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Longitudinal monitoring
of parasites in individual
wild primates
20.11.2015
Lectio praecursoria
Tuomas Aivelo (@aivelo)
In...
IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion

Host individual is a
dynamic habitat

How parasite communities
ch...
IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion

Focus on component
populations (= one
parasite species in a
host c...
Aims of the thesis
IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion
• Study intestinal parasite
community dynamics wi...
Rufous mouse lemur
Microcebus rufus
Hibernates
and torpors
Small-sized
Primate
Nocturnal
Territorial
Long-lived
Introducti...
Ranomafana
National Park
• Southeastern
Madagascar
• Two transects
– Talatakely: inside park,
heavy tourist load,
secondar...
• Mark-recapture for 3 years
• 636 samples from 134 different individuals
IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConcl...
IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion
The detection
pipeline
IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion
Séance
IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion
Method
• Success rate quite low: only 44% for mouse
lemurs
• Difficulties with fecal nematodes
• General problems with non...
Between-host dynamics
IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion
Putative
species 1
Strongyloides Putative spec...
Within-host dynamics
IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion
First samples
without parasites
Rare species ar...
Mouse lemur body
condition and parasites
• Better body condition correlates with
– Higher ectoparasite counts
– Higher par...
In nutshell
• While parasite communitiess seem stable
looking at host at population-level sampling,
individual monitoring ...
Future directions
• Interaction of parasites and
microbiome
• Possibilities to track the most
common nematode:
– Do they d...
Lectio Praecursoria - Tuomas Aivelo - 20.11.2015
Lectio Praecursoria - Tuomas Aivelo - 20.11.2015
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Lectio Praecursoria - Tuomas Aivelo - 20.11.2015

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The opening talk for my PhD defense "Longitudinal monitoring of parasites in individual wild primates"

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Lectio Praecursoria - Tuomas Aivelo - 20.11.2015

  1. 1. Longitudinal monitoring of parasites in individual wild primates 20.11.2015 Lectio praecursoria Tuomas Aivelo (@aivelo) Institute of Biotechnology; Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Doctoral Programme in Wildlife Biology, University of Helsinki
  2. 2. IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion  Host individual is a dynamic habitat  How parasite communities change?  Understanding interactions in parasite communities → virulence, prevalence etc. → resistance, tolerance  Succession in parasite communities → host development
  3. 3. IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion  Focus on component populations (= one parasite species in a host community)  Infrapopulations (= one parasite species in a single host) rarely studied  Focus often on single species / taxons
  4. 4. Aims of the thesis IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion • Study intestinal parasite community dynamics within- host • Design a new method for identifying parasite community composition
  5. 5. Rufous mouse lemur Microcebus rufus Hibernates and torpors Small-sized Primate Nocturnal Territorial Long-lived IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion
  6. 6. Ranomafana National Park • Southeastern Madagascar • Two transects – Talatakely: inside park, heavy tourist load, secondary forest – Campsite: in peripheral zone, degraded habitat, frequented by locals and students IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion
  7. 7. • Mark-recapture for 3 years • 636 samples from 134 different individuals IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion
  8. 8. IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion
  9. 9. The detection pipeline IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion
  10. 10. Séance IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion
  11. 11. Method • Success rate quite low: only 44% for mouse lemurs • Difficulties with fecal nematodes • General problems with non-invasive assessment IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion
  12. 12. Between-host dynamics IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion Putative species 1 Strongyloides Putative species 4 Chromadorea Putative species 2 Rhabditidae Putative species 5 Enterobius Putative species 3 Strongylida Putative species 6 Panagrellus
  13. 13. Within-host dynamics IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion First samples without parasites Rare species are ephemeral Also turnover in common species
  14. 14. Mouse lemur body condition and parasites • Better body condition correlates with – Higher ectoparasite counts – Higher parasite richness IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion Model n r P CRT index vs lice score 120 -0.19 0.04 CRT index vs nematode abundance 119 -0.00 0.98 CRT index vs cestode abundance 120 -0.14 0.13 CRT index vs parasite richness 120 -0.19 0.03 n = sample size, r = correlation coefficient of spearman, P = probability
  15. 15. In nutshell • While parasite communitiess seem stable looking at host at population-level sampling, individual monitoring can reveal wildly dynamic parasite community • High-throughtput identification of intestinal nematodes is difficult but possible IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion
  16. 16. Future directions • Interaction of parasites and microbiome • Possibilities to track the most common nematode: – Do they die during hibernation? – Is there population structure in parasites? • Parasite identification straight from feces IntroductionMethodsStudyI&IIStudyIIIStudyIVConclusion

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