13 03 pers_logos_15ed_notes


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13 03 pers_logos_15ed_notes

  2. 2. Review – Ch 14 Goals & Propositions Organizational Frameworks for speech
  3. 3. III. Nature of PersuasionIV. Elaboration Likelihood ModelV. LogosVI. EthosVII. Pathos
  4. 4. III. Nature of Persuasion What is Persuasion? Text: Goal is to influence audience attitudes, beliefs, values and / or behaviors
  5. 5. Aristotle – Proof Inartistic Proof  Artistic Proof  Research  Logos  Facts  Ethos  Statistics  Pathos  Examples
  6. 6. III. Artistic Proof Logos  Reasoning / Argument (speech) Ethos  Credibility (speaker) Pathos  Emotional appeal (audience)
  7. 7. IV. Processing Persuasion (ELM) How do we respond to persuasive messages?  Do we think it through?  Do we go with our feelings?
  8. 8. Reading “UFO cults and Us”
  9. 9. IV. Elaboration Likelihood Model Petty & Cacioppo What is the “Likelihood” that people will evaluate information in an “Elaborate” way? What increases the chance people will use critical thinking?
  10. 10. ELM – Two routes Central route  Peripheral route
  11. 11. V. Logos Two types of Reasoning:  Inductive  Deductive
  12. 12. Inductive Reasoning Sherlock Holmes House, MD CSI
  13. 13. Deductive Reasoning Major Premise: Generally accepted idea minor premise: Specific example of this idea Conclusion: Proposition / claim MP, mp, C
  14. 14. Deductive Reasoning Major Premise: My niece likes pink (idea) minor premise: This doll is pink (example) Conclusion: She will like this doll MP or mp is often implied, not stated
  15. 15. Deductive Reasoning Major premise: (Worldview)  American citizens have the right to free speech Minor premise: (Specific instance)  Person A, a U.S. citizen, says controversial things Conclusion:  Person A has this right
  16. 16. Deductive Reasoning Major premise: (Worldview)  American citizens have the right to free speech Minor premise: (Specific instance)  Person B, a U.S. citizen, says controversial things of a different sort Conclusion:  Person B should be locked up (?)
  17. 17. Elements of Argument (Toulmin) Claim Support (Data) Warrant
  18. 18. Types of Argument You can argue from…  Sign  Example  Analogy  Causation
  19. 19. Arguing from sign Claim: It is going to rain Support: I observe dark clouds Warrant: Accepted idea that dark clouds are a sign of rain
  20. 20. Arguing from sign Example from UFO reading:  Using political parties to draw conclusions about positions on an issue
  21. 21. Arguing from sign Tests  Do signs generally indicate conclusion?  Are there contradictory signs?
  22. 22. Arguing from Example Claim: It is going to rain Support: On three different dates in the past few months, similar weather patterns have produced rain Warrant: What is true in many cases will be true in this case
  23. 23. Arguing from Example Tests  Enough examples  Typical examples  Negative (opposing) examples
  24. 24. Arguing from Analogy Claim: School “A” should have XYZ policy Support: School “B” has success with XYZ policy Warrant: Since “A” and “B” are similar in many ways, they will also be similar here.
  25. 25. Arguing from Analogy Tests  Are examples similar enough?  “Apples and Oranges”
  26. 26. Arguing from Cause Claim: Home sales will increase Support: Mortgage interest rates have dropped Warrant: Lower interest rates are understood to lead to higher home sales
  27. 27. Arguing from Cause Tests  Are events along sufficient to cause 2nd event?  Are there other factors?
  28. 28. Fallacies Errors in reasoning  Hasty generalization  False cause (post hoc, ergo propter hoc)  Either – Or (False dilemma)  Straw man  Ad hominem