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Booklet pdf

  1. 1. A booklet with information about the educational system in “TURKEY” Table of ContentsTimetable: ...................................................................................................................................................2Subjects in each level ..................................................................................................................................2 Subjects in each level: .............................................................................................................................3 Subjects in each level: .............................................................................................................................4 Subjects in each level: .............................................................................................................................5 Subjects in each level: .............................................................................................................................6 Subjects in each level: .............................................................................................................................7 Subjects in each level: .............................................................................................................................8Cross-curricular issues. Ex: sexual education, drug addiction, domestic/gender violence ...........................9Discipline, classroom management and school rules ................................................................................10Paying attention to diversity (new arrivals to the school; blind, dead and handicapped students; socialbackground) ................................................................................................................................................11School’s organization .................................................................................................................................13Extra-curricular activities ...........................................................................................................................17Bilingualism ...............................................................................................................................................24Assessment .................................................................................................................................................25Teaching methods .......................................................................................................................................27
  2. 2. Timetable: Subjects in each level. (An example) Secondary Teaching In Turkey (Non-compulsory)First class 8.40 - 9.25Second class 9.35 – 10.20 Level AgeThird class 10.30 – 11.15 9 14Fourth class 11.25 – 12.10 10 15Lunch break 12.10 – 12.50 11 16Fifth class 12.50 – 13.35 12 17Sixth class 13.45 – 14.30Seventh class 14.40 – 15.25Eighth class 15.30 – 16.15(There are classes only onMonday and Tuesday)Subjects in each level: 9th GradeSubject Compulsory / Optional Number of classes per weekEnglish Compulsory 10Turkish Literature Compulsory 3Turkish Grammar Compulsory 2Mathematics Compulsory 4Physics Compulsory 2Chemistry Compulsory 2Biology Compulsory 2Geometry Compulsory 2History Compulsory 2Geography Compulsory 2Arts/ Physical Education/ Music Optional 2Health Science Compulsory 2Religion and Ethics Compulsory 1Guiding Compulsory 1Total : 14 Total : 37
  3. 3. Subjects in each level: 10th Grade (Science Groups)Subject Compulsory / Optional Number of classes per weekEnglish Compulsory 4Turkish Literature Compulsory 3Turkish Grammar Compulsory 2Mathematics Compulsory 4Physics Compulsory 2Chemistry Compulsory 2Biology Compulsory 2Geometry Compulsory 2History Compulsory 2Geography Compulsory 2Psychology Compulsory 2Health Science Compulsory 2German Compulsory 2Arts/ Physical Education/ Music Optional 1Religion and Ethics Compulsory 1Democracy and Human Rights Compulsory 1Military Science Compulsory 1Project Preparation Compulsory 1Guiding Compulsory 1Total: 19 Total : 37
  4. 4. Subjects in each level:10th Grade (Social Sciences Group)Subject Compulsory / Optional Number of classes per weekEnglish Compulsory 4Turkish Literature Compulsory 4Turkish Grammar Compulsory 4Mathematics Compulsory 4Geography Compulsory 4History Compulsory 2Psychology Compulsory 2Geometry Compulsory 2German Compulsory 2Health Science Compulsory 2Arts/ Physical Education/ Music Optional 1Religion and Ethics Compulsory 1Democracy and Human Rights Compulsory 1Military Science Compulsory 1Project Preparation Compulsory 1Information Theory Compulsory 1Guiding Compulsory 1Total : 17 Compulsory Total : 37
  5. 5. Subjects in each level:11th Grade (Science Group)Subject Compulsory / Optional Number of classes per weekEnglish Compulsory 4Turkish Literature Compulsory 3Turkish Grammar Compulsory 2Mathematics Compulsory 4Physics Compulsory 3Chemistry Compulsory 3Biology Compulsory 3Geometry Compulsory 2History of Turkish Revolution Compulsory 2German Compulsory 2Philosophy Compulsory 2Turkish Grammar Optional 2History Optional 1Arts/ Physical Education/ Music Optional 1Traffic and First Aid Compulsory 1Religion and Ethics Compulsory 1Guiding Compulsory 1Total: 17 Total: 37
  6. 6. Subjects in each level:11th Grade (Social Sciences Group)Subject Compulsory / Optional Number of classes per weekEnglish Compulsory 4Turkish Literature Compulsory 4Turkish Grammar Compulsory 5Mathematics Compulsory 4Geometry Compulsory 2Geography Compulsory 2History of Turkish Revolution Compulsory 2History Optional 2Sociology Compulsory 2German Compulsory 2Turkish Grammar Optional 2Philosophy Compulsory 2Arts/ Physical Education/ Music Optional 1Traffic and First Aid Compulsory 1Religion and Ethics Compulsory 1Guiding Compulsory 1Total: 16 Total: 37
  7. 7. Subjects in each level:12th Grade (Science Group)Subject Compulsory / Optional Number of classes per weekEnglish Compulsory 4Turkish Literature Compulsory 3Turkish Grammar Compulsory 2Mathematics Compulsory 4Physics Compulsory 3Chemistry Compulsory 3Biology Compulsory 3Geometry Compulsory 2Geometry Optional 2Physics Optional 2Mathematics Optional 3German Compulsory 2Social Activity Optional 1Arts/ Physical Education/ Music Optional 1Religion and Ethics Compulsory 1Guiding Compulsory 1Total: 16 Total: 37
  8. 8. Subjects in each level:12th Grade (Social Sciences Group)Subject Compulsory / Optional Number of classes per weekEnglish Compulsory 4Turkish Literature Compulsory 4Turkish Literature Optional 3Turkish Grammar Compulsory 5Contemporary Turkish Optional 3LiteratureMathematics Compulsory 4Geometry Compulsory 2Analytic Geometry Compulsory 2Geography Compulsory 2Logic Compulsory 2German Compulsory 2Social Activity Optional 1Arts/ Physical Education/ Music Optional 1Religion and Ethics Compulsory 1Guiding Compulsory 1Total: 15 Total: 37
  9. 9. Cross-curricular issues. Ex: sexual education, drug addiction, domestic/gender violence,.... Since cross-curricular teaching is relatively a new approach in education, teachers are havingin-service training . We try to adapt some topics into as many school subjects as possible such as sexualeducation, drug addiction, alcoholism, the role of the women in an industrializing society and violence infamily. For example, although sexual education is one of the main topics of Health Education, inPsychology lessons, students discuss the psychological aspects, in literature lessons they read texts orextracts from novels or stories on the issue. We also invite experts on the subject to give seminars to ourstudents. When it comes to drug addiction , alcoholism and the harms of consuming tobacco products,they are again the topics of Health Education and biology lessons. However, in English lessons forexample, reading texts, listening materials or videos are chosen dealing with these issues. Sociologicaland psychological aspects are discussed in Sociology and Psychology lessons. We have recently invitedpolice officers from narcotic bureau in order to inform our students about the negative effects of theseaddictions and their criminal results. The role of women in society is changing rapidly in our country since more and more womenhave started working instead of staying at home and taking care of their children. So this new situationsometimes causes problems both out and in the families. Since most people are raised in traditionalpatriarchal families, adaptation problems arise. The problems of women are discussed in most of theschool subjects such as Literature, English, Sociology, History and Citizenship and Human Rights. Violence in society and family is also another important problem in our country. Because of thetraditional structure of the family, children and women used to prefer hiding it instead of applying to thesecurity forces. But today, thanks to the media and the education given at schools they are more aware oftheir rights. In our school we try make our students understand and use their rights in Citizenship andHuman Rights Lessons. Materials consisting gender discrimination and violence are not chosen for anylesson.
  10. 10. Discipline, classroom management and school rules Discipline issues are solved through a regulation which is prepared by The Ministry ofEducation in Turkey. According to his regulation, reward system is preferred rather than punishments.The Ss who are successful in their subjects or social activities and appreciated because of their behavioursare honoured with certificates which will be very useful in their later lives. These are:- Thank You Certificate,-Appreciation Certificate and,-Honour certificate. There are four types of punishments applied to the Ss who are found guilty:-Censuring the student,-Putting the student out off the school for a short time,(3-5 days)-Putting the student out off the school permanently, (Students enroll another school)-Dropping the student out of formal education. All these rewards and punishments are applied after they are discussed in detail through a couple ofcommissions comprising of teachers and students who are elected by students in the beginning of theacademic year. When the academic year starts, the counsellor teacher of each class gives a briefing about schoolrules and these rules are put on the noticeboard in each classroom. When a problem arises, firstly, classcounsellor teacher tries to solve the problem by having private conversations. If the problem cannot besolved, school guidance counsellors have interviews with the student and their families. If the behaviourcontinues, then student is sent to the subcommittee of discipline ,which is composed of students andteachers. The student is warned and wanted to change his or her behaviour and told what is going tohappen if she or he does not obey the rules and change the unappreciated behaviour. The student isobserved for a while by teachers and the members of the subcommittee. If the problem is still seen, thencommittee of discipline has right to give one of the punishments mentioned above according to theimportance of the guilt. Anyway, it is more important to prevent these behaviours so Ss are encouraged totake part in social activities in their free times. For this reason, our music room, arts room, library andcomputer classroom are available all the time. They also take part in sports activities such as basketball,football, volleyball, table tennis. We have school teams in those branches. Every day, at least four teachers and an administrative staff are on duty to keep order in the school.
  11. 11. Paying attention to diversity (new arrivals to the school; blind, dead and handicapped students; social background) Students carry more than their backpacks to school. They also carry into the classroom experiencesand understandings from their world outside school. Diversity in our school presents a unique opportunityfor learning. To begin with, students can learn from each other by sharing their cultural traditions andperspectives. In addition, the knowledge they have from their communities can be a springboard forfurther learning, especially since it’s important to relate new information to what students already know.Based on this principle, We have collected some different teaching tips from our teachers.: If our class includes group work, even if students choose their own team members, we insist that thegroup composition must be as diverse as possible with regard to gender, race etc. We try to pay attention to how we address different groups of students. We prefer to call allstudents in the same way (e.g. by first name) as we refer to other students.We strive for as muchconsistency as possible in the way we address each person in the class. We monitor the questions and comments coming from the class to make sure that one groupsopinions are not over-represented. If people from some groups (race, gender etc.) are not volunteeringinformation, we ask for their opinion. We use a random system for asking general questions or soliciting class participation so that everystudent has the same chance of participating. When students are speaking to each other, we monitor the discussion to make sure that studentsshow consideration and respect. Also we always try to make sure that all groups are able to participateand we intervene if a person or group of people are trying to dominate the discussion. If a difficult classroom situation arises based on a multicultural or diversity issue (or any difficult,value or judgement-based situation), we ask for a time out while everyone writes down his or herthoughts/opinions about the incident. This allows everyone to cool down and allows us to collect ourthoughts and plan a response. When we adopt a text book, we make sure it is written in gender neutral or gender inclusive terms.If the book includes photographs, again we make sure people of both genders, and of various races andnationalities are involved. If groups work on more than one task, we use a rotating leader system. Each member of the groupmust take a leadership role on one task, or on a major part of the task. This assures that all members of thegroup, regardless of gender, race or ethnicity, have a chance to learn leadership and organizational skills. As our students are chosen through a national examination, we usually do not face with learningproblems. But we have some students having hyperactivity and consentration issues. In order to motivate
  12. 12. and having them involved in the classroom activities, most of these students are given moreresponsibilities in and out of the classroom. We also have a guidence counselor service with twocounselor teachers who try to help students having problems with their families, lessons etc. When it comes to physically impaired students, our school has a lift, lavatories specially designedfor them. And we are working on a project for designing a library for the hearing impaired. When theproject finishes, we will be able to send CDs of classical books anyone who needs them for free. Ourstudents are going to read the books in the studio with the guidence of our literature teachers. With thisproject we aim to give our students the sense of social responsibility. New students and their parents are invited by our counselor teachers and they have a meeting withthem about the rules, system etc. We want them to fill a form in order to know the student. This form isalso given to the classroom councelor and if the student has any problems, we have the chance to takepreventive measures.
  13. 13. School’sorganization
  14. 14. Extra-Curricular ActivitiesERGÜN ÖNER MEHMET ÖNER ANATOLIAN HIGH SCHOOL SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES
  15. 15. BilingualismThe official language in Turkey is Turkish so, local languages are not used in education. Bilingualstudents have no speaking or understanding problems in our school.
  16. 16. Assessment ERGUN ÖNER MEHMET ÖNER ANATOLIAN HIGH SCHOOL OUR APPROACH TO EVALUATION OF SUCCESSGeneral Principles: Our general principle is that “each student can learn every new information in parallel with hisown development level.” Therefore the important thing is handling the learning process mutually in asensitive way. Our main goal is enabling our students to develop their “learning to learn” skills, to enrich theirabilities in researching, problem solving and without drawing them into an exams-marks anxiety. At our school, the evaluation of success is made with respect to the principles below: All learning processes are  Directed towards target behaviours  Planned  Realised in parallel with a high quality teaching system  Evaluated in an objective way The main purpose of exams at our school is to detect what and how much our students learning andaccording to the results to take preventions to eliminate their difficulties in learning deficiencies andmistakes. The general frame is the regulation of the Ministry of Education. THE MARKING SYSTEM The marking system is over five. The success is evaluated by four and failure by two marks. All exams, term homework and projects are evaluated over 100. These marks are written on teachers’notebooks and marking tables over 100. The end of term marks of each subject are given according to thearithmetic average of marks and these marks are matched with 0 to 5 as follows:GRADE İN NUMBERS MARKİNGVery good 5 85-100Good 4 70-84Medium 3 55-69Pass 2 45-54Can’t Pass 1 25-44Unsuccessful 0 0-24 The number of written exams must be at least 3 for subjects which are three times or more a weekand must be at least 2 for subjects which are once or twice a week.
  17. 17. THE EVALUATION OF WRITTEN EXAMS At the end of each exam teachers detect at which subject and how much students are successful. Ifthe success is low they searche and evaluate the reasons for that. THE CONTENT AND TIME OF WRITTEN EXAMS The date of written exams must be announced to the students at least a week ago. The studentscan’t take more than two exams on the same day. Written exams are generally consisted of a lot ofquestions with short answers. In respect to the properties of subjects some exams may consist of limitednumber of questions with long answers. ORAL EXAMS All students should be given at least one oral exam mark for each subject and this may certainlyincrease. ANNOUNCEMENT OF EXAM RESULTS Teachers announce all exam, term homework and project results to students within maximum 15days. They give them feadback about common mistakes and lacking points. In case of a student’s requestteachers look over exam papers once more with the student.
  18. 18. Teaching methods. Our students come to our school with different levels of English and as it is not possible tomake level classrooms legally, we have to face with quite mixed classrooms. We take the course from thebeginner (A1) level so some students who have some English may get bored in the first couple of months.To prevent this we give some extra activities for such students. We aim to have Ss who will able to communicate effectively, accurately and fluently. We try todesign a student-centered course, so most of the time we ,teachers , have the role of monitor, advisor andfacilitator. How we chose topics and classroom materials: We try to cover a range of topics taken from daily life situations in order to satisfy our teenagerstudents’ needs and interests. These topics are also authentic in many ways. Our primary goal is to haveSs communicate with foreign language speakers in daily life situations. Other elements such as structure,vocabulary or skills targeted at functions. Language Areas and Structure Sets: Grammar cannot be taught separately when we consider a language as a tool ofcommunication. Our aim is not to teach grammar but to give integrating syllabus backed by meaningfulactivities. That means , grammar is presented in a context from real life which gives studentsopportunities to work the rule out of it. Grammar rules are also presented in various tasks for differentlearning styles; Visual, Kinaesthetic, Auditory and Multiple intelligences of which we should keep loyalto while teaching four skills. Ss feel more secure and sure about grammar structures after they do practicetasks, workbook activities and unit tests. Vocabulary Sets: Vocabulary teaching cannot be considered as an independent study from other skills. It shouldbe conducted in a context of reading writing or listening because words cannot represent their wholemeaning in real life when we use them separately. The target vocabulary should exist in the whole contextto become more meaningful and to give students the opportunity to guess their meanings and usage. So,we encourage Ss to guess the meaning of the words through the context instead of giving the meaningdirectly or letting the Ss look them up in the dictionaries. After Ss do comprehension activities, theyshould go back to reconsider the meanings of the words. They negotiate the meaning with their pairs.Finally they check meanings referring to us, teachers, or dictionaries if necessary. Language Tasks and study Skills All types of skills are conducted in a context.
  19. 19. 1. How to Conduct a Listening or Video Lesson: -Pre-listening activities give reason and raise curiosity for listening. A classroom discussion onthe title, picture etc. are the widely used techniques to handle this stage. With videos silent watching andthen discussing the topic may be a useful . -When Ss listen or watch for the first time, they usually work individually. Comparing withfriends gives them opportunity to focus on the material and negotiate the meaning in the second listening.It also provides opportunity for correction. The number of listening or watching depends on the listeningactivity and the need of the classroom. -Post-Listening stage usually contains eliciting ideas from different Ss in order to raise moreattention and attendance. Since correcting mistakes all the time discourages Ss ,especially while they arespeaking, we try not to overcorrect them. Instead of student-teacher interaction, we prefer student-studentinteraction but sometimes some Ss tend to dominate the lesson so we have to play the role of a moderator. 2. How to Conduct Reading Lessons: As we aim to create independent reader with minimum usage of dictionary, reading passagesand books are tried to be chosen according to Ss’ interests, ages and ways of thinking. -Pre-reading: This stage should be done effectively since it is the most important part ofcreating curiosity and attracting Ss’ attention to the lesson. If Ss have no reason for reading, a text doesn’tmake a sense for them. Ss compare and discuss preparation questions, pictures provided with the text sothat they can have an opportunity to communicate, be familiar with the topic. At this stage teachersshould be the monitor. Unless the Ss desperately need help, teacher should not interrupt the conversations. -While-Reading: Most of the time we want Ss read the text silently to get the general idea.Then while they are reading for the second time, some tasks such as finding the irrelevant sentences,finding the suitable title for each paragraph, synonyms of the words indicated in the text, classic question-answer studies, true-false questions etc. The answers are discussed after the reading process is over. -Post-Reading: Ss are encouraged to write responses to the ideas or problems discussed throughthe discussions and the text. By this way, Ss will be able to develop critical thinking and intellectualbackground. 3.Writing As writing is the production stage of learning a language, Ss usually find it challenging most ofthe time. But if some steps are followed, Ss will be able to write more effectively and realise theirimprovement gradually. Moreover, Ss will be able to experience the pleasure of creating something out oftheir own background as an outcome of their own learning. Also writing activities must be contextual inorder to make writing rationale. Some answers must be cleared in Ss’ minds such as “What?” (the topic) ,“Why?” (Ss should see a good reason for writing. They do not want to write just for the sake of writing orbecause we teachers want them to do so.), “How?” (formal/informal etc.) While working on a difficultsubject such as formal letters, we have to make a step by step guidance and then want them to write asimilar one at home as a homework. Some projects are displayed in or out of the classroom and thatmotivates them.
  20. 20. Keeping a portfolio: We usually keep our students’ writings in their portfolios throughout theacademic year. This enables Ss be aware of their own progress. It also urges Ss to take their ownresponsibilities. We have a correction code table so we usually do not correct their mistakes, instead wejust show them that there is a mistake and it must be corrected. Since we think that only teachers can turn any source or course book into a perfect material,we give priority to guidance.

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