Disaster Management


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Disaster Management

  1. 1. Disaster Management DR.VIKRAM GUPTA PG Student(PSM),Patiala
  2. 2. Disaster • A Disaster can be defined as “any occurrence that causes damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life or deterioration of health & health services on a scale sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the effected community or area.”
  3. 3. Hazard • A Hazard can be defined as any phenomenon that has the potential to cause disruption or damage to people & environment
  4. 4. • Emergencies & disasters affect health & well- being of the people • Large numbers of people are displaced, killed or injured or subjected to greater RISK OF EPIDEMICS. • Disasters cause great harm to the existing infrastructure & threaten the future of sustainable development.
  5. 5. DISASTER IN INDIA  India has been traditionally vulnerable to natural disasters on account of its unique geo-climatic conditions.  Floods, droughts, cyclones, earthquakes and landslides have been a recurrent phenomena.  About 60% of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of various intensities; over 40 million hectares is prone to floods;  about 8% of the total area is prone to cyclones and 68% of the area is susceptible to drought.  In the decade 1990-2000, an average of about 4344 people lost their lives and about 30 million people were affected by disasters every year.  The loss in terms of private, community and public assets has been astronomical.
  6. 6. • The super cyclone in Orissa in October, 1999 and the Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat in January, 2001 underscored the need to adopt a multi dimensional endeavour involving diverse scientific, engineering, financial and social processes; the need to adopt multi disciplinary and multi sectoral approach and incorporation of risk reduction in the developmental plans and strategies.
  7. 7. • United Nations General Assembly, in 1989, declared the decade 1990-2000 as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction with the objective to reduce loss of lives and property and restrict socio-economic damage through concerted international action, specially in developing countries.
  8. 8. Types of Disasters • Earthquakes • Cyclones & Tornadoes • Floods & Tidal Waves • Landslides & Volcanic Eruptions • Hurricanes • Snow storms • Severe Air Pollution (Smog) • Famines • Epidemics
  9. 9. Types of Disasters…………… • Building Collapse • Toxicological Accidents • Nuclear Accidents • Warfare (Warfare is a special category as damage is the Intended Goal of Action)
  10. 10. Earthquakes have highest mortality as a result of people being crushed by falling objects & at night they are deadly
  11. 11. Factors affecting Injuries & death • Type of disaster • Density & distribution of the population • Condition of the Environment • Degree of the preparedness • Oppurtunities of Warning
  12. 12. Injuries >>> Death • Explosions • Eartquakes • Typhoons & Hurricanes • Fires
  13. 13. Death >>> Injuries • Landslides • Avalanches • Volcanic Eruptions • Tidal waves • Floods
  14. 14. Morbidity of Disaster • On the whole, morbidity which results from a disaster situation can be classified into four types: • 1. Injuries • 2. Emotional Stress • 3. Epidemic of the Disease • 4. Increase in the Indigenous Diseases.
  15. 15. Disaster Management • There are three Fundamental aspects: 1.Disaster Response 2. Disaster Preparedness 3. Disaster Mitigation
  16. 16. Disaster Impact & Response • Search Rescue & First-aid- most immediate help comes from uninjured survivors. • Field care- Proper care , beds, surgical services, food , shelter , inquiry Centre establishment, Victim’s identification & provision of adequate mortuary space. • Triage • Tagging regarding name age address, diagnosis & treatment • Identification of dead & shifting to mortuary & reception of bereaved relatives.
  17. 17. Triage • Triage consists of rapidly classifying the injured on the basis of the severity of their injuries & the likelihood of their survival with prompt medical intervention. • Highest priority is granted to victims whose immediate or long term prognosis can be dramatically affected by simple intensive care. • Moribund patients who require a great deal of attention , with questionable benefit have the lowest priority.
  18. 18. Red indicates highest priority of t/t. Yellow signals medium priority Green indicates ambulatory patients Black for Dead or Moribund patients
  19. 19. Relief Phase • This phase begins when assistance from outside starts to reach the disaster area. • The needed supplies will include food , blankets , clothings , shelter , sanitary engineering Equipment & construction material. • Four principal components in managing humanitarian supplies: • a) Acquisition of supplies b)Transportation • c)Storage D) Distribution
  20. 20. Epidemiological surveillance & Disease Control • Disasters can increase the transmission of Communicable diseases by Overcrowding & poor sanitation Population displacement Contaminated water supply Disruption of routine control programmes Breeding of vectors Displacement of domestic & wild animals who carry zoonoses e.g. Leptospirosis in Orissa cyclone
  21. 21. After Disaster • There may be Gastroenteritis outbreak Acute respiratory infections Vector Borne diseases Zoonoses
  22. 22. Epidemiological surveillance & Disease Control………………. • Implement all public health measure as soon as possible • Organize a reliable disease reporting system to identify outbreaks and to promptly initiate disease control measures • Investigate rapidly
  23. 23. Rehabilitation • It starts from very first moment of disaster. • Water supply – increase residual chlorine level to about 0.2-0.5mg per litre. • Keep safe the water resources by fencing & restricting access of animals. • Prevent every possible means of contamination
  24. 24. • Food safety personal hygiene & kitchen sanitation must be ensured. • Basic Sanitation & personal Hygiene Safe excreta disposal should be ensured. • Vector Control must be Intensified.
  25. 25. Disaster Preparedness • Adopting standards & regulations • Organize communication, information & warning symptoms
  26. 26. SAARC Disaster Committee
  27. 27. Thanks…….