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Ian CONDRY
Global Studies and Languages
MIT
Music and the New Social Economy  
An Anthropological Perspective
Images: Miku...
The future is
already here. It is just
unevenly distributed.
未来は既にここにある。ただ、
不平等に分散している。
- William Gibson
USA productivity vs. typical wages,
(produttività vs. salari tipici), 1948-2014
Source: Economic Policy Institute (epi.org...
[C] episode 9
Income Inequality in USA:
since 1979, growth for 1% only
5
Source: Congressional Budget Office
Zombie capitalism begins around 1980
Thomas Piketty (2013):
# of billionaires, 1987-2013
10 times increase, from 140 to 1400
7http://piketty.pse.ens.fr/files/ca...
“You can’t change
capitalism.”
“Communism lacks vibrancy.”
What is a model for a
democratic,
social economy, that
respects...
Music & musicians after the recording industry
“Everything is Free”
Sylvan Esso & Flock of Dimes
(written by Gillian Welch...
Jonathan Sterne (2014)
“There is no music industry”
“… as with its cultural life, music’s
economic life extends far beyond...
Value of Recorded Music
レコーディングの経済的な価値 USAJapan
Sources: RIAA, RIAJ
Anthropology and value
• David Graeber (2001) Toward an Anthropological
Theory of Value
– " . . . look at social systems a...
If social economic space-time
is curved, what is gravity?
もし、社会経済的な時空
曲がっているなら、
重力とは何ですか?
VALUE: from flat to curved
social...
After the recording industry
• music festivals / live shows
• ミュジックフェス
• idols / merchandising the social
• アイドル、社交の商品
• c...
What is “gravity” that curves
social economic space time?
• money
• intimacy
• good sounds
• audience
• and . . . ?
ZIPANG: party in the ruins
廃虚の中のパーティー
白浜フラワーパーク
千葉、南房総
Shirahama Flower Park,
Minami Boso, Chiba
+ “Jungle Palace Hotel”
Zipang ジパング 6/17
• techno music festival
• only Japanese artists
• organized by Takada Jyoji,
“Upper Kidz,” around
Gatosan...
“live painting”
sound guys, 6am, pouring rain
mud, leaking ceiling, flooded walkways,
but great sound with constant adjustment
Music attracts many people, various
arts, merchandise, & networking too
• DJs, live music, and dance
• live art painting
•...
AKB48
starts December 2006 with 20 members
会いに行けるアイドル
“An idol you can go meet”
• not “media idol”
• only accessible through TV or
magazines
• “live idol”
• daily sh...
25
AKB48
“AKiBa = Akihabara
26
27
28
Three-day “General Election”
for members moving up and down
Nogizaka 46
“official rival of AKB 48” 29
“The next seven “centers” will be selected based on
lesson results and responses...
AKB 48 商法
“shôhô” = sales technique
• In 2012, 15 of the top 30 singles = AKB family
• But fans don’t buy for the music
• ...
commodity becomes social value
social value becomes commodity
Value of aging
(for college students)
Awesome
Suck
Age
Value of aging
(for middle-age professor)
Wisdom
Sucker
Age
Value of song (to me)
value
time
don’t
know
just
heard
heavy
rotation
over
played
sick
of it
forgot
radio
nostalgia!
succe...
Anthropology and value
• David Graeber (2001) Toward an Anthropological
Theory of Value
– " . . . look at social systems a...
Duke University Press
2006
Japanese translation
日本のヒップホップ
NTT Publications
2009
MC U
at
Club Bed
in
Ikebukuro
(Tokyo, Japan)
Umedy at Gig-Antic in Shibuya (Tokyo, 2/97)
Kakato “Tabla ’n Rap”
Buddha Brand
“Funky Methodist”
social
value
Economic
value
Shingo Nishinari
“Ichimô dajin” by Infumiai Kumiai
Fans at "B-Boy Park 2001," Yoyogi Park, Tokyo
David Graeber (2011)
“Debt: The First 5000 Years”
• “ . . . all social systems, even
economic systems like capitalism,
hav...
Amanda Palmer & crowd-funding
HOLA COMRADES!!
This is the biggest announcement i've made
in a while. i'm freakin out.
.......
Amanda Palmer
like i say in the blog:
if kickstarter was
like dating, this is
more like going
steady.
i'm psyched to go on...
learning & expertise
as social value
• Bar Bonobo in
Tokyo
• famous DJs play for small
crowd - why?
• learn from expert au...
J. K. Gibson-Graham
“A Postcapitalist Politics”
• If we can begin to see
non capitalist
activities as prevalent
and viable...
Source:
J. K. Gibson-Graham
“Postcapitalist Politics”
learning & expertise
vs.
monetization moments
• patron
$$ album
• sell object $$
• sell ads / merch $$
preparation, produc...
Skatepark of Engagement
curvature of social economic space-time
consumersproducers
“free”
ads
radio
Pandora
Spotify
subscr...
52
Vocaloid 2 CV01 (character
vocal series)
Hatsune Miku
Vocaloid, voice synthesizer software
(lyrics & melody)
53
Miku, virtual idol
http://www.crypton.co.jp/mp/pages/prod/vocaloid/cv01.jsp (11/10)
55
layers of participation
Top Miku Video:
10 million views
Nov. 2012
cloud of comments
Nico Nico Dôga
ニコニコ動画
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O17f3lB7BFY accessed 6-10-15
http://www.cnngo.com/tokyo/play/hologram-484669 (11/11/10)
60
Oct. 2012
Miku Miku Dance
free software for 3D video making
63
64
“Chaining Intention”
video by Masataka P
65
66
67
68
69
Hachioji P, first major album
PiaPro (“peer production”)
70
Video describes licensing issues http://piapro.jp/intro/
“Of course,
Miku illustrations
are ...
Crypton Future Media: 3 licensing scenarios
1. non-commercial, no recompense
covered by Piapro Character License (PCL)
– >...
2. non-profit, but some recompense
if recoup only costs of materials --> submit application
through PiaProLink, receive QR ...
3. commercial, for profit
negotiate a contract with Crypton, pay license fees;
“This income to support CGM” (consumer gener...
Social Economies:
a complex mix of social & economic values
• Live performance as authentic experience - hip-hop
and other...
value of music
(curvature of space-time)
• not just point of sale, value shifts over time, with audiences
and different le...
終
the
end
iancondry.com
Email:
condry@mit.edu
wallpaper from Samurai Champloo official website
Public Lecture Slides (6.29.2017) Ian Condry: Music and the New Social Economy
Public Lecture Slides (6.29.2017) Ian Condry: Music and the New Social Economy
Public Lecture Slides (6.29.2017) Ian Condry: Music and the New Social Economy
Public Lecture Slides (6.29.2017) Ian Condry: Music and the New Social Economy
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Public Lecture Slides (6.29.2017) Ian Condry: Music and the New Social Economy

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Ian Condry: Music and the New Social Economy: Value and Livelihoods in a Post-Capitalist 21st Century

ICAS public lecture series videos are posted on Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLAA67B040B82B8AEF

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Public Lecture Slides (6.29.2017) Ian Condry: Music and the New Social Economy

  1. 1. Ian CONDRY Global Studies and Languages MIT Music and the New Social Economy   An Anthropological Perspective Images: Miku, AKB48 and Anarchy
  2. 2. The future is already here. It is just unevenly distributed. 未来は既にここにある。ただ、 不平等に分散している。 - William Gibson
  3. 3. USA productivity vs. typical wages, (produttività vs. salari tipici), 1948-2014 Source: Economic Policy Institute (epi.org) www.epi.org/publication/understanding-the-historic-divergence-between-productivity-and-a-typical- workers-pay-why-it-matters-and-why-its-real/ (Bivens; Mishel 2015, Economic Policy Institute)
  4. 4. [C] episode 9
  5. 5. Income Inequality in USA: since 1979, growth for 1% only 5 Source: Congressional Budget Office
  6. 6. Zombie capitalism begins around 1980
  7. 7. Thomas Piketty (2013): # of billionaires, 1987-2013 10 times increase, from 140 to 1400 7http://piketty.pse.ens.fr/files/capital21c/en/pdf/F12.1.pdf
  8. 8. “You can’t change capitalism.” “Communism lacks vibrancy.” What is a model for a democratic, social economy, that respects diversity? The record industry is dissolving. But music today is a natural experiment in emerging social economies. 「資本主義が 変わらない。」 「共産主義はエネルギー がない。」 どういう民主的な いわゆる社会経済が 可能ですか? レコード産業はなくなり つつある。 が、今日は音楽の世界が 社会経済の色んなあり方の 自然実験になってるといいます。
  9. 9. Music & musicians after the recording industry “Everything is Free” Sylvan Esso & Flock of Dimes (written by Gillian Welch, Dave Rawlings 2001) Everything is free now that’s what they say everything I’ve ever done I’m gonna give it away someone hit the big score figured it out they were gonna do it anyway even if it doesn’t pay • すべてが今は無料だ • そう言うよね • 私が今までにやったことのすべて • ただでみんなに放る • 誰かがビッグスコアができた • 上手く解決したが、 • 彼らはとにかくそれをやるつもりで • それが支払わなくても上げる
  10. 10. Jonathan Sterne (2014) “There is no music industry” “… as with its cultural life, music’s economic life extends far beyond remediations of live performance…. There is no ‘music industry.’ There are many industries with many relationships to music.” (p. 55). 音楽の文化的な生活と同様に、音楽の 経済生活は、ライブパフォーマンスの録 音をはるかに超えています。 「音楽産業」はありません。音楽との 関係が豊富な産業が数多くあります。 Media Industries Journal, 1(1): 54
  11. 11. Value of Recorded Music レコーディングの経済的な価値 USAJapan Sources: RIAA, RIAJ
  12. 12. Anthropology and value • David Graeber (2001) Toward an Anthropological Theory of Value – " . . . look at social systems as structures of creative action, and – value, as how people measure the importance of their own actions within such structures" (p. 230) – 社会構造=クリエティヴアクション構造 – 価値=自分で計るアクションの重要性
  13. 13. If social economic space-time is curved, what is gravity? もし、社会経済的な時空 曲がっているなら、 重力とは何ですか? VALUE: from flat to curved social economic space time 平面から曲面への社会経済の価値
  14. 14. After the recording industry • music festivals / live shows • ミュジックフェス • idols / merchandising the social • アイドル、社交の商品 • crowd-funding • クラウドファンド • crowd-sourced virtual idols • ボカロイド
  15. 15. What is “gravity” that curves social economic space time? • money • intimacy • good sounds • audience • and . . . ?
  16. 16. ZIPANG: party in the ruins 廃虚の中のパーティー 白浜フラワーパーク 千葉、南房総 Shirahama Flower Park, Minami Boso, Chiba + “Jungle Palace Hotel”
  17. 17. Zipang ジパング 6/17 • techno music festival • only Japanese artists • organized by Takada Jyoji, “Upper Kidz,” around Gatosano bar (Harajuku) • Main acts: DJ Nobu, K-Bomb, Eree, Fumi, Medical, CMT, Kihara Naoki, Groun土, etc.
  18. 18. “live painting”
  19. 19. sound guys, 6am, pouring rain mud, leaking ceiling, flooded walkways, but great sound with constant adjustment
  20. 20. Music attracts many people, various arts, merchandise, & networking too • DJs, live music, and dance • live art painting • light show with former crew members of Kurosawa Akira • silk screen shirts, leather work, jewelry, guarana • healthful food trucks
  21. 21. AKB48 starts December 2006 with 20 members
  22. 22. 会いに行けるアイドル “An idol you can go meet” • not “media idol” • only accessible through TV or magazines • “live idol” • daily shows in Akihabara • shake hands, vote, collect • Yasushi Akimoto, producer and songwriter, with over 100M in singles sales (top in Japan) 24
  23. 23. 25 AKB48 “AKiBa = Akihabara
  24. 24. 26
  25. 25. 27
  26. 26. 28 Three-day “General Election” for members moving up and down
  27. 27. Nogizaka 46 “official rival of AKB 48” 29 “The next seven “centers” will be selected based on lesson results and responses on N 46 official website.”
  28. 28. AKB 48 商法 “shôhô” = sales technique • In 2012, 15 of the top 30 singles = AKB family • But fans don’t buy for the music • vote for “center” “member” in next single • collect photos and other extras • ticket access for live performances • ticket access to “shake hands” events – CD is about social connection / participation (not music) 30
  29. 29. commodity becomes social value
  30. 30. social value becomes commodity
  31. 31. Value of aging (for college students) Awesome Suck Age
  32. 32. Value of aging (for middle-age professor) Wisdom Sucker Age
  33. 33. Value of song (to me) value time don’t know just heard heavy rotation over played sick of it forgot radio nostalgia! success in DJ mix!! DJ mix fail I still like it
  34. 34. Anthropology and value • David Graeber (2001) Toward an Anthropological Theory of Value – " . . . look at social systems as structures of creative action, and – value, as how people measure the importance of their own actions within such structures" (p. 230) – 社会構造=クリエティヴアクション構造 – 価値=自分で計るアクションの重要性
  35. 35. Duke University Press 2006 Japanese translation 日本のヒップホップ NTT Publications 2009
  36. 36. MC U at Club Bed in Ikebukuro (Tokyo, Japan)
  37. 37. Umedy at Gig-Antic in Shibuya (Tokyo, 2/97)
  38. 38. Kakato “Tabla ’n Rap” Buddha Brand “Funky Methodist”
  39. 39. social value Economic value
  40. 40. Shingo Nishinari “Ichimô dajin” by Infumiai Kumiai
  41. 41. Fans at "B-Boy Park 2001," Yoyogi Park, Tokyo
  42. 42. David Graeber (2011) “Debt: The First 5000 Years” • “ . . . all social systems, even economic systems like capitalism, have always been built upon a bedrock of actually-existing communism” (p. 95) • Example: – X: “Can I borrow a pen?” – Y: “Sure, for a dollar.” – X: “Loser.” 44
  43. 43. Amanda Palmer & crowd-funding HOLA COMRADES!! This is the biggest announcement i've made in a while. i'm freakin out. ....i've been hinting for over a year about launching a new subscription system . . . i want to GET BACK TO MAKING ART. i've decided to use PATREON.COM to fund my new musical & artistic undertakings. a subscription site for people who really want to support artists in an ongoing way. patrons agree to pay a set amount of money per piece of content that's released (say, $3 per song, video, etc), and you can CAP the monthly limit, so you never have to pay more than your budget allows. March 2015 email to fans
  44. 44. Amanda Palmer like i say in the blog: if kickstarter was like dating, this is more like going steady. i'm psyched to go on this ride with whoever's willing to come. i love you guys, so much.....and thank you. http://www.patreon.com/amandapalmer xxxx AFP
  45. 45. learning & expertise as social value • Bar Bonobo in Tokyo • famous DJs play for small crowd - why? • learn from expert audience • great sound design acoustics • networking with fellow artists Koji Morimoto (animator) of Oyaji Knights at Bonobo
  46. 46. J. K. Gibson-Graham “A Postcapitalist Politics” • If we can begin to see non capitalist activities as prevalent and viable, we may be encouraged here and now to actively build on them to transform our local economies.” (p. xxiv)
  47. 47. Source: J. K. Gibson-Graham “Postcapitalist Politics”
  48. 48. learning & expertise vs. monetization moments • patron $$ album • sell object $$ • sell ads / merch $$ preparation, production music in public
  49. 49. Skatepark of Engagement curvature of social economic space-time consumersproducers “free” ads radio Pandora Spotify subscrip- tions live show merch crowd fund YouTube Red etc. Live Nation Patreon Kickstarter angel investors VIP meet & greet buy music
  50. 50. 52 Vocaloid 2 CV01 (character vocal series) Hatsune Miku
  51. 51. Vocaloid, voice synthesizer software (lyrics & melody) 53
  52. 52. Miku, virtual idol http://www.crypton.co.jp/mp/pages/prod/vocaloid/cv01.jsp (11/10)
  53. 53. 55
  54. 54. layers of participation Top Miku Video: 10 million views Nov. 2012 cloud of comments Nico Nico Dôga ニコニコ動画
  55. 55. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O17f3lB7BFY accessed 6-10-15
  56. 56. http://www.cnngo.com/tokyo/play/hologram-484669 (11/11/10)
  57. 57. 60 Oct. 2012
  58. 58. Miku Miku Dance free software for 3D video making 63
  59. 59. 64 “Chaining Intention” video by Masataka P
  60. 60. 65
  61. 61. 66
  62. 62. 67
  63. 63. 68
  64. 64. 69 Hachioji P, first major album
  65. 65. PiaPro (“peer production”) 70 Video describes licensing issues http://piapro.jp/intro/ “Of course, Miku illustrations are copyrighted under Crypton Future Media.”
  66. 66. Crypton Future Media: 3 licensing scenarios 1. non-commercial, no recompense covered by Piapro Character License (PCL) – > freely use images, make goods, w/o asking 71
  67. 67. 2. non-profit, but some recompense if recoup only costs of materials --> submit application through PiaProLink, receive QR code 72 Crypton Future Media http://piapro.jp/intro/
  68. 68. 3. commercial, for profit negotiate a contract with Crypton, pay license fees; “This income to support CGM” (consumer generated media). 7332 Crypton Future Media http://piapro.jp/intro/
  69. 69. Social Economies: a complex mix of social & economic values • Live performance as authentic experience - hip-hop and other live shows • Merchandising participation: AKB48 and other pop idols in Japan • Learning & networking in the underground DJ scene - Bar Bonobo (Tokyo) • Crowd-funding - Amanda Palmer (Boston, USA) • Community first, then $$$: Miku and other virtual idols
  70. 70. value of music (curvature of space-time) • not just point of sale, value shifts over time, with audiences and different levels of intimacy • social value of music vs. economic value (curvature) • cultural norms, not just “technology,” are key to business models (e.g., monetizing photos) • for today’s listeners, few “own” music, but many seek connection, sense of participation • idea of “ownership” hasn’t disappeared, but is transformed through selfies and personal videos of concert experiences
  71. 71. 終 the end iancondry.com Email: condry@mit.edu wallpaper from Samurai Champloo official website

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