Endo note 1 definition and history


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Endo note 1 definition and history

  1. 1. Definition and History of Endodontics1/5/2009 Endo1 1
  2. 2. 1/5/2009 Endo1 2
  3. 3. Definition• Endodontology Endodontology is the branch of dentistry concerned with the study of form (Anatomy), function and health of (Physiology), injury to and diseases of (Pathology) the dental pulp and periradicular region and their treatment. Its study and practice encompasses the basic clinical sciences including biology of the normal pulp, the eatiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of the diseases and injury of the pulp, and associated periradicular conditions (stock et al -1997). 1/5/2009 Endo1 3
  4. 4. Endodontic treatmentEndodontic treatment encompasses any procedure designed to maintain the of all, or part of the pulp, such as,1. Diagnosis of oral pain,2. Protection of healthy pulp from disease or injury,3. Pulp capping (both direct and indirect),4. Pulpotomy (both conventional and partial),5. Pulpectomy,6. Root canal treatment of infected root canals,7. Surgical endodontics (apicectomy, hemisection, root amputation, replantation and endodontic implants) (Pittford – 1997). 1/5/2009 Endo1 4
  5. 5. Indirect Pulp Capping If the thickness of dentine is <5mm Ca(OH)2 sub lining and ZnO/E dressing should be placed. Most effective material preventing microbial leakage LCC and GIC cause more damage to odontoblasts (Gulabivala-2004)2004).1/5/2009 Endo1 5
  6. 6. Direct Pulp CappingPost operative complications of restorations are, Marginal staining, dentine hyperSensitivity,, corrosion and degradation, secondary caries, pulp inflammation and deathSuccess rate of pulp therapy is 85--90% (Gulabivala-2004). 1/5/2009 Endo1 6
  7. 7. Pulpotomy1/5/2009 Endo1 7
  8. 8. Apexogenesis1/5/2009 Endo1 8
  9. 9. Historical overview• “Worm theory” toothache and alveolar abscesses - ancient Chinese and Egyptian records.• Ancient Romans and Greeks - pain relieved by cauterization with either a hot needle or boiling oil and drilling into the pulp chamber.• In 1602, Pieter van Foreest - suggested tooth be drilled and the pulp chamber filled with theriak.• In 1687 Charles Allen - first book on dentistry in English and discussed tooth transplantation and mummification of pulp with phenol.• In 1728 Pierre Fauchard – pulp extirpation using small pin and filed with lead foil application of clove oil and opium for deep carious lesions (Wijerathne 1999). 1/5/2009 Endo1 9
  10. 10. • In 1867 Bowman introduced gutta-percha points for filling root canals.• 19th century - bacteriological basis - infected pulp as centres of infection and the formation of dento-alveolar abscesses as its sequelae.• In 1884 Koller introduced local anaesthesia.• In 1895 The discovery of x-rays by William c. Roentgen.• “Focal infection theory” - William Hunter in 1910. lasted nearly 30 years.• In 1920 Arthur B Crane - the first book on endodontics titled “A practicable root canal technique” (Wijerathne 1999). 1/5/2009 Endo1 10
  11. 11. • 1930s,function of a tooth depended on the periodontal tissue and not on the vitality of the pulp.• In 1931 “Hollow tube theory” marked a new era into research on endodontics.• 1958 - Standardization of endodontic instrument.• In 1950s - the resection of the root apex immediately after filling the canals.• In 1959 Sargenti and Richter introduced N-2 to the dental profession.• In 1966 by Torneck - implanted polyethylene tube sterile autoclave muscle /infective muscle.• “Bhasker,s theory” - 1968 epithelium of a cyst is punctured, resolution of the bone will occur (Wijerathne 1999). 1/5/2009 Endo1 11