fact-Inference confusion ◦ Facts ◦ Inferences
  21. 21. Make verbal messages moreeffectiveDiscriminate among ◦ IndiscriminationTalk about the middle ◦ PolarizationUpdate messages ◦ Static evaluation

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