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Masters on the move


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ECER, Wien 2009

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Masters on the move

  1. 1. Masters on the move – Finnish university graduates and their regional mobility five years after graduation ECER 28.09.2009, University of Vienna, Austria Antero Puhakka, Juhani Rautopuro & Visa Tuominen (University of Eastern Finland)
  2. 2. Starting points <ul><li>University education increases human capital </li></ul><ul><li>Increased human capital will help regions to prosper </li></ul><ul><li>Studying in an investment in the future </li></ul><ul><li>Graduates look for jobs where they can utilise the skills and knowledge learned at the university </li></ul><ul><li>University education should benefit the whole nation, not just certain growth areas </li></ul>
  3. 3. Graduate migration <ul><li>Previously find in Finland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduates more mobile than rest of the population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration to cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain university regions lose graduates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brain-drain ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually analysed by looking at the university region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problematic, most students have to move from their home region for studies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>We will analyse migration by emphasising graduate's residential regions before studies </li></ul>
  4. 4. Data and analysis <ul><li>National survey 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Aarresaari-network (Academic career services) </li></ul><ul><li>16 Finnish universities (only art universities missing) </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents graduates in 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Only Master of art or equivalent degree holders </li></ul><ul><li>6701 respondents in study (56 % all graduates) </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive statistics, frequencies, percentages, arithmetic mean, median and standard deviation </li></ul><ul><li>Chi-square-test with residual-examination </li></ul>
  5. 5. Research questions <ul><li>What kind of migration patterns exist? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional inspection, the location before studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly at the provincial level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspected locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) residential location before studies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) study location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3) location of first job after graduation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4) location of job five years after graduation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5) residential location five years after graduation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Are graduates returning to their previous regions? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Classifications <ul><li>Migration classification (based on Kodrycki 2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Non-migrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Returnees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Leavers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4) University-migrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5) Repeat-migrants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statistical Classification of municipalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>urban, semi-urban, countryside </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Travel-to-work-area (TWA) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Basic information of provinces 4 4 200 1 99 000 187 000 Lapland 8 15 800 1 57 000 459 000 Oulu 10 13 200 2 48 800 583 000 Eastern Finland 15 71 000 7 74 200 1 848 000 Western Finland 14 65 600 5 34 400 2 117 000 Southern Finland Fields of education Students Universities Area km 2 Population Provinces
  8. 8. Finnish provinces <ul><li>Western Finland winner in students </li></ul><ul><li>Others educate graduates for Southern Finland </li></ul><ul><li>Fields of education vary between provinces, Lapland 4, </li></ul><ul><li>Western Finland 15 </li></ul><ul><li>58 % studied in own university </li></ul><ul><li>60 % moved in some phase of their career </li></ul>
  9. 9. First job location and previous region University province First job in university province Own South, n=1099 95 West, n=1889 76 East, n=329 77 Oulu, n=347 84 Lapland, n=79 70 Migrated South, n=462 65 West, n=1301 30 East, n=281 34 Oulu, n=250 46 Lapland, n=126 15
  10. 10. Employment in previous province 5 years after graduation
  11. 11. Employment and residential location 5 years after graduation
  12. 12. Municipality types and previous residential location
  13. 13. Employment in municipalities <ul><li>Easier to find jobs in cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before studies 72 % lived in urban regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 years after graduation 86 % employed in cities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employment sectors vary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>65 % in semi-urban and 73 % in rural municipalities employed in public sector, in cities clearly less 45 % </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching, managerial and patient work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Public sector cutbacks different effects on municipalities </li></ul>
  14. 14. Migration types
  15. 15. Migration types and provinces Provinces Non- migrant Returner Leaver University -migrant Repeat- migrant South, n= 1816 46.3 38.2 3.2 10.3 2.0 West, n= 1965 57.7 8.3 23.4 8.1 2.5 East, n= 615 31.1 15.4 14.8 22.6 16.1 Oulu, n= 537 41.3 16.8 12.8 13.6 15.5 Lapland, n= 197 20.3 15.2 10.7 31.5 22.3
  16. 16. Migration types <ul><li>Non-migrants and returnees benefiting previous region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increased their human capital by studying in either their own university or in other universities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increased human capital will help the region to prosper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leavers, university-migrants and repeat-migrants are brain-drain for their original areas </li></ul><ul><li>Only 12 % of those who moved for their university studies were employed in university province 5 years after graduation </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusion <ul><li>The previous living area attracts graduates </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration of jobs to Southern Finland </li></ul><ul><li>Rural and semi-urban municipalities are losers, they do not have employment possibilites which could take advantage of the increased human capital of their previous residents </li></ul><ul><li>Would the concentration of university education to Southern Finland benefit the whole nation? </li></ul>