Real radiation pollution


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Real radiation pollution

  1. 1. RadiationIt comes from outer space, the ground, and even from within our own bodies. Radiation is all around us and has been present since the birth of this planet. Radiation simply is part of our daily lives. The word, “radiation,” generally brings to mind nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons, or medical diagnostics and treatments. Nonetheless, we routinely encounter a variety of radiation sources every day, for example, smoke detectors, household appliances, electrical power lines, and even the sun.
  2. 2. Radioactive pollution - can be defined as the emission of high energy particles or radioactive substance into air, water or land due to human activities in the form of radioactive waste. Radioactivity - is the term used to describe the natural process by which some atoms spontaneously disintegrate, emitting both particles and energy as they transform into different, more stable atoms. also called radioactive decay, occurs because unstable isotopes tend to transform into a more stable state.
  3. 3. Radioactive decay - occurs because unstable isotopes tend to transform into a more stable state. Radioactivity is measured in terms of disintegrations, or decays, per unit time. Common units of radioactivity are the Becquerel, equal to 1 decay per second, and the Curie, equal to 37 billion decays per second. Radioactive waste - is usually the product of a nuclear process such as nuclear fission, which is extensively used in nuclear reactors, nuclear weapons and other nuclear fuel-cycles. Radioactive pollution - that is spread through the earth’s atmosphere is called “Fallout”.
  4. 4. Causes of Radiation
  5. 5. In environment :
  6. 6. While there are many causes of radiation pollution (including research and medical procedures and wastes, nuclear power plants, TVs, computers, radio waves, cell-phones, etc.), the most common ones that can pose moderate to serious health risks include: * Production of nuclear fuel * Nuclear power reactors * Use of Radio nuclides in industries for various applications * Nuclear tests carried out by Defense Personnel * Disposal of nuclear waste * Uranium Mining
  7. 7. Effects Of Radiation
  8. 8. Effects in human body
  9. 9. • Harmful radiation occurs when unstable nuclei of atoms decay and release particles. When these particles touch various organic material such as tissue, damage may, and probably will be done. Such rays can cause: -burns -cancers -death -hair loss -can damage brain cells -heart failure
  10. 10. Uses of Radiation
  11. 11. In medicine -Radiation and radioactive substances are used for diagnosis, treatment, and research.
  12. 12. In communication - All modern communication systems use forms of electromagnetic radiation. Variations in the intensity of the radiation represent changes in the sound, pictures, or other information being transmitted.
  13. 13. In science - Researchers use radioactive atoms to determine the age of materials that were once part of a living organism. The age of such materials can be estimated by measuring the amount of radioactive carbon they contain in a process called radiocarbon dating. - Environmental scientists use radioactive atoms known as tracer atoms to identify the pathways taken by pollutants through the environment.
  14. 14. Prevention
  15. 15. On one hand, the peaceful uses of radioactive materials are so wide and effective that modern civilization cannot go without them, and on the other hand, there is no cure for radiation damage. However, the only option against nuclear hazards is to check and prevent radioactive pollution by taking the following measures and precautions.
  16. 16. safety measures should be enforced strictly leakages from nuclear reactors, careless handling, transport and use of radioactive fuels, fission products and radioactive isotopes have to be totally stopped; there should be regular monitoring and quantitative analysis through frequent sampling in the risk areas; waste disposal must be careful, efficient and effective. appropriate steps should be taken against occupational exposure. safety measures should be strengthened against nuclear accidents preventive measures should be followed so that background radiation levels do not exceed the permissible limits
  17. 17. Thus, we can say that radioactivity causes long range effects, affecting the future of humans and hence, the future of our civilization.
  18. 18. The three major types of conditions exists. Continuous pollution: This type of condition exists in uranium mines, nuclear reactors, test labs etc. where the humans are under continuous exposure to radioactive contaminants and protective clothing is required to avoid radiation exposure. Accidental Pollution: This type of condition exists during accidental exposure to radiations by virtue of equipment failure, radiation leak, faulty protective equipment etc. Occasional Pollution: This condition exists during isolated experiment or test of nuclear substance.
  19. 19. In land and water, the major source of radioactive pollution remains with the nuclear fuel cycle. The nuclear fuel cycle is used in nuclear power plants, extraction and refinement of materials from nuclear substance to be used in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons, where the contaminants are left behind after the useful material (Nuclear Isotope) is extracted.
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