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The Third Wave of International Student Mobility & Global Competitiveness of Asian Universities

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Speaker: Dr. Rahul Choudaha, Research Associate at the Center for Studies in Higher Education at UC Berkeley

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The Third Wave of International Student Mobility & Global Competitiveness of Asian Universities

  1. 1. Rahul Choudaha, Ph.D. Rahul Choudaha, Ph.D. The Third Wave of International Student Mobility & Global Competitiveness of Asian Universities Friday, June 7, 2019 Institute of Contemporary Asian Studies (ICAS), Temple University, Tokyo
  2. 2. Rahul Choudaha, Ph.D. “T-shaped” Scholar-Practitioner • International student mobility and its implications for university global engagement strategies and national policies • Over a decade of working in New York City and San Francisco Bay Area • Presented ~150 sessions at professional conferences • Quoted ~300 times in global media publications Engineering & Management Data-Informed Strategies HigherEducation AppliedResearch
  3. 3. Rahul Choudaha, Ph.D. 138% growth in internationally mobile students between 2001 and 2016 (2.2 m. to 5.1 m.) Consider complexity and unpredictability Examine source and destination country patterns Recognize diversity of student segments Ensure future sustainability of growth
  4. 4. Rahul Choudaha, Ph.D. • 2001-2008 • Terrorist attack of 9/11 • 2.2 m. – 3.3 m. (+50% or 1.1 m.) Wave I • 2008-2016 • Global financial recession • 3.3 m. – 5.1 m. (+55% or 1.8 m.) Wave II • 2016-2024 • New political order • 5.1m – 7.9m? (+55% or 2.8 m.) Wave III Adapted from Choudaha, Rahul (2017). Three waves of international student mobility. Studies in Higher Education. https://bit.ly/3Waves
  5. 5. Rahul Choudaha, Ph.D. Diversity of student segments Source: Choudaha, R., Orosz, K. & Chang, L. (2012). Not All International Students are the Same. World Education Services. Academic Preparedness FinancialResources LowHigh Low High STRIVERS Advancement HIGHFLIERS Reputation EXPLORERS Experience STRUGGLERS Immigration
  6. 6. Rahul Choudaha, Ph.D. Shifts in destination countries 2001 2008 2016 % Change (2001- 2008) % Change (2008- 2016) USA 475,168 624,474 971,417 31% 56% UK 225,722 341,791 432,001 51% 26% Australia 120,987 230,635 335,512 91% 45% Canada 42,711 93,479 189,478 119% 103% Italy 29,228 68,306 92,655 134% 36% Netherlands 16,589 30,052 89,920 81% 199% Japan 63,637 126,568 143,457 99% 13% China .. 51,038 137,527 .. 169% Malaysia 16,480 41,310 124,133 151% 200% Turkey 16,656 20,219 87,903 21% 335% Saudi Arabia .. 18,725 79,854 .. 326% UAE .. .. 77,463 .. .. Total 2,178,710 3,321,596 5,085,893 52% 53% Source: Author’s analysis based on UIS.Stat
  7. 7. Rahul Choudaha, Ph.D. Shifts in source countries 2001 2008 2016 % Change (2001- 2008) % Change (2008- 2016) China 176,473 458,100 866,072 160% 89% Germany 56,852 83,235 119,088 46% 43% France 51,911 46,978 90,543 -10% 93% S. Korea 72,232 117,533 104,992 63% -11% India 78,509 186,033 301,406 137% 62% Kazakhstan 23,620 46,804 90,187 98% 93% Nigeria 23,391 41,299 95,731 77% 132% Saudi Arabia 11,291 24,930 90,178 121% 262% Viet Nam 9,828 36,076 82,159 267% 128% Ukraine 19,929 31,659 77,263 59% 144% Bangladesh 10,275 17,344 61,430 69% 254% Total 2,178,710 3,321,596 5,085,893 52% 53%Source: Author’s analysis based on UIS.Stat
  8. 8. Rahul Choudaha, Ph.D. 0 500,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 2,000,000 2,500,000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 International Student Mobility Forecast by Income-level of Source Countries Analysis by Rahul Choudaha based on UNESCO data Wave I Wave II Wave III Upper-Middle Income High Income Lower-Middle Income Low Income
  9. 9. Rahul Choudaha, Ph.D. Increasing cost of education  “Increases to student fees and tuition prompt outrage among student groups” The New School Free Press, Apr 18, 2019  “International students not here to balance Dalhousie’s budget” The Coast, Apr 11, 2019  “Poor English, few jobs: Are Australian universities using international students as 'cash cows’?” ABC, Nov 18, 2018  “Int'l students complain of higher tuition rise than Koreans” Korea Times, Apr 14, 2019
  10. 10. Rahul Choudaha, Ph.D. Decreasing opportunities to recover cost of education
  11. 11. Rahul Choudaha, Ph.D. Increasing tuition and living costs Decreasing work and immigration pathways Higher expectations of “value for money”
  12. 12. Rahul Choudaha, Ph.D.  UK and Australia gains; US looses  Bologna Declaration (1999)  Excellence Initiatives in Asia  Student need: ease of visa and pathways to immigration  Institutional context: research Wave I (2001-2008)
  13. 13. Rahul Choudaha, Ph.D. Excellence Initiatives  “Japan is recognised for having been actively engaged in world-class university policy through a series of governmental projects and excellence initiatives: for example,  21st Century Centres of Excellence (2002-09)  Global Centres of Excellence (2007-14),  Global 30 (2009-15)  Top Global University Project (2014 onward).” Source: Akiyoshi Yonezawa (2019) A new national role for universities, but little funding. University World News
  14. 14. Rahul Choudaha, Ph.D.  US gains with proactive recruitment  Intensive English Programs boom  Rise of English-Medium Programs  Student need: academic support  Institutional context: financial Wave II (2008-2016)
  15. 15. Rahul Choudaha, Ph.D. English-Medium Instruction  Barrier to the improvement of EMI programmes is a misperception that English language proficiency is the defining factor for success  Proposes less emphasis on language and greater attention to pedagogical and intercultural skills development Annette Bradford (2018) It's not all about English! The problem of language foregrounding in English-medium programmes in Japan, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, DOI: 10.1080/01434632.2018.1551402
  16. 16. Rahul Choudaha, Ph.D.  Threat to sustainability of mobility  US and UK and (Australia?) to loose  Decline in Intensive English Programs  Rising competitiveness of new destinations  Student need: value for money  Institutional context: innovation Wave III (2016-2024)
  17. 17. Rahul Choudaha, Ph.D. Program mobility to complement student mobility Georgia Tech's online Master of Science in Computer Science (OMS CS) launched in 2013 cost ~$6,600
  18. 18. Rahul Choudaha, Ph.D. Sustainability of international mobility in the Third Wave hinges on innovating to deliver “value for money” Consider complexity and unpredictability Examine source and destination country patterns Recognize diversity of student segments Ensure future sustainability of growth
  19. 19. Rahul Choudaha, Ph.D. Discussion Questions  To what extent government policies in Japan are aligned with the institutional practices?  How are Japanese universities enhancing their competitiveness and offering “value for money” for international students?  What are the lessons learned from English-Medium Instruction Programs? Any differences by bachelor’s and master’s programs?

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