W języku angielski istnieją dwa sposoby na raportowanie tego co powiedzieli inni.
Pierwszym ze sposobów jest mowa niezależna ( direct speech ).
W języku angielskim direct speech stosujemy do przytoczenia dosłownych słów wypowiedzianych przez drugą osobę.
He said, „I’m ill”. Powiedział, „Jestem chory”.
Drugim sposobem relacjonowania jest mowa zależna, czyli Reported/Indirect Speech .
He said (that) he was ill. Mówił, że jest chory.
Backshifting. Relacjonowany czas cofa się o jeden czas.
He said, „I am happy.” They said, „We are sad.” She said, „I have a car.” I said, „I can swim.” He said he was happy. They said they were sad. She said, she had a car. I said, I could swim.
He said, „I will do it. She said, „I play tennis.” He said, „I saw her.” They said, „We must go.” He said, he would do it. She said, she played tennis. He said, he had seen her. They said they had to go.
Słowa takie jak would, could, should, might, had done nie zmieniają się.
She said she could draw when she was seven . Powiedziała, że potrafiła rysować w wieku siedmiu lat.
Jeśli stwierdzenie jest nadal prawdziwe w momencie relacjonowania, nie musimy cofać czasu.
Direct: „It’s my favourite city”, he said. Indirect: He said it’s his favourite city.
Direct: He said, „I want the report tomorrow . Indirect (the same day): He said he wanted the report tomorrow . Indirect (later): He said he wanted the report the next day .
now today tonight tomorrow next week yesterday last night then that day that night the next/ following day the next/following week the day before the previous day the night before the previous night