Food security policy

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Food security policy

  1. 1. Food Security Policy: Case Study for Policy Formulation and Implementationin the Special Region of Yogyakarta (Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta/DIY)Yacinta EstiFood Security FrameworkFood Security framework in Indonesia was initiated in 1996 after the World Food Summit by WorldFood Programme (WFP) took place. This world conference led to initiatives such as actions for amore integrated food security system within the ASEAN Community. Following those events, adefinite concept of food security was promulgated and internationally accepted. It has fourdimensions: food access, food availability, food stability and food utilization. In Indonesia, this foodsecurity framework enacted into Decree number 7 year 1996 (UU nomor 7 tahun 1996) on food. Ithas become the Indonesian major policy foundation on food that shapes the common understandingat the decentralized level of state governance. This means that local governments should ensure theright to food access through equal distribution, maintaining the standard of food quality, andguaranteeing a fair market for producer-trader-buyer.The commitment from Indonesian leaders to achieve a targeted national food security level hasbeen a part to carry out the first Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which is the eradication ofextreme poverty and hunger. Active support to secure the first goal should contribute to the aim ofhalving the number of people in the world who suffer from hunger by 2015. The Food andAgriculture Organization (FAO) of theUnited Nations (UN)has mandated to successfully raise levelsof nutritional intake, improve agricultural productivity and better the lives of rural populations, aswell as contribute to the growth of world economy.The enthusiasm to achieve sustainable food security was more prominent after the sharp increase ofworld food prices in 2007/2008. Indonesia, together with the other ASEAN leaders, pledged toembrace food security as an important priority in setting up cooperation among governments,private sectors, and Non Government Organizations (NGOs) with the goal of improving foodproduction, reducing harvest failures, and strengthening rural-market linkages. As highlighted in July2011 at the ASEAN Food Security Conference in Manila, the Philippines, food security issues werecovered by the issue of vulnerability of the poorest people in each state in connection to theeconomic communities to socio-cultural community. 1
  2. 2. A nation might suffer from the effects of natural disasters, disease outbreaks and inflation, whichhave an impact to the destruction of livelihood assets. Indonesia was vulnerable to food insecurityby regions as well as being prone to the damaging impacts of extreme climate variability (WFP,2010). In relation to that, the President constituted Presidential Instruction number 5 year 2011(Instruksi Presiden, Inpres nomor 5 tahun 2011) which instructed ministries and local governments totake serious coordinated action in protecting rice production from harvest failure triggered by globalclimate change.Subsequently, at the decentralized level, the provincial government of the Special Region ofYogyakarta (DIY) has integrated UU number 7 year 1996 and Inpres number 5 year 2011 on food intoits regional midterm development planning (Rencana Pembangunan jangka MenengahDaerah/RPJMD) 2009 – 2013. In 2011, DIY incorporated food security policies with sectoraldevelopment policies such as an agricultural revitalization policy, environmental stewardship on landuse and water harvesting policies, food marketing policies, and a safety net policy for the poor toaccess basic needs.Furthermore, to deliver a successful policy implementation, the respective units of provincial or citygovernment should generate data on the trend food security situations. This became a problemsince the statistical data for regional achievements had not been compiled since the first foodsecurity policies were implemented in 1996. Thus, the next challenges are identification andarticulation to bring focal point in for present and future cooperation among relevant stakeholders.The role and functions of government institutions in implementing a food security framework for aconcrete action is discussed next.Institutional Set Up for Food Security PoliciesThrough PP number 5 year 2011, the President has called upon eleven ministries, three bureaus, thenational army and national police, and provincial governors/districts to coordinate and tackle theissue of securing national rice stock before the impact of climate change affects rice crop productionnationwide. Here, we learn that the national priority for food security is protecting rice paddycultivation from harvest failures. More than adequate harvest or achieving surplus in rice productionshould provide the nation cheaper rice for daily consumption. Necessary steps were taken intoconsideration to secure rice production from the negative impact of climate change and naturaldisasters. 2
  3. 3. Together with the Agricultural Ministry, the national government has formed a Food SecurityCommittee which acted as a presidential advisory board. The committee assisted the president informulating national food security policies. This Committe also facilitated coordination at theregional and local level by creating an encouraging cooperation platform among civil servants,business people, NGOs, academicians and civil societies to achieve all four dimensions of the foodsecurity framework.In DIY, the formulation of regional food security policies was under the authority of the provincialsecretary. The provincial secretary appointed the Administrative Bureau of Economic Affair andNatural Resource Management (Biro Perekonomian) for data provision concerning regionaleconomics and amongst this was the sub division of agriculture and food security. The role of theAgriculture and Food Security Sub Division (AFSSD) was not only preparing policies materials todecision makings, but also conducted monitoring and evaluation on the agricultural and foodsecurity policies. Finally, this Sub Division was also responsible to maintain cooperation with thetechnical units such as the Agriculture Service (Dinas Pertanian) and Food Security Agency (BadanKetahanan Pangan dan Penyuluhan/ BKPP)AFSSD had three roles in monitoring, evaluating and coordinating stakeholders for reaching regionaleconomic goals. The first function of the AFSSD was monitoring the achievement of regionalagricultural and food security policies and it resumed to evaluation in how far policiesimplementations significantly affected regional economic growth. Together with the statisticalagency (Badan Pusat Statistik/BPS), the Dinas Pertanian and BKPP, they shared statistical data andfield observations to obtain preciseness in linking up agriculture and food situation strategies intonational policies targets. This incorporation worked across policies and institutions. One example ofcollaboration among government institutions was addressing food insecurity and health problemsafter the volcanic eruption in 2010.Policy Monitoring and EvaluationAgricultural production and food security were inseparable focal points for sustainable agricultureand improvement of farmer’s welfare. Incorporating RPJMD and national decrees, the monitoringand evaluation indicators have been developed into several key indicators for agriculture and foodsecurity respectively. This indicators are connected to the dimensions of the food securityframework.The general agricultural development policies for national and regional levels in 2011 wasagricultural revitalization focused on policy to increase farmer’s income and increasing domestic 3
  4. 4. food stockpiles. In connection to that, the percentage of Farmers Term of Trade (FTT), food cropproductivity, horticulture production, livestock population numbers, and ratio for agricultural landuse conversion suggest that economic growth through agricultural stimulation is on the way. This ledto development of reliable indicators such as numbers of established village food stock program(lumbung desa), ratio for energy and protein consumption, and Balanced Diet Indexes (Pola PanganHarapan/PPH) as indicators for food security achievements. The results in each of the indicatorssurpassed the proposed ratio in the RPJMD 2009 – 2013. It therefore indicated successfulachievement at regional level.Accordingly, FTT can serve as an indicator for food consumption as it reflects the level ofagricultural’s income at the household or individual level. It shows the level of food access andfarmer households daily intake for calories and protein consumption. According to the ulitizationframework of food security, a proper food consumption for being considered secure was having abalance on protein, fat and calories intake. However, due to the reason of high cost of food, it wasusual to eat more calories such as rice than, for example, meat, fruits and vegetables, eggs, and fish.As mentioned before, Dinas Pertanian and BKPP are the technical institutions which shared roles ofimplementing regional agriculture and food security policies. Dinas Pertanian was more focused onthe know –how, transferring technology to boost local food production as well as creating newemployments sectors and income generation for peasants or smallholders. In parallel, BKPP givesattention to food utilization. The focal point of food utilization is combating malnourishment at alllevels by giving education to pupils and expected women. To deliver food access and food stability,the provincial government had as its starting points the social safety nets (giving rice subsidy to thepoor known as beras miskin/raskin) and food stockpiling. The output in tackling food insecurity inDIY was building livelihood asset such as infrastucture, housing, financial support, and food provisionafter the earthquake in 2006 followed by the stabilization of regional economic growth afterwards.Recommendation: Policy Formulation and ImplementationThe process of preparing a regional food security policy document requires the incorporation of allrelevant aspects in ensuring food production and achieving surplus, stabilizing food stocks, securingfood access, and the last is focusing on food utilization to reduce the number of undernourishedchildren and malnourished population.1. The first step in the process is that provincial government have to understand why the province wants to have a food security policies. It should not be based on the argumentation to align 4
  5. 5. regional policies to national policies rather something more fundamental such as livelihood protection on the disaster prone areas. The formulation of food security policies should be based on overcoming the local or regional problems such as food insecurity due to an outbreak of disease or poor infrastructure that hinders food supply to remote areas.2. Secondly, local government must analyse the regional food security trends during set time periods of ten to twenty years observations. The analysis should reflect current situation and occurences. Based on this, the provincial government of DIY will be fully alert to local problems arising from food insecurity. Generally, DIY is very vulnerable to food insecurity due to the effects of natural disasters such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Provincial government needs to map the areas which are vulnerable and marked it based on the local income generation, source of livelihoods, and food accessibility status. Based on direct and indirect evidence, respective working units or technical departments can conduct situation analysis based on severity and establish administrative boundaries to foresee projected crises and scenarios to overcome.3. Linking up national – regional – sectoral policies is the third step in setting up strategic response framework with the objectives to predict outcomes before assessing the regional food security situation (food security impact assessment is defined by the status of food secure, moderately food insecure, acute food and livelihood crisis, humanitarian emergency, and famine/humanitarian catastrophe), support livelihoods, and address the underlying causes of famine and catasthrope (FAO, 2008). The identification of regional needs and national guidelines to achieve shall articulate a focal point for provincial priorities in 2011. This priorities were raw food sources diversification, improvement of food distribution and increasing food access level. Focal points determine the confidence level of policy implementation as an instrument to reduce overlapping roles among stakeholders. 5
  6. 6. ConclusionIn the monitoring and evaluation, DIY has adopted the strategic approaches defined by the FAO. Theprovincial governments incorporated the FAO’s food security framework which aimed at increasingand stabilizing food supply and improving food access and utilization with national policies andregional agendas. The food security frameworks coupled with national and sectoral food securitypolicies provide a broad pricture of food security status in DIY.In the context of food security decision making in DIY, the selected indicators for policy measuresand instruments have not yet captured the whole picture concerning the regional food situation. Toyield an adequate report on food security situation, the government need a focal point as a keytarget to set activities for monitoring and evaluation among stakeholders. Thus, each institution willwork and support each other to deliver necessary statistical data that depicts food security status inDIY.The most important step overall is an institutional set up. Formulation and implementation of foodsecurity policies should be under the steering committee which consists of high officials and decisionmakers. In the case of DIY, food security coordination was placed under the authority of theprovincial secretary; nevertheless, coordination was difficult to achieve due to overlapping tasks androles among relevant stakeholders, as well as budget limitations in running the proposed programs.Policy formulation specifically in DIY in general need a focal point. This point should be clear enoughto the districts level and brigde the differences of perception on the provincial and local level. Tomonitor and assess how far districts are implementing the focal point on food security, thecoordinated action in food security also should under steering committee of several respectiveinstitution on working units. 6
  7. 7. ReferenceIPC Global Partners, 2008. Integrated Food Security Phase Classification. Food and AgricultureOrganization. Rome.Inpres nomor 5 Tahun 2011. Pengamanan Produksi Beras dalam Menghadapi Kondisi Iklim Ekstrim.Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Daerah 2009 – 2013. Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta.UU nomor 7 Tahun 1996 tentang Pangan.WFP, 2010. Indonesia Food Security Atlas. 7

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