Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Tattoo and Bathhouse Bans in Contemporary Japan

102 views

Published on

ICAS public lecture: Irezumi vs.Tattoos - Perceptions of Japanese Tattooing from Past to Present

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Tattoo and Bathhouse Bans in Contemporary Japan

  1. 1. TATTOO AND BATHHOUSE BANS IN CONTEMPORARY JAPAN Professor Yoshimi Yamamoto Tsuru University
  2. 2. MY PROFILE  Researching the cultural anthropology of Japanese tattooing since the 1990s  Completed a PhD on the modern history of Japanese tattooing in 2000  Published books on Japanese tattooing in 2005 & 2016 (Right: my latest book, Tattoos and the Japanese) 2
  3. 3. MUSEE DU QUAI, BRANLY IN PARIS MAY 2014 3
  4. 4. IREZUMI/TATTOO AND MULTICULTURAL COEXISTENCE: “LEARNING ABOUT THE ISSUES WITH TATTOOS AND ONSEN”  March 30, 2019  International symposium about the issues with tattoos and onsen  Nearly 180 participants 4
  5. 5. INDEPENDENT EXHIBITION IN OKINAWA PREFECTURAL MUSEUM & ART MUSEUM 5
  6. 6. SAMPLE OF IREZUMI IN AMAMI ISLAND IN KAGOSHIMA PREFECTURE 6
  7. 7. PATTERNS/DESIGNS DIFFER DEPENDING ON THE AREA - AMAMI, OKINAWA AND OTHER ISLANDS SOUTH OF JAPAN 7
  8. 8. THE OKINAWAN TRADITIONAL TATTOO ”HAJICHI AND TAIWAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLES TRADITIONAL TATTOO HISTORY AND NOW 8
  9. 9. TAYAL WOMAN WITH TATTOOS ON HER FACE (LEFT) CUDIUY PATJIDRES, TATTOOIST FROM THE PAIWAN INDIGENOUS TRIBE IN TAIWAN (RIGHT) 9
  10. 10. TA TAU ORIGIN OF ENGLISH WORD JJA“TATTOO” 10
  11. 11. VARIATION OF THE WORD “TATTOO”  Irezumi(入墨)Originated as a punishment to criminals, and later became generalized  Irezumi(入れ墨)Specifically used in newspapers  Gei(黥)One of the ancient way  Sumi(墨)Monmon(紋々)Gaman(我慢) Old way used in Western Japan  Bunshin(文身)Generally used in written form, not used lately  Shisei(刺青)Junichiro Tanizaki, novelist, used in his first novel and became popularly used 11
  12. 12. WESTERN CULTURE AND TATTOO  Wabori/Yobori(Japanese style/Western style)Those words were used in Japan after Tattoo was introduced in Japan  Tattoo(Generic terms used to indicate all tattoos, from indigenous people to the present)  Ink (Term in English speaking countries) 12
  13. 13. EXAMPLES OF SIGNS PROHIBITING TATTOOS AT SUMA AND TAKATSUKI 13
  14. 14. “People with tattoos may not use the bath or the bathing area. These rules are all an important part of our culture and we ask that you respect them.” SIGN AT BATHHOUSE ENTRANCE (IN TAKATSUKI CITY, OSAKA) 14
  15. 15. SIGN PROHIBITING THE DISPLAY OF TATTOOS AT SUMA BEACH, KOBE In February 2011, the Kobe city government proposed a bylaw banning people with tattoos from the Suma Beach area. It was passed in April 2011.  Human rights issues?  Influence on other jurisdictions?  Kobe’s status as an international city? 15
  16. 16. ‘WE ASK PEOPLE WITH TATTOOS TO VALUE THEIR TIME AND MONEY’ TOKYO SUMMERLAND SWIMMING POOL WEBSITE 16
  17. 17. WHY ARE TATTOOS FORBIDDEN IN JAPAN? 17
  18. 18. TATTOO CULTURE WAS FOR TRADESPEOPLE AND OUTLAWS Messenger Horichiyo, famed late 19th- century tattooist Database of Nagasaki University 18
  19. 19. TATTOOS WERE USED FOR PUNISHMENT IN THE EDO PERIOD ➡ THE SOURCE OF PREJUDICE TODAY? 19
  20. 20. LEGAL RESTRICTIONS PRIOR TO 1948  In 1811 and 1842, Edo Government prohibits tattooing  The Meiji Government, active in importing Western civilization to Japan, saw tattooed people as an embarrassment and placed prohibitions on artists and clients in 1872.  A source of contemporary prejudice against tattoo? 20
  21. 21. THE MEGA-HIT PERIOD DRAMA SERIES, TOYAMA NO KIN-SAN 21
  22. 22. WHY ARE THERE ‘NO TATTOO’ SIGNS AT HOT SPRINGS, PUBLIC BATHHOUSES AND BEACHES? 1963-1973, The Golden Age of the Yakuza Film Over 1000 yakuza films produced in the following 30 years 22
  23. 23. POSTERS OF YAKUZA FILMS Karajishi Jingi 1969 Bakuchiuchi Ippikiryu 1967 23
  24. 24. Shura no Mure 1984 Mamushi No Kyodai 1971 POSTERS OF YAKUZA FILMS 24
  25. 25. SOCIAL CHANGE AMID RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH From the late 1950s, private homes become equipped with showers and baths, and public bathhouses start to close. ➡ Fewer opportunities to see others naked 25
  26. 26. CHANGES IN JAPANESE SOCIETY Mass-production of yakuza films led tattoos to be seen as the mark of the yakuza rather than the tradesman Structural transformation of the economy saw a shift from primary and secondary industries to tertiary (service) industry ➡Office dress regulations increasingly prevent people from having tattoos 26
  27. 27. Yamaguchigumi Gaiden Kyushu Shinko Sakusen (1974) YAKUZA FILMS EXPORTED OVERSEAS 27
  28. 28. TAKESHI KITANO’S OUTRAGE (2010) 28
  29. 29. TAKASHI MIIKE’S YAKUZA APOCALYPSE (2015) 29
  30. 30. The Wolverine (2013) 30
  31. 31. CHANGES SINCE THE 1990S  1992 Anti-Organized Crime Law  ‘No tattoo’ signs erected outside public baths? 31
  32. 32. 1980S: CONTEMPORARY TATTOOS BECOME POPULAR AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE 32
  33. 33. THE JAPANESE GOVERNMENT IS EXPECTING 4 MILLION OVERSEAS VISITORS IN 2020 What is the future of Japanese tattooing? 33

×