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English-Medium
Instruction in
Japanese Higher
Education: Policy,
Challenges, and
Outcomes
Annette Bradford
Meiji Universit...
English-Medium Instruction (EMI) IN
Japan
•Undergraduate EMI offered at 274 universities
•Graduate EMI offered at 204 univ...
Section 1:
English-Medium Instruction in
Context
Section 2:
The Implementation of English-
Medium Instruction in Japan
Sec...
1. Road-Mapping EMI in Japan
Annette Bradford & Howard Brown
ROAD-MAPPING framework
M
(l
(Dafouz & Smit, 2014)
Roles of English
•Dominant position of English in internationalization
•Plurilingualism rarely mentioned
•English as an ad...
Academic Disciplines
•Focus on humanities and social science at
undergraduate level
•More natural science and technical fi...
Language Management
•Lack of explicit language polices at the national and
institutional level
•MEXT (Ministry of Educatio...
Agents
•National Level
• MEXT - internationalization of higher education
• Keidanren (Japan Business Federation) -
promoti...
Practices and Processes
•Academic Practice influenced by:
• Japanese academic norms,
• notions of western pedagogy,
• real...
Internationalization and Glocalization
•EMI developing to address:
• Loss of economic competitiveness on the global
scale
...
4. Development EMI as a Key
for Internationalizing
Curricula
Hiroyuki Takagi
Internationalization of Curricula (IoC)
the incorporation of an international and
intercultural dimension into the content...
Competition-type Cooperation-type
Pragmatic-based rationales
• External-led and extrinsic stimuli
• Business/market-driven...
(Fraser and Bosanquet, 2006)
Curriculum models.
Product model Process model
Cognitive objectives
• Disciplinary and specia...
The concept of IoC and transition in
development of EMI
- government policies
- separate programs
- global professionals
-...
REFERENCES
Fraser, S. P. and Bosanquet, A. M. (2006). The curriculum? That’s
just a unit outline, isn’t it? Studies in Hig...
10. Center Stage but Invisible:
International Students in an
English-Taught Program
Juanita Heigham
Academic Concerns
• English limitations of faculty
• Teaching style
Non-Academic Concerns
• Settling in
• Social support
•...
15. Making the EFL to ELF
Transition in EMI at a Global
Traction University
Jim McKinley
From EFL to ELF in a Global
Traction University
English
Studies
Liberal
Arts
Green
Science
Difference perspective O X/O X/...
Discussion
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Public Lecture Slides (10.23.2017) English-medium Instruction in Japanese Higher Education: Policy, Challenges and Outcomes

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English-medium Instruction in Japanese Higher Education:
Policy, Challenges and Outcomes

Moderator: Annette Bradford Panelists: Hiroyuki Takagi, Juanita Heigham, Jim McKinley

ICAS public lecture series videos are posted on Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLAA67B040B82B8AEF

Published in: Education
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Public Lecture Slides (10.23.2017) English-medium Instruction in Japanese Higher Education: Policy, Challenges and Outcomes

  1. 1. English-Medium Instruction in Japanese Higher Education: Policy, Challenges, and Outcomes Annette Bradford Meiji University Hiroyuki Takagi Kobe University Juanita Heigham Nagoya University of Foreign Studies Jim McKinley University of Bath Book Launch, 23rd October 2017 Temple University, Japan Campus
  2. 2. English-Medium Instruction (EMI) IN Japan •Undergraduate EMI offered at 274 universities •Graduate EMI offered at 204 universities •Undergraduate degree entirely in English at 24 universities •Graduate degree entirely in English at 88 universities (MEXT, 2016) Courses conducted entirely in English, excluding those whose primary purpose is language education (MEXT, 2015)
  3. 3. Section 1: English-Medium Instruction in Context Section 2: The Implementation of English- Medium Instruction in Japan Section 3: Challenges & Solutions for English- Medium Instruction in Japan Section 4: The Student & Faculty Experience Section 5: Curriculum Contexts Section 6: Future Directions for English- Medium Instruction
  4. 4. 1. Road-Mapping EMI in Japan Annette Bradford & Howard Brown
  5. 5. ROAD-MAPPING framework M (l (Dafouz & Smit, 2014)
  6. 6. Roles of English •Dominant position of English in internationalization •Plurilingualism rarely mentioned •English as an additional academic language, not a lingua franca
  7. 7. Academic Disciplines •Focus on humanities and social science at undergraduate level •More natural science and technical fields in full English-taught degree programs or graduate school •EMI students may lack socialization into discipline- specific academic literacy
  8. 8. Language Management •Lack of explicit language polices at the national and institutional level •MEXT (Ministry of Education) policies do not define English as a medium of instruction •“Lessons conducted in English” •Focus and responsibility is at the individual classroom level
  9. 9. Agents •National Level • MEXT - internationalization of higher education • Keidanren (Japan Business Federation) - promotion of global jinzai •Institutional / University Level • Range of implementation strategies for EMI • Many examples of ad hoc implementation •Individual Level • Faculty / administrators - short-term or part-time  Little agency or voice • Students - less than 10% of student body, mainly domestic
  10. 10. Practices and Processes •Academic Practice influenced by: • Japanese academic norms, • notions of western pedagogy, • realities of EMI classrooms  Emerging blended academic norms and practices
  11. 11. Internationalization and Glocalization •EMI developing to address: • Loss of economic competitiveness on the global scale • National demographic shifts and competition to attract students • Local institutional needs
  12. 12. 4. Development EMI as a Key for Internationalizing Curricula Hiroyuki Takagi
  13. 13. Internationalization of Curricula (IoC) the incorporation of an international and intercultural dimension into the content of the curriculum as well as the teaching and learning processes and support services of a program of study… it will purposefully develop their international and intercultural perspectives as global professionals and citizens. (Leask, 2009: 209)
  14. 14. Competition-type Cooperation-type Pragmatic-based rationales • External-led and extrinsic stimuli • Business/market-driven • Student recruitment or world university ranking • Economic or political motivation Value-based rationales • Internal-led and intrinsic stimuli • Academic/cultural-driven • International exchange and collaboration • Social or cultural or academic values Top-down operations • Short-term planned engagement or compliance • Behavioral conformity with institutional policy • Structured and assessed quantitatively • Prescriptive and specifically articulated achievement Bottom-up operations • Long-term commitment or emergent • Inspiring the enthusiasm of individuals • Open-ended and assessed qualitatively • Descriptive and generally articulated achievement Local/national positions • Meeting needs of local/national clients • Home & international students have different agendas • Different learning goals and opportunities • Exclusive and ethnocentric International positions • Meeting needs of international clients • Home & international students have one agenda • Equal learning goals and opportunities • Inclusive and ethno-relative (Huisman and Van der Wende, 2005) Types of approach to internationalization.
  15. 15. (Fraser and Bosanquet, 2006) Curriculum models. Product model Process model Cognitive objectives • Disciplinary and specialist knowledge and skills • International competences (hard or technical skills) • Intellectual or professional development for global economy • Accumulative assessment • Human or economic capital Affective objectives • Awareness, attitudes, behaviors, values, cultural sensitivity and moral responsibility • Intercultural competences (soft or generic skills) • Personal or social development as global citizens • Formative assessment • Social or cultural capital Content-focused designs • Prescribed content for pre-specified objectives and means related to ends • What is taught and what is learned • Fixed and linear responded to external demands • Knowledge is technical, measurable and discipline- based • Teacher-centered; teachers are instructors Experiences-focused designs • Learning experiences and processes, and interactions among students and teachers • How is taught and learned • Flexible reflecting individual desires or interests • Knowledge is created by learners beyond a discipline • Leaner-centered; teachers are facilitators
  16. 16. The concept of IoC and transition in development of EMI - government policies - separate programs - global professionals - language skills & knowledge - class subjects - internationalization abroad - Individual initiatives - co-learning - global citizens - intercultural competences - students’ activities - internationalization at home
  17. 17. REFERENCES Fraser, S. P. and Bosanquet, A. M. (2006). The curriculum? That’s just a unit outline, isn’t it? Studies in Higher Education 31 (3), 269- 284. Huisman, J. and Van der Wende, M. C. (2005). On Cooperation and Competition II. Bonn: Lemmens. Leask, B. (2009) Using formal and informal curricula to improve interactions between home and international students. Journal of Studies in International Education 13 (2), 205-221. Takagi, H. (2015). The internationalisation of curricula: The complexity and diversity of meaning in and beyond Japanese universities. Innovations in Education and Teaching In-ternational. London, 52, (4), 349-359.
  18. 18. 10. Center Stage but Invisible: International Students in an English-Taught Program Juanita Heigham
  19. 19. Academic Concerns • English limitations of faculty • Teaching style Non-Academic Concerns • Settling in • Social support • Communication Nagoya University of Foreign Studies
  20. 20. 15. Making the EFL to ELF Transition in EMI at a Global Traction University Jim McKinley
  21. 21. From EFL to ELF in a Global Traction University English Studies Liberal Arts Green Science Difference perspective O X/O X/O Away from monolingual bias X/O X X Code-switching and mixing a resource X X X Target interlocutors and cultures NNESs O O O Teacher variance (NNESTs and NESTs) X X/O X/O Role models (successful ELF users) X O O C1 and L1 seen as resource X/O X X Case Study: Sophia University Successful implementation of EMI programs in three faculties. • Global approaches • Global studies X, Not observed/not present; O, observed/present; X/O, mixed data.
  22. 22. Discussion Order from www.multilingualmatters.com 50% Discount with code! PREORDER50

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