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AERA 2012 presentation on Nudge

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AERA talk on Nudge, a Computer support for studying at the right times . Goes through design process and system evaluation.

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AERA 2012 presentation on Nudge

  1. 1. + 1 Nudge Computer support for studying at the right times Aleahmad, Koedinger and Zimmerman
  2. 2. + 2 Usability  Research often difficult to translate into practice  Need usable knowledge (Lagemann, 2002)  Tension between internal and ecological validity  Modern computing lets us do controlled lab-style research in real-world settings  Lower the costs of deploying research in broad contexts to understand contextual factors  Usable systemsAERA 2012 — Aleahmad, Koedinger and Zimmerman
  3. 3. + 5 Process Evaluation: Evaluation: Informed Enactment Local Broader Exploration Impact Impact Integrative Learning Design Framework (Bannan-Ritland 2003)AERA 2012 — Aleahmad, Koedinger and Zimmerman
  4. 4. + 6 Informed Exploration Used HCI methods for usability:  Focus setting  College lecture courses  Contextual inquiry  Interviews with stakeholders  Ideation  ~60 ideas for systems  Scenario development  17 that express needs  Needs validation  Interview stakeholders to check  Example observation for Nudge need: “by second semester freshman year I was trying to learn how to study, pretty much teaching myself.”AERA 2012 — Aleahmad, Koedinger and Zimmerman
  5. 5. + 7 Nudge ScenarioAERA 2012 — Aleahmad, Koedinger and Zimmerman
  6. 6. + 8 Needs Validation  IES practice guides to see what practice recommendations could be operationalized usably in college lecture courses  E.g. “help students allocate study time efficiently” from Organizing Instruction and Study to Improve Student Learning (Pashler et al., 2007) principle #6  Ruled out all but a few systems because either 1. not interesting theoretically 2. required too much change by stakeholders 3. rejected by the culture  e.g. study leaderboard. students didnt want competition.AERA 2012 — Aleahmad, Koedinger and Zimmerman
  7. 7. + 9 Principles of Nudge DesignFeature Claim WarrantCourse task assigned Explicit and salient External deadlines boost task performanceto dates and dates more likely to more than self-determined deadlines (Ariely &organized centrally be met Wertenbroch, 2002); Students generally do whatever’s due soonest (Kornell & Bjork, 2007)Break-down of study Decomposition of Smaller tasks abate the planning fallacy (Forsythactivity into smaller tasks improves time & Burt, 2008; Kruger & Evans, 2003);actions allocation and Students procrastinate largely due to fear of decreases failure (Solomon & Rothblum, 1984); aversiveness In shared task lists, vague information preferred (Blandford, 2001)Maintaining and Recording task Self-monitoring of study behaviors improvestracking status increases learning (Richards, 1975)assignments, study awareness andtime and progress inclinationAERA 2012 — Aleahmad, Koedinger and Zimmerman
  8. 8. + 10 Iterative Development: Mockup C✓ | Home http:/ / coursecheck.org/ Google Joe Student Dashboard Settings Log out CourseCheck Thu Jan 13 Introduction to Modern Chemistry Calculus in 3D English 101 Pottery Prof. Paul Karol 01-234 Full course Past due Mastery Exam 1 Ch2: exercises 21, 23, 30, 31, 37, 38 Jan 11 Mastery Exam 1 Ch2: exercises 55, 63 Jan 13 Coming week Minutes spent Save Notes to self Notes to instructor Ch3: exercises 23, 25, 27, 31, 37, 41 Jan 13 for Quiz 1 Ch3: exercises 47, 55 Jan 18 Ch4: exercises 17, 19 Jan 18AERA 2012 — Aleahmad, Koedinger and Zimmerman
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  10. 10. + 12 Final Iteration for EvaluationAERA 2012 — Aleahmad, Koedinger and Zimmerman
  11. 11. + 13 Study  Large lecture-based intro chemistry class  15 week fall semester  60 tasks defined for the semester  (14 required, 43 advised, 3 suppl.)  Do and submit HW-n (required)  Take a practice text for Exam-n (advised)  Review notes for Exam IV (advised)AERA 2012 — Aleahmad, Koedinger and Zimmerman
  12. 12. + 14 Conditions Introductory Chemistry Course N=136 All nudges polled on tasks before due (n=45) Nudge? No nudges, tasks batched after exam to poll (n=48) Everyone else gets message before due, at a schedule they choose. (n=42)AERA 2012 — Aleahmad, Koedinger and Zimmerman
  13. 13. + 15 Hypotheses H-grades: Student sent all Nudge messages perform better on exams than students sent no Nudge messages. H-disposition: Students with poor study time use benefit more from Nudge messages.  Time/Environment scale from Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich et al. 2001)AERA 2012 — Aleahmad, Koedinger and Zimmerman
  14. 14. + 16 Evaluation of Operation H-grade: No main effects… H-disposition: Better time management led to better exam scores (F(1,76.9)=6.4, p=.014) but Nudge interacts to help students with poor management (F(1,76.9)=4.6, p=.036). Nudge helps students with poor management …and hinders with good management?AERA 2012 — Aleahmad, Koedinger and Zimmerman
  15. 15. + 17 Mechanism The worse a student’s time use the greater the benefit of opening each Nudge message.AERA 2012 — Aleahmad, Koedinger and Zimmerman
  16. 16. + 18 Broader Impact  75% of nudged respondents (n=28) rated “Email reminders about course work” as “Good” or “Great”  40% agreed, “The reminder emails helped me in the class”  46% agreed, “I wish I could have email reminders for all my classes”  44% agreed, “Without the reminders I would have forgotten to do something.”  80% of students who could stop the message didn’t Group Replied to task polls Agreement with “What I enter is accurate”. ever (7pt Likert) No nudges 83% (40/48) 5.5 (n=26, sd=1.4) All nudges 87% (39/45) 5.8 (n=29, sd=1.3)AERA 2012 — Aleahmad, Koedinger and Zimmerman
  17. 17. + 19 Discussion  Need validation ruled out systems I thought would work; saved resources  Indications that it is easy to adopt and would be used voluntarily by students and teachers  Need to test adoption empirically  Usability focus needs more methods for validation  Examplify  Future workAERA 2012 — Aleahmad, Koedinger and Zimmerman
  18. 18. + 20 Thanks for your attention! @tfunq Turadg Aleahmad http://coursecheck.org http://turadg.aleahmad.net http://openeducationresearch.orgAERA 2012 — Aleahmad, Koedinger and Zimmerman

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