Fungicide Resistance: Can it be prevented?Lane P. TredwayAssociate Professor and Extension SpecialistDepartment of Plant P...
What is fungicideresistance?• an evolutionary process, ‘natural  selection’• a pathogen is a population of  individuals• s...
Fungicide Resistance: Survival of the Fittest                                                                             ...
Fungicide Resistance: Survival of the Fittest• a small portion of the population                                       x  ...
Fungicide Resistance: Survival of the Fittest• a small portion of the population                                       x  ...
Fungicide Resistance: Survival of the Fittest• a small portion of the population                                       x  ...
Fungicide Resistance: Survival of the Fittest• a small portion of the population has natural, genetic resistance to a give...
Turfgrass Fungicides: 15 Chemical Classes      • Aromatic hydrocarbon   • Phenylamide      • Benzimidazole          • Phen...
FRAC codes are displayed prominently on new fungicide labels
Cross Resistance and Multiple Resistance                                                                     Cross Resista...
Sclerotinia homoeocarpaCross Resistance andMultiple ResistanceMultiple Resistance  • pathogens may develop     thiophanate...
Fungicide Resistance: Current Status
Fungicide Resistance: Current StatusDollar Spot  • resistance to benzimidazoles    widespread  • reduced sensitivity to DM...
Fungicide Resistance: Current StatusDollar Spot  • resistance to benzimidazoles    widespread  • reduced sensitivity to DM...
Resistance Case Studies: Benzimidazoles• single mutation in pathogen• complete control failure• develops quickly• resistan...
Resistance CaseStudies: DMIs• multiple mutations in pathogen• gradual reduction in population sensitivity over time• appea...
DMI resistance develops as a gradual shift
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)              Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)            Untreated                         ...
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)                       DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent                                  ...
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)              Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)            Untreated                         ...
Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)                       DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent                                  ...
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)              Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)            Untreated                         ...
Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)                         DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent                              ...
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)              Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)            Untreated                         ...
Untreated            DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent                                             EC50 = 0.011
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)              Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)            Untreated                         ...
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)               Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)            Untreated                        ...
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)                       DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent                                  ...
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)               Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)            Untreated                        ...
Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)                       DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent                                  ...
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)               Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)            Untreated                        ...
Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)                         DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent                              ...
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)               Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)            Untreated                        ...
Untreated            DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent                                             EC50 = 0.020
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)               Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)            Untreated                        ...
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)               Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)             Untreated                       ...
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)                       DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent                                  ...
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)               Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)             Untreated                       ...
Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)                       DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent                                  ...
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)               Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)             Untreated                       ...
Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)                         DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent                              ...
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)               Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)             Untreated                       ...
Untreated            DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent                                             EC50 = 0.033
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)               Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)             Untreated                       ...
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)               Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)             Untreated Control               ...
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)                       DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent                                  ...
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)               Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)             Untreated Control               ...
Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)                       DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent                                  ...
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)               Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)             Untreated Control               ...
Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)                         DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent                              ...
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)               Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)             Untreated Control               ...
Untreated Control                    DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent                                        ...
Banner Maxx (2 fl oz)               Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz)             Untreated Control               ...
Resistance CaseStudies: QoIs                      Unamende          pyraclostrobin     azoxystrobin                       ...
Some anthracnose populations are partially sensitive tothe QoI fungicides                 Untreated        Compass (0.25 o...
What can we learn from the medical field?How can antibiotic resistance beprevented?  • maintain healthy lifestyle to    mi...
Preventing FungicideResistance• maintain healthy turf• employ IPM strategies• diagnose diseases accurately• avoid repetiti...
Is Fungicide Resistance Preventable?   • Rotate?   • Tank-mix?   • Use it until it quits working?
High Risk              Medium Risk                     Low Risk            Turfgrass pathogens vary in their ability to de...
High Risk                   Medium Risk                      Low Risk            Fungicides also vary in their susceptibil...
What determines the resistance risk?                                • pathogens vary in their                             ...
Calculating the Resistance Risk                                                       -----Pathogen Resistance            ...
Resistance Risk Determines the Best Strategy  Resistance     Risk                             Recommended Action          ...
Fungicide Efficacy Rankings on turffiles.ncsu.edu
Disease Management Utility on turffiles.ncsu.edu
Example: Dollar Spot Program
Example: Dollar Spot Program     April 1 - Emerald + Daconil Ultrex (0.13 + 3.2 oz)
Example: Dollar Spot Program     April 1 - Emerald + Daconil Ultrex (0.13 + 3.2 oz)     April 15 - Bayleton + 26GT (1 oz +...
Example: Dollar Spot Program     April 1 - Emerald + Daconil Ultrex (0.13 + 3.2 oz)     April 15 - Bayleton + 26GT (1 oz +...
Example: Dollar Spot Program     April 1 - Emerald + Daconil Ultrex (0.13 + 3.2 oz)     April 15 - Bayleton + 26GT (1 oz +...
Example: Dollar Spot Program     April 1 - Emerald + Daconil Ultrex (0.13 + 3.2 oz)     April 15 - Bayleton + 26GT (1 oz +...
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Fungicide Resistance: Can it be Prevented?

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Lane Tredway
Minnesota Green Expo
January 6, 2011

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  • Fungicide Resistance: Can it be Prevented?

    1. 1. Fungicide Resistance: Can it be prevented?Lane P. TredwayAssociate Professor and Extension SpecialistDepartment of Plant PathologyNorth Carolina State University
    2. 2. What is fungicideresistance?• an evolutionary process, ‘natural selection’• a pathogen is a population of individuals• some may be naturally resistant to a given fungicide• if that fungicide is used repeatedly, the resistant strains become dominant in the population• control failure occurs
    3. 3. Fungicide Resistance: Survival of the Fittest x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
    4. 4. Fungicide Resistance: Survival of the Fittest• a small portion of the population x x x x x x x x x x x x x has natural, genetic resistance to x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x a given fungicide x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
    5. 5. Fungicide Resistance: Survival of the Fittest• a small portion of the population x x x x x x x x x x x x has natural, genetic resistance to x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x a given fungicide x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x• when that fungicide is applied, x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x the resistant strains increase in x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x the population x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
    6. 6. Fungicide Resistance: Survival of the Fittest• a small portion of the population x x x x x x x x x x x x x has natural, genetic resistance to x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x a given fungicide x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x• when that fungicide is applied, x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x the resistant strains increase in x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x the population x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x• when the resistant strains x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x become dominant, control failure x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x occurs x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
    7. 7. Fungicide Resistance: Survival of the Fittest• a small portion of the population has natural, genetic resistance to a given fungicide• when that fungicide is applied, the resistant strains increase in the population• when the resistant strains become dominant, control failure occurs
    8. 8. Turfgrass Fungicides: 15 Chemical Classes • Aromatic hydrocarbon • Phenylamide • Benzimidazole • Phenylpyrolle • Carbamate • Phosphonate • Carboxamide • Polyoxin • Dicarboximide • Pyridine • Dithiocarbamate • QoI • DMI • QiI • Nitrile
    9. 9. FRAC codes are displayed prominently on new fungicide labels
    10. 10. Cross Resistance and Multiple Resistance Cross Resistance Untreated a • resistance is specific to a Disarm ab chemical class Insignia ab • if a pathogen becomes resistant to azoxystrobin, it Heritage a will also be resistant to fluoxastrobin, pyraclostrobin,Signature + Daconil b and trifloxystrobin (all QoI 0 7.5 15 22.5 30 fungicides) Anthracnose Incidence
    11. 11. Sclerotinia homoeocarpaCross Resistance andMultiple ResistanceMultiple Resistance • pathogens may develop thiophanate-methyl propiconazole iprodione resistance to more than one chemical class Colletotrichum graminicola • each resistance evolves independently of the pyraclostrobin azoxystrobin Unamended others 0.003 ppm 0.031 ppm thiophanate- pyraclostrobin azoxystrobin methyl 0.8 ppm 8 ppm 10 ppm
    12. 12. Fungicide Resistance: Current Status
    13. 13. Fungicide Resistance: Current StatusDollar Spot • resistance to benzimidazoles widespread • reduced sensitivity to DMIs is common, but to varying degrees • dicarboxamide resistance is rare
    14. 14. Fungicide Resistance: Current StatusDollar Spot • resistance to benzimidazoles widespread • reduced sensitivity to DMIs is common, but to varying degrees • dicarboxamide resistance is rareAnthracnose • nearly all populations are resistant to QoIs and benzimidazoles • some are partially sensitive
    15. 15. Resistance Case Studies: Benzimidazoles• single mutation in pathogen• complete control failure• develops quickly• resistant strains persist indefinitely
    16. 16. Resistance CaseStudies: DMIs• multiple mutations in pathogen• gradual reduction in population sensitivity over time• appears as a gradual reduction in control efficacy or residual• strains may not persist in absence of DMI applications
    17. 17. DMI resistance develops as a gradual shift
    18. 18. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) Untreated DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.011
    19. 19. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.011
    20. 20. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) Untreated DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.011
    21. 21. Banner Maxx (1 fl oz) DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.011
    22. 22. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) Untreated DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.011
    23. 23. Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.011
    24. 24. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) Untreated DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.011
    25. 25. Untreated DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.011
    26. 26. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) Untreated DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.011
    27. 27. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) Untreated DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.020
    28. 28. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.020
    29. 29. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) Untreated DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.020
    30. 30. Banner Maxx (1 fl oz) DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.020
    31. 31. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) Untreated DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.020
    32. 32. Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.020
    33. 33. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) Untreated DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.020
    34. 34. Untreated DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.020
    35. 35. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) Untreated DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.020
    36. 36. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) Untreated DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.033
    37. 37. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.033
    38. 38. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) Untreated DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.033
    39. 39. Banner Maxx (1 fl oz) DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.033
    40. 40. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) Untreated DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.033
    41. 41. Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.033
    42. 42. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) Untreated DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.033
    43. 43. Untreated DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.033
    44. 44. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) Untreated DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.033
    45. 45. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) Untreated Control DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.054
    46. 46. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.054
    47. 47. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) Untreated Control DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.054
    48. 48. Banner Maxx (1 fl oz) DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.054
    49. 49. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) Untreated Control DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.054
    50. 50. Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.054
    51. 51. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) Untreated Control DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.054
    52. 52. Untreated Control DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.054
    53. 53. Banner Maxx (2 fl oz) Banner Maxx (1 fl oz)Banner Maxx (0.5 fl oz) Untreated Control DMI resistance is rate and interval dependent EC50 = 0.054
    54. 54. Resistance CaseStudies: QoIs Unamende pyraclostrobin azoxystrobin 0.003 ppm 0.031 ppm• two different mutations in pathogen thiophanate- pyraclostrobin azoxystrobin methyl 0.8 ppm 8 ppm• one mutation yields 50% Isolate GBGC2, Gatlinburg GC benzimidazole insensitive, QoI insensitive reduction in sensitivity• other mutation yields complete resistance Unamende pyraclostrobin azoxystrobin 0.003 ppm 0.031 ppm• strains persist indefinitely thiophanate- pyraclostrobin azoxystrobin methyl 0.8 ppm 8 ppm Isolate BR13A, Blowing Rock CC benzimidazole insensitive, QoI mod. sens.
    55. 55. Some anthracnose populations are partially sensitive tothe QoI fungicides Untreated Compass (0.25 oz) Insignia (0.5 oz) Heritage (0.2 oz) Spectro (4 oz) 26GT (3 fl oz) 3336 (4 fl oz) Daconil Ultrex (3.2 oz) Medallion (0.5 oz) Endorse (4 oz) Alude (6 fl oz) Alude + Daconil Signature (4 oz) Signature + Daconil 0 6 12 18 24 30 Anthracnose Incidence (%) Treatments applied 5/23, 6/6, 6/20, 7/11, 7/25; data collected 8/15
    56. 56. What can we learn from the medical field?How can antibiotic resistance beprevented? • maintain healthy lifestyle to minimize reliance on antibiotics • sanitation • diagnose illnesses acurately • avoid repetitive use of same antibiotics • mix antibiotics when necessary
    57. 57. Preventing FungicideResistance• maintain healthy turf• employ IPM strategies• diagnose diseases accurately• avoid repetitive use of high-risk chemical classes• tank-mix in high-risk situations
    58. 58. Is Fungicide Resistance Preventable? • Rotate? • Tank-mix? • Use it until it quits working?
    59. 59. High Risk Medium Risk Low Risk Turfgrass pathogens vary in their ability to develop fungicide resistance.
    60. 60. High Risk Medium Risk Low Risk Fungicides also vary in their susceptibility to fungicide resistance.
    61. 61. What determines the resistance risk? • pathogens vary in their ability to evolve resistance • fungicides vary in their susceptibility to resistance • resistance risk is determined by the target pathogen and selected fungicide
    62. 62. Calculating the Resistance Risk -----Pathogen Resistance Risk----- • each pathogen is---Fungicide Resistance Risk--- Low Risk (1) Med. Risk (2) High Risk (3) assigned a risk value Low Risk (1) 1 2 3 • each fungicide is assigned a risk value Med. Risk (2) 2 4 6 • multiply them together High Risk (3) 3 6 9 to identify the recommended strategy
    63. 63. Resistance Risk Determines the Best Strategy Resistance Risk Recommended Action Rotate to different chemical class after EVERY application; Tank- 9 mix with low or moderate risk product for EVERY application Rotate to different chemical class after 1-2 applications; Tank- 6 mixing with low or moderate risk product recommended Rotate to different chemical class after 1-2 applications; Tank- 4 mixing not necessary Rotate to different chemical class after 2-3 applications; Tank- 3 mixing not necessary Rotate to different chemical class after 3-4 applications; Tank- 2 mixing not necessary Rotating and tank-mixing not necessary, but recommended to avoid 1 potential side affects from continuous use of same chemical class
    64. 64. Fungicide Efficacy Rankings on turffiles.ncsu.edu
    65. 65. Disease Management Utility on turffiles.ncsu.edu
    66. 66. Example: Dollar Spot Program
    67. 67. Example: Dollar Spot Program April 1 - Emerald + Daconil Ultrex (0.13 + 3.2 oz)
    68. 68. Example: Dollar Spot Program April 1 - Emerald + Daconil Ultrex (0.13 + 3.2 oz) April 15 - Bayleton + 26GT (1 oz + 4 fl oz)
    69. 69. Example: Dollar Spot Program April 1 - Emerald + Daconil Ultrex (0.13 + 3.2 oz) April 15 - Bayleton + 26GT (1 oz + 4 fl oz) May 1 - Banner Maxx + Daconil Ultrex (2 fl oz + 3.2 oz)
    70. 70. Example: Dollar Spot Program April 1 - Emerald + Daconil Ultrex (0.13 + 3.2 oz) April 15 - Bayleton + 26GT (1 oz + 4 fl oz) May 1 - Banner Maxx + Daconil Ultrex (2 fl oz + 3.2 oz) May 15 - Emerald + Daconil Ultrex (0.13 + 3.2 oz)
    71. 71. Example: Dollar Spot Program April 1 - Emerald + Daconil Ultrex (0.13 + 3.2 oz) April 15 - Bayleton + 26GT (1 oz + 4 fl oz) May 1 - Banner Maxx + Daconil Ultrex (2 fl oz + 3.2 oz) May 15 - Emerald + Daconil Ultrex (0.13 + 3.2 oz) June 1 - 26GT + Daconil Ultrex (4 fl oz + 3.2 oz)

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