Library Services and Trend in Malaysia - Dato' Raslin Abu Bakar


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OCLC Asia Pacific Regional Council Conference 2012, National Library of Malaysia, 3-4 September 2012.

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  • Good morning distinguished guests, speakers and delegates of the OCLC Asia Pacific Regional Council Membership Conference. I am deeply honour to be invited as the first speaker for this prestigious conference.
  • The content of my briefing today include the Overview of Libraries in Malaysia, Library Services and Trends, New Developments in Library Services, Digital Library services, New Media, key facts and figures, and collaborative activities and issues and challenges faced by libraries in Malaysia.
  • Overview of Libraries in Malaysia
  • Libraries in Malaysia include the National Library, the public libraries, Special Libraries. Academic Libraries ad School Libraries Public Libraries include the state libraries and its branches, rural libraries and community libraries. Special Libraries include Government Libraries/Corporate Libraries/Non-Governmental Organization’s (NGO’s) Libraries Academic Libraries are Institute of Higher Learning Libraries in universities, colleges, polytechnics and matriculation colleges School Libraries are Primary and Secondary School Libraries
  • The scenario of the development of libraries in Malaysia is quite unique whereby the NLM is responsible to oversee the overall development but NLM has no executive power to take control of them even though we do facilitate, monitor and channel some funding to the state public libraries. The current status of the various libraries is as follows: STATE/ PUBLIC LIBRARIES The State/Public Libraries are governed by their respective state Enactment. The role of NLM is to monitor development and operational budget. NLM are also one of the Member of the State Library Corporation Advisory Board. ACADEMIC LIBRARIES The Academic Libraries are under of the Ministry of Higher Education and is governed of the Universities and Universities Colleges Act 1971 (Act30) The NLM does not have any Executive power in the administration of Academic Libraries NLM cooperation with Academic Libraries in through PERPUN or Conference of Academic Library and National Library (PERPUN) SPECIAL LIBRARIES The role of the NLM is to provide human resource and advisory services to government special libraries. SCHOOL LIBRARIES NLM do not have any executive power to monitor or plan the development of school libraries
  • The number of libraries in Malaysia stands at 12,358 which consists of one (1) NLM, 319 state/public /municipal libraries, 1,089 rural libraries, 493 government special libraries, 168 private special libraries, 20 government university libraries, 346 private universities/colleges and 9,922 school libraries. The number of government special libraries has increased from 452 in 2006 to 506 in 2010 indicating that librarians and libraries in Malaysia are still very much needed despite the stiff challenges faced in this digital era. All academic libraries, state public libraries and most of special libraries are equip with internet access whereas some rural libraries and school libraries are still not connected. Under the Government plan, all libraries in Malaysia will be connected in the year 2015.
  • To date, with the cooperation of the state government and other government agencies, we have built 14 state libraries, 305 branch libraries, 1,089 rural libraries, 506 special government libraries, 174 special private libraries, 366 academic libraries and 9,922 school libraries. In total, there are 12,358 libraries in Malaysia to provide library services to the all categories of users.
  • Breakdown of Libraries in Malaysia
  • NLM as a Central Government Agency is responsible to oversee library services and development in the country. In order to carry out this responsible, NLM are empowered with two (2) acts, that is the National Library Act 1972 and the Deposit of Library Material Act 1986. Under the National Library Act 1972, NLM are entrusted to: to make available for the use of present and future generations a national collection of library resources; to facilitate nation-wide access to library resources available within the country and abroad; and (c) to provide leadership on matters pertaining to libraries. Whereas, under the Deposit of Library Material Act 1986, NLM are entrusted to collect, preserve and establish bibliographical control and use of library material published in Malaysia. This Act requires all publishers to deposit five (5) copies of printed materials or two (2) copies of non-printed materials to NLM as our national heritage. NLM is also guided by the National Policy on Library and Information Services and the Policy on Digitization of Library Materials in carrying out its functions. The two acts and the National Policy on Library and Information Services are currently being revised to keep abreast of the current needs of the library user as well as in this era of the globalization.
  • NLM Strategic Plan and directions are guided by the Ministry of Information, Communications and Culture‘s Long Term Strategic Plan 2010-2020. Hence, for the long term planning of National Library’s directions, we have drafted 2 strategic plans, that is, the NLM Strategic Plan (2009-2013) and the ICT Strategic Plan (2010-2013) which has been approved by the Ministry of Information Communication and Culture and the Malaysian Administrative Modernisation and Management Planning Unit (MAMPU). NLM is poised to lead the nation in its pursuit of knowledge guided by these three Strategic Plans and the government aspiration, People First, Performance Now.
  • Now, I will talk about Library Services and Trend in Malaysia.
  • Before I go in depth, I would like to highlight Some of the Key Facts and Figures related to library services in Malaysia.
  • As the Director General of NLM is also the head of library services in Malaysia, statistics on all the libraries in Malaysia are also compiled by NLM every year in order to oversee the development of libraries in Malaysia. A comparison of the statistics in 2007 and 2011 show a mark increase in collection, book loan, library users and library membership as follows : Library Membership As of December 2011, the total number of membership for all libraries in Malaysia including NLM stands at 9.9 million members as compared to 5.6 millions in 2007. Loan 24 million materials were loan by members of 2,429 libraries in Malaysia which include NLM, public libraries, special libraries, academic libraries and rural libraries in 2011 as compared to 12 million loans in 2007 Visitors The total number of visitors to 2,435 libraries in Malaysia was 42 million people in 2011 as compared to 21 million in 2007 showing a two fold increase in 2011. Collection The cumulative total volume of collection of 2,429 libraries in Malaysia stands at 122 million in 2011 as compared to 43 million in 2007 showing a almost 3 fold increase .
  • There were 2,156 libraries in 2007 as compared to 3,379 libraries in 2011 showing a 36 % increase in the number of libraries in the last four years. The library collection in the last four years has also increased by three folds from 42 million to 123 million. In terms of membership, it has almost doubled from 5.6 million t0 almost 10 million members. Visitors to libraries has also shown a two fold increase from 20 million to 42 million visitors. Loans of library materials has also doubled in the last four years, that is from 12 millions loan to 23 million loans despite the availability of information in the Internet. This shows that libraries are still very much needed in Malaysia despite the stiff challenges faced in this era of globalization.
  • Statistics of Library Services in NLM 2007 and 2011 As at the end of 2011, the cumulative total collection of the National Library of Malaysia stands at 3.7 million, the library membership has achieved the 1 million membership by the end of 2011 whereas throughout 2011, 416,472 million visitors visited NLM and borrowed 1 million library materials. NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MALAYSIA Collection To date, NLM collection stands at 3.6 MILLION. NLM collection is acquired through Deposit of Library Material Act, purchase, gift and exchange. Membership One of the key plan of NLM is to reach the million members by the end of 2011. As of December 2011, the membership of NLM stands at 1 million members. Visitors The number of visitors has also increased over the years whereby 420,000 visitors visited NLM. Loan The total number of materials loan by NLM’s members was 1.03 million. This is the highest number of books borrowed by users since NLM started lending services in 1985.
  • In order to ensure quality services are provided to the users, the Library Human Resource from various categories of libraries in Malaysia as in 2010 stands at 10,275 of which 1,355 are Professional staff and 8,920 are support staff. This shows a ratio of 1 professional staff to 7 supporting staff.
  • The breakdown of the library human resource in Malaysia according to category of libraries are as in the slide. Public academic libraries has the most number of professional librarians whereas private special library has the least number of professional as well as support staff.
  • In order for libraries in Malaysia to stay relevant in this challenging era is to introduce new services such as digital library services.
  • The development of digital library initiative in Malaysia was started in the year 2000 with the establishment of National Digital Library System or known as PERDANA. This initiative involved collaboration of government libraries which include NLM, university libraries, special libraries and statutory bodies. Under this initiative, MyLib portal was develop as a gateway to access local content as well as subscribed databases.
  • The biggest project under PERDANA is the National Union Catalogue or Katalog Induk Kebangsaan. This project is a collaboration or consortium among 101 libraries in Malaysia. It is a web based database currently consisting more than 5 millions bibliographic records. The National Union Catalogue is recorded as one of the most popular Government Online services in the year 2011. National Union Catalogue is being used as the platform for cooperative inter-lending in the latest Malaysian collaborative project that is u-Pustaka. I shall touch on this project later.
  • In order to improve library services inline with the increase usage of e-resources by the users, NLM provide public domain as well as subscribed and purchased e-resources to the Malaysian citizen by widening its access to its electronic resources through NLM’s Electronic Resources Portal or Digital Resources@NLM effective 1 March 2012. This is a single sign on portal to all the electronic resources in the library and can be access anytime, anywhere and by anyone (Malaysia citizen) through personal computer, tablet computer, laptop, smart phone and other electronic gadgets. This service is provided free to all Malaysians and can access this electronic resources portal by registering as an online member through this portal or the National Library of Malaysia portal
  • Every Malaysian can access this electronic resources portal by registering as an online member through this portal or the National Library of Malaysia Official Portal . As at May 2012, 844 people has registered as online member and 1,861 people have visited the portal for reference and lending. The electronic resources that can be access through this portal include e-book, e-journal, e-magazine, e-newspaper, e-catalogues, audio book and online databases.
  • The electronic resources that can be access through this portal include e-book, e-journal, e-magazine, e-newspaper, e-catalogues, audio book and online databases. Among the online databases available in this portal include Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Library Edition, World E-Book Library, Overdrive e-book, e-Brary, EBSCO Host and Zinio e-Magazine.
  • The total collection of e-books is more than 3 million which include borrowing and downloading of e-books, e-magazine and digitized content.
  • Selected rare books are digitised and made available in this portal.
  • Selected Malay Manuscripts are digitised and made available through this portal.
  • Digital Library services are also provided by other libraries which include most of the university library, state library and government special library. Some example of Malaysian digital libraries are the Tan Sri Dr. Abdullah Sanusi Library at the Open University, IIUM Digital Library, Siti Hasmah Digital Library at the Multimedia University and the Sarawak State Library.
  • Collaboration among university libraries resulted in the development of MyUniNet Portal through PERPUN (Conference of Chief Librarian of Government University and National Library) platform.
  • Two main databases under MyUNINET - Malaysian Theses Online (MYTO) and Malaysian Union List of Serials IPTA/IPTS (MyULIS)
  • Malaysian libraries also embark on local content development since 1999. For example, the Malaysian Monarchy Portal was developed by the National Library of Malaysia under special Government Grant. This portal is link to the respective State Monarchy Portal. Among the other initiatives are the International Islamic Digital Library portal, Warisan Budaya or Malay Heritage portal and Sejarah Malaysia or Malaysian History portal etc. Many special libraries has also embark on developing digital library services and well as digitized their library collection. Among them are the Ministry of International Trade Industry Library, Ministry of Health Library, Photo Library, Department of Information, Attorney General Library, and some other libraries.
  • Besides developing online local content, Malaysia libraries also publish local content in other format that is multimedia CD-ROMs such as The Legend of Mahsuri Puteri Gunung Ledang (Princess from Gunung Ledang) Children Nursery Rhyme Perlis Indera Kayangan Perlis Cultural and Arts Heritage
  • In the year 2010, the Government launched the National Broadband Initiative (NBI) with the aim to increase internet penetration throughout the country. Under NBI, library was brought along under the strategy “leverage on traditional information resources’” with the aim to widen access to library resources. In order to achieve this strategy, a Pilot Project on the “ubiquitous Library” (u-Library) or u-Pustaka was launched in 30 th Mac 2011.
  • u-Pustaka is an innovation that manifests a collaborative synergy from the  Ministry of Information Communications and Culture (KPKK)  through  Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) , with the support of the National Library of Malaysia (PNM)  and the following u-Pustaka Consortium members: Selangor State Library Corporation (PPAS) , Negeri Sembilan State Library Corporation (PPANS) , Pahang State Library Corporation (PPAP) , Sarawak State Library (Pustaka) , Kuala Lumpur Library (PKL) , INTAN Library at Bukit Kiara  and Sabah State Library . u-Pustaka is realised through the innovative collaboration from the following agencies: Malaysian Administrative Modernisation and Management Planning Unit (MAMPU) Economic Planning Unit (EPU) National Registration Department, Ministry of Home Affairs(JPN) National Centre of Excellence for Sensor Technology (NEST), Universiti Putra Malaysia Pos Malaysia Berhad (PMB) Malaysian Electronic Clearing Corporation Sdn. Bhd. (MyClear) Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad Touch 'n Go Sdn Bhd The major achievement of the u-Pustaka pilot project which was launched on 31st March 2011 was winning the MSC (Multimedia Super Corridor) Malaysia- APICTA 2011 Award in the “Best of e-Inclusion & e-Community” category in October 2011. The award is a testimony of the success of this pilot project. U-Pustaka has been identified by the Government‘s Economic Planning Unit as an effective solution to bridge the “digital divide” because it uses traditional resource centres like libraries to push the digital inclusion initiative.
  • The objective of this project is to provide physical and digital access to knowledge resources anytime, anywhere and by anyone and “putting a library in every home” with the motto “ Think knowledge, Think u-Pustaka”. Borrowing and returning of library materials can be done anytime and anywhere and information discovery can also be done by anyone at anytime and anywhere.
  • Und er this project lending facilities is extended including services where books will be delivered to their respective house/ office by the national courier service. “Book Drops” are also provided at all the u-Pustaka consortium members’ library. u-Library project is planned to be enrolled to the other seven (7) state public library in the year 2013.
  • New Media in Library services.
  • Malaysian libraries take the benefit of the National Broadband Initiative to effectively disseminate information, develop local digital content, and to use the new media such as blog, portal, face book, and other social media or online service to ensure information and library services are available and accessible anytime, anywhere and by anyone. To date, most of the major library in Malaysia has their own facebook and/or blog. NLM has its own blog ( ) as well a NLM’s face book ( ) for the public to interact with NLM.
  • NLM’s Blog can be access at
  • Cooperation and collaboration among libraries in Malaysia was established as early as in 1970s. There are two (2) major platform for this cooperation that is PERPUN and PMM.
  • PERPUN is a forum of cooperation between all the Head of University Libraries, GLC University Libraries and Director General, National Library of Malaysia. The first project is in cooperative cataloguing or popularly known as MALMARC (Malaysian Machine Readable Catalog). Among issues discussed in this forum of discussion are: The establishment of electronic library network between university libraries; Current information services, subscription of databases and publication delivery services between Malaysian Academic Libraries; and They meet every three months, and each of the libraries will take turn to host the meeting. Since the year 2005, PERPUN has actively produced a number of projects which benefits the Malaysian students and scholars. Among the projects are : MyTO (Malaysian Theses Online), e-Repository, Malaysian Gateway Internet Resources, Union List of Serials IPTA/IPTS (MyULIS).
  • Librarians Association of Malaysia or better known as Persatuan Pustakawan Malaysia (PPM), the professional body for the library and information services in Malaysia was founded in 1955 as a Malayan Library Group. PPM is the national voice representing librarians from all types of libraries in Malaysia and have greatly contributed to the status and development of libraries in Malaysia. Among the objectives of this association is to unite all persons engaged in libraries and information work and/or studies; and to provide and support education and training to enhance the knowledge, qualifications and status of members of the profession .
  • The issues and challenges faced by libraries in Malaysia
  • These are some of the issues and challenges faced by the NLM and libraries in Malaysia. Based on the National Reading Survey conducted by the National Library in the year 2005, Malaysians read an average of 8-12 book a year. This finding indicate that Reading Habit among Malaysia is low and library must play a role inculcating the reading habit among Malaysians by carrying out more creative and innovative activities. The second issue/challenge is to ensure Continuous Funding for Library Services and Collection Development. Funding is currently quite critical among some private university and special libraries. I believe this issue is also faced by the other library in the world. The next issue is the Lack of Coordination in Intellectual Property Management in Malaysia. This issue hinders digitization of library resources. However, some effort has been taken by some agency through implementation of national content development project. The other issue is the slow development in e-publishing in the country. Most of the publisher are not keen to take risk in e-publishing. However, some major publisher has embarked on e-publishing either by extending their products or through collaboration with other party. In this case, the library cannot provide many current local e-book and still need to purchase physical book to our user . I realize that, libraries in Malaysia have to adapt fast to the changing environment of information needs and new technology advances. We also have to be more sensitive to policies pertaining to globalization and ICT industries in order to stay relevant and to transform ourselves in order to keep abreast with these changing environment. Whatever issues or challenges the libraries and librarians shall face, I am confident that there will always be opportunity for us to improve our library services to fulfill the needs and aspirations of our citizen. With this remark, I conclude my presentation. Thank you for kind attention. Before I end my presentation, once again I would like to thank to the organizer for inviting me to present the first paper for this Seminar. Have a good day and thank you again.
  • .
  • Library Services and Trend in Malaysia - Dato' Raslin Abu Bakar

    2. 2. NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MALAYSIACONTENT PRESENTATION1 Overview of Libraries in Malaysia2 Library Services and Trend in Malaysia Gambar3 New Developments In Library Services bangunan4 Digital Libraries PNM5 New Media6 Collaborative Activities7 Issues and Challenges
    3. 3. TYPE OF LIBRARIES IN MALAYSIA TYPE OF LIBRARIES CATEGORIES National Library State libraries and its branches Public Libraries Rural libraries/Community Libraries Government Libraries/Corporate Libraries/Non- Special Libraries Governmental Organization’s (NGO’s) Libraries Academic Libraries Institute of Higher Learning Libraries School Libraries Primary and Secondary School Libraries4
    4. 4. LIBRARY GOVERNANCE IN TYPE OF MALAYSIA ADMINISTRATIVE ROLE OF NLMLIBRARIES POWER To channel and monitorPublic State Government/Local development and operational budgetLibraries Authority on behalf of the Federal government To provide human resource andSpecial Government Agency/ advisory services to governmentLibraries Private Agency/NGO special libraries • To provide human resource and Ministry of Higher advisory services to academicAcademic Education/Ministry of libraries under MOELibraries Education (MOE) • Does not have any executive power /Government Ministries in term of Academic library development Does not have any executive powerSchool Ministry of Education/ in term of the development of schoolLibraries Private Agency 5 libraries
    5. 5. STATISTICS ON LIBRARIES TYPE OF LIBRARIES TOTAL LIBRARIES National Library 1 State/ Public/Municipal Libraries 319 Rural Libraries 1,089 Special Libraries •Government Agencies (Common User) 493 •Private agencies (Non common User) 168 Academic Libraries •Government 20 •Private University/College/Institution 346 School Libraries 9,922 TOTAL 12,3586
    6. 6. ACADEMIC LIBRARY NLM (366) (1) SCHOOL LIBRARY (9,922) Govt. Private (20) (346) Rural library (1,089) PUBLIC/STATE/ SPECIAL BRANCH LIBRARY LIBRARY (319) (661) Government Private Agency Community Mobile Library Library Library Library (174) (506) 7
    7. 7. LIBRARIES IN MALAYSIA 12,358 1  National Library of Malaysia 1401  State Public Libraries - State (14), Region (1), Branch/District (173), Town (15),Rural (1,089), Mobile (82) 366  Academic Libraries - IPTA (20), IPTS (346) 493  Special Libraries (Ministries/Department/Government Agencies) 174  Special Libraries (Private Agencies) 9922  School Resource Centres - Primary School (7,643), Secondary School (2,163)Source :National Library of Malaysia 8 Suruhanjaya Komunikasi dan Multimedia Malaysia. Off Persiaran Multimedia, 63000 Cyberjaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan. Tel : +603 - 8688 8000 Fax : +603 - 8688 1000 8
    8. 8. NLM ACTS & POLICIES An Act for theNational Library Act establishment of the 1972 (Act 80) National Library(Include amendments as at 1 January 2006) An Act to make NLM preservation, conservation,Deposit of Library ACTS bibliographical control Material Act 1986 and use of library (Act 331) & materials published in Malaysia NL M POLICIES National Policy on Guidelines for the Library and systematic and plannedInformation Services development of library 1994 and information services in Malaysia Policy on Digitization A policy for the of Library Materials systematic and 2010 planned digitization of library materials
    9. 9. STRATEGIC PLAN Ministry Long Term NLM Strategic Plan ICT Strategic Plan Strategic Plan (2009-2013) (2010 – 2013) (2010-2020)10
    11. 11. LIBRARY SERVICES IN MALAYSIA 2007 - 2011Service No. of s Collection Membershi Librarie Visitors Loan p sYear 2007 2,156 42,997,541 5,672,068 20,677,299 12,141,277 122,985,6 42,377,02 23,490,70 2011 3,379 9,951,256 29 3 5 14
    12. 12. LIBRARY SERVICES IN NLM 2007 - 2011Services Collectio Membershi Visitors Loan n pYear 2007 2,507,081 768,345 493,134 472,067 1,034,50NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MALAYSIA 2011 3,661,782 1,000,278 416,472 7 201115
    14. 14. LIBRARY HUMAN RESOURCE IN MALAYSIA PROFESSIONAL SUPPORT TOTAL TYPE OF LIBRARIES AND STAFF STAFF MANAGEMENTNational Library of Malaysia 140 330 470State Public Libraries 127 3,586 3,713Rural Libraries - 1,251 1,251Special LibrariesGovernment Agencies 160 1,484 1,644 (Common User) Private Agencies 41 29 70 (Non Common User)Academic Libraries 545 1,693 2,238Government Private 342 547 889 1,355 TOTAL 8,920 10,27517
    15. 15. MyLib
    18. 18. DIGITAL LIBRARY SERVICES• Effective 1 March 2012 single sign on portal to all the electronic resources in the library provided free to all Malaysians• Every Malaysian can access this electronic resources portal by registering as an online member• Online registration and access to this portal via: National Library of Malaysia Official Portal Electronic Resources Portal• 844 people has registered as online member and 1,861 people have visited the portal
    19. 19. ELECTRONIC RESOURCES PORTALu-Pustaka PortalE-resources PortalMyTo PortalMyULIS PortalMyUnet PortalWeb Portal
    23. 23. MALAYSIAN DIGITAL LIBRARIESTan Sri Dr. Abdullah Sanusi Library IIUM Digital Library (Open University) Siti Hasmah Digital Library (Multimedia University) Sarawak State Library
    26. 26. DIGITAL CONTENTS DEVELOPMENT PORTALS Raja Kita - Kedah Raja Kita - Perlis MALAYSIAN MONARCHY Raja Kita – Negeri Sembilan
    27. 27. DIGITAL CONTENT DEVELOPMENT Electronic Publications
    29. 29. NLM ACHIEVEMENT MSC Malaysia-Asia Pacific ICT Alliance (APICTA) 2011 Award For Ubiquitious Library (u-Pustaka) Portal Pilot Project
    30. 30. TWO ASPECTS OF ACCESS : PHYSICAL & DIGITAL UBIQUITOUS LIBRARY ACCESS Physical Access “anytime, anywhere” WITH Digital Access “anytime, anywhere” BB Digitization National Union Sensor NUC/Inter- Catalogue Technology Lending Service U-Portal/Library Mgt. System Content U-Portal/LibraryRFID technology & Delivery Channel Management System Information Discovery Information Discovery Borrowing & Returning Borrowing & Returning Anytime, Anywhere by Anytime, Anywhere by Anytime, Anywhere Anytime, Anywhere Anyone Anyone 34
    31. 31. OVERVIEW OF U-PUSTAKA U-Pustaka’s book-drop U-Pustaka’s self-check machine RFID-enabled self-service machines for borrowing and returning books35
    32. 32. 36
    33. 33. NEW MEDIA NLM’s facebook ( Perpustakaan-Negara- Malaysia/172548049440558) Interact with public… -The Director General of NLM’s blog ( saluransosialpnm/)37
    35. 35. PERPUN is a forum of cooperation between all the Head of Public University Libraries, GLC University Libraries and Director General, National Library of Malaysia40
    36. 36. Librarians Association of Malaysia or better known as Persatuan Pustakawan Malaysia (PPM), the professional body for the library and information services in Malaysia41
    37. 37. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES Low Reading Literacy Rate No Continuous Funding for Library Services and Collection Development Lack of Coordination in Intellectual Property Management Slow development in e-Publishing
    38. 38. Thank you Dato’ Raslin Bin Abu Bakar Director - General National Library of Malaysia 232 Jalan Tun Razak 50572 Kuala Lumpur MALAYSIA Tel: 603- 26871901 Fax: 603-2692 7083 Email: raslin@pnm.myWeb site: : PEOPLE FIRST, PERFORMANCE NOW