Sensors

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sensors used in mechatronics

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Sensors

  1. 1. SENSORS
  2. 2. 2 Classification of Sensor based on Output <ul><li>Discrete (sometimes called digital , logic , or bang-bang ) - sensors provide a single logical output (a zero or one) </li></ul><ul><li>Proportional (sometimes called analog ) - provide an analog output. The output may be a voltage, current, resistance, or even a digital word containing a discrete value. </li></ul>
  3. 3. For discrete sensors, there are two types of outputs <ul><li>the NPN or sinking output, </li></ul><ul><li>the PNP or sourcing output </li></ul>
  4. 4. + 18 to 30 Volts DC. 0 V Output 24v DC 0v PNP Type Output is Positive Positive switching
  5. 5. + 18 to 30 Volts DC. 0 V Output 24v DC 0v NPN Type Output switches through to 0v Negative switching
  6. 6. Proximity Sensors Optical Inductive Reed Switch Inductive Magnetic Capacitive Symbols Connection
  7. 7. Optical Sensors Type : Through-beam
  8. 8. Electronic Sensors : Capacitive Proximity Sensor G 1. Oscillator 2. Demodulator 3. Triggering Stage 4. Switching status LED indicator 5. Output Stage with protective Circuit 6. External Voltage 7. Internal Stabilized Voltage 8. Active Switching Zone (Condenser) 9. Switching Output 1 2 3 4 5 9 7 6 8
  9. 9. Target Optical Sensors Type : Through-beam Transmitter Receiver
  10. 10. Optical Sensors Type : Through-beam Transmitter Receiver
  11. 11. Optical Sensors Type : Retro reflective
  12. 12. Optical Sensors Type : Retro reflective Reflector (prismatic) Transmitter / Receiver T R
  13. 13. Transmitter / Receiver Reflector (prismatic) T R Optical Sensors Type : Retro reflective
  14. 14. Transmitter / Receiver Reflector (prismatic) T R Optical Sensors Type : Retro reflective
  15. 15. Optical Sensors Type : Diffuse
  16. 16. Optical Sensors Type : Diffuse Target Transmitter / Receiver T R
  17. 17. Transmitter / Receiver Optical Sensors Type : Diffuse T R
  18. 18. Transmitter / Receiver Optical Sensors Type : Diffuse Sensing distance : much less than reflex type, actual distance depends on colour and reflective nature of the surface Larger targets result in longer sensing distances Not suitable for dirty environments T R
  19. 19. Inductive Sensor
  20. 20. Electronic Sensors : Inductive Proximity Sensor G 1. Oscillator 2. Demodulator 3. Triggering Stage 4. Switching status LED indicator 5. Output Stage with protective Circuit 6. External Voltage 7. Internal Stabilized Voltage 8. Active Switching Zone (Coil) 9. Switching Output 1 2 3 4 5 9 7 6 8
  21. 21. Connection cable LED indicator Resonant circuit coil Active surface High Frequency magnetic field (300 to 800 kHz) Inductive Sensor
  22. 22. Sensor Oscillation Amplitude Sensor output signal ON OFF Target Inductive Sensor
  23. 23. Oscillation Amplitude Sensor output signal ON OFF Sensor Target Inductive Sensor
  24. 24. Oscillation Amplitude Sensor output signal ON OFF Sensor Will detect any conductive material Quoted distances are for mild steel Sensor performance can be affected by:- Temperature, Target material, and Target dimensions. Target Inductive Sensor
  25. 25. Reed Switch
  26. 26. Glass Tube filled with nitrogen Reed contacts LED indicator
  27. 27. Reed Switch 24v
  28. 28. Interference from other magnetic fields must be avoided. If positioned in mid stroke, switching point will vary depending on direction of appoach. Maximum current must be limited to avoid burning of the reed contacts. Reed Switch
  29. 29. Inductive Magnetic Sensor
  30. 30. Connection cable LED Indicator Resonant circuit coil High Frequency magnetic field Inductive Magnetic Sensor
  31. 31. Inductive Magnetic Sensor
  32. 32. Inductive principle of operation - but only reacts to magnetic fields Interference from other magnetic fields must be avoided. Solid state device - higher switching frequency - 1kHz Inductive Magnetic Sensor
  33. 33. Capacitive Sensor
  34. 34. Electronic Sensors : Capacitive Proximity Sensor G 1. Oscillator 2. Demodulator 3. Triggering Stage 4. Switching status LED indicator 5. Output Stage with protective Circuit 6. External Voltage 7. Internal Stabilized Voltage 8. Active Switching Zone (Condenser) 9. Switching Output 1 2 3 4 5 9 7 6 8
  35. 35. Connection cable Adjusting screw LED indicator Active surface Active electrode Earth electrode Electrostatic field Sensor is looking for a change in capacitance in the active field Capacitive Sensor
  36. 36. Capacitive Sensor
  37. 37. Capacitive Sensor Detects any material denser than air. (as long as there is enough of it) Can be adjusted for sensitivity Can be affected by dusty environments
  38. 38. Capacitive Sensor As the level rises the fluid affects the sensor field.
  39. 39. Sensor Symbols
  40. 40. + 18 to 30 Volts DC. 0 V Output Inductive Capacitive Optical Magnetic Ultrasonic Normally open Normally closed
  41. 42. Oscillation Amplitude Sensor output signal ON OFF Sensor Will detect any conductive material Quoted distances are for mild steel Sensor performance can be affected by:- Temperature, Target material, and Target dimensions. Target Inductive Sensor
  42. 43. Capacitive Sensor Detects any material denser than air. (as long as there is enough of it) Can be adjusted for sensitivity Can be affected by dusty environments
  43. 44. Target Optical Sensors Type : Through-beam Long sensing distance : up to 30 metres with some devices Will detect all but very transparent materials Must be accurately aligned Transmitter Receiver
  44. 45. Transmitter / Receiver Optical Sensors Type : Reflex Reflector (prismatic) Sensing distance : 1 / 2 to 1 / 3 of through-beam type. Not suitable for reflective or transparent targets Target should be larger than the reflector T R
  45. 46. Transmitter / Receiver Optical Sensors Type : Diffuse Sensing distance : much less than reflex type, actual distance depends on colour and reflective nature of the surface Larger targets result in longer sensing distances Not suitable for dirty environments T R
  46. 47. Interference from other magnetic fields must be avoided. If positioned in mid stroke, switching point will vary depending on direction of appoach. Maximum current must be limited to avoid burning of the reed contacts. Reed Switch
  47. 48. Inductive principle of operation - but only reacts to magnetic fields Interference from other magnetic fields must be avoided. Solid state device - higher switching frequency - 1kHz Inductive Magnetic Sensor

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