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Potential Oil Pollution Areas in
Turkish Straits System
Ocg. Cpt. A.Tuğsan İŞİAÇIK ÇOLAK¹- Istanbul Technicial
University Maritime Faculty, Turkey, firstname.lastname@example.org
Sources of Marine Pollution
Study Area:Turkish Strait Systems
Marmara Sea Enviromental Problems ‘ Overview’
Oil Pollution Caused by Vessel Operations
Why Ship Makes ILLEGAL Discharge???
Potential Oil Pollution Areas in Turkish Straits
The term marine pollution was defined by United
Nations working group called "Group of Experts on
Scientific Aspects of Marine environmental Protection
(GESAMP)". GESAMP defined it as "Pollution means
introduction by man, directly or indirectly of
substances or energy into the marine environment
(including estuaries) resulting in such deleterious
effects as harm to living resources, hazards to human
health, hindrance to marine activities including
fishing, impairment of quality for use of seawater and
reduction of amenities".
2.SOURCES OF MARINE
Runoff approximately 50% sewage, 50% from forestry,
farming, and other land use. Also airborne nitrogen
oxides from power plants, cars etc.
Feed algal blooms in coastal waters. Decomposing
algae depletes water of oxygen, killing other marine life.
Can spur algal blooms (red tides), releasing toxins that
can kill fish and poison people. (Ref:1)
Erosion from mining, forestry, farming, and other landuse; coastal dredging and mining
Cloud water; impede photosynthesis below surface
waters. Clog gills of fish. Smother and bury coastal
ecosystems. Carry toxins and excess nutrients. (Ref:1)
Contaminate coastal swiming areas and seafood,
spreading cholera, typhoid and other diseases.
Several thousand per day transported in ballast water;
also spread through canals linking bodies of water and
fishery enhancement projects.
Outcompete native species and reduce biological
diversity. Introduce new marine diceases. Associated
with increased incidence of red tides and other algal
blooms. Problem in major ports.
Persistent Toxins (PCBs, Heavy metals, DDT
etc.)Industrial discharge; wastewater discharge from
cities; pesticides from farms, forests, home use etc.;
seepage from landfills.
poison or cause disease in coastal marine life, especially
near major cities or industry. Contaminate seafood. Fatsoluble toxins that bio-accumulate in predators can
cause disease and reproductive failure.
46% from cars, heavy machinery, industry, other landbased sources; 32% from oil tanker operations and other
shipping; 13% from accidents at sea; also offshore oil
drilling and natural seepage.
Low level contamination can kill larvae and cause
disease in marine life. Oil slicks kill marine life, especially
in coastal habitats. Tar balls from coagulated oil litter
beaches and coastal habitat.
Fishing nets; cargo and cruise ships; beach litter; wastes
from plastics industry and landfills.
Discard fishing gear continues to catch fish. Other plastic
debris entangles marine life or is mistaken for food.
Plastics litter beaches and coasts and may persist for
200 to 400 years.
Discarded nuclear submarine and military
waste; atmospheric fallout; also industrial
spots of radio activity. Can enter food
chain and cause disease in marine life.
Concentrate in top predators and shellfish,
which are eaten by people.
Cooling water from power plants and
Kill off corals and other temperature sensitive
sedentary species. Displace other marine life.
Supertankers, other large vessels and
Can be heard thousands of kilometers away
under water. May stress and disrupt marine
TURKISH STRAITS SYTEM
The Turkish Straits System (TSS),consisting of
the Marmara Sea, Strait of Istanbul and Strait
The Turkish Straits, which consist of the Strait of Istanbul
(Bosporus), the Strait of Çanakkale (the Dardanelles)
and the Sea of Marmara, have for centuries been one of
the world’s most strategic waterways due to their
extreme narrowness, winding contours and densely
populated shores. As the Black Sea's sole maritime link
to the Mediterranean and the open ocean beyond, they
are a vital passageway not just for trade but for the
projection of military and political power. (Ref.2)
4.Regional Environmental Problems for
the Marmara Sea
It has been estimated that on a global scale, up to 70% of pollution
in the seas originate from land-based sources <m. The marine
environment of the Marmara Sea has become increasingly
vulnerable; whose oceanographic features do not help much its selfpurification capacity. This inland sea is a semi-enclosed water body
of 11111 km with an average depth of 260m. Domestic pollution
load is generated mainly by the Istanbul Metropolis and its
surroundings where 1/5 of Turkey's population live . Furthermore
large industrial facilities amounting to 60 % of the total, located on
the bays and coastal areas constitute the most significant portion of
local land-based input into the Marmara Sea.(Ref:3)
Sea Transportation is one of the most important regional
enviromental problem due to Black Sea is connected to the
World Oceans via the Mediterranean Sea through Turkish
The tanker traffic is very
dense through the
Straits to Black Sea. It is
expected that increasing
situation of tanker traffic
in Black Sea and
quantities of oil handled
will be higher for the
future. This high density
of crude oil
transportation by tankers
and other ships cause
major oil pollution.
Observed 150 Envisat Satellite Pictures. May 2007-Jan2008 Source EMSA
100 possible Oil Slick Detected
5.Oil Pollution Caused by Vessel
Examples for Ship transportation that
causes sea pollution
Discharging Bilge Water and Sludge
Ballast Water Exchange Operations Alien Species
transported in ballast water
Litters from Ships
Anti- Fouling Paints
Discharge of Sewage (Ref:4)
Major inputs of Petroleum to the
37% comes from industrial wastes, reach the sea, via
storm water drain, creeks, sewage and rivers.
33% from oil vessels during transportation.
2% during explorations and
12% from accidents involving tankers.
7% comes from natural sources like fissures from sea
9% absorbed from atmosphere. (Ref:4)
Oil Pollution can be
Loading / Discharging – Cargo Operations
Any Accidents with Oil Pollution
Illegal Discharges from Vessels
6. Why Ship Makes ILLEGAL
Ship generates oily waste products due to usage of
consuming heavy fuel oil, marine oil and lubricating oil for
all types power driven vessels. On the other hand routine
tanker operations cause oily waste water.
Three categories of oily waste generally accumulate
onboard especially on large vessels
Oil cargo residue
Machinery spaces on large commercial vessels contain a
wide array of complex engineering systems to propel and
power the vessel. Not only purification also supporting
systems; saltwater service, bilge and ballast, cooling
systems, fire fighting and sewage generate oily waste
products and leakage.
In order to prevent damage to engine systems and improve
combustion, the fuel should be purified. After purifying
the residues ( both the sludge and fluid contaminates )
drain to a sludge tank. Purifying method is also used for
main and auxiliary engine lubricating oil.
Sludge in the Sludge Tank
Oil Cargo Residue Waste
Tankers (product, chemical and crude) carry oil in bulk
and generate oil cargo waste residues. Tankers have
various tanks and may carry many different cargos at the
same time. After each change of cargo type, cargo tanks
should be cleaned.
These systems use water for cleaning cargo tanks and they
produce oily waste water after cleaning tank operation
The Reason of Illegal Discharges are
To load more cargo
Too much cost to discharge bilge water-sludge
and slop to the shore facilities
This bilge water
line must be
open to the sea)
7. Potential Oil Pollution Areas in
Turkish Straits Systems
End of İstanbul Strait-Entrance
to the Black Sea
Geographical Distribution of Main Ports in Turkey
İzmit- Gemlik and Port Entrance–
Tuzla /Yalova Ship Yard Area
İstanbul Anchorage Area
Anchored Vessels have potential for
illegal discharge of bilge water and
RORO TRANSPORT has also play role
for marine pollution
Ro-Ro transportation between the Northern-Southern ports of the Sea of
Marmara which is an inland sea of our country.
Güneyden Çanakkale Boğaz
Çıkış- Marmara Adası
(Ref1) Sources and Effects of Marine Pollution, Compiled by WorldWatch Institute.
(Ref.2) RISK ANALYSIS OF TRANSIT VESSEL TRAFFIC IN THE STRAIT OF
ISTANBUL 1Özgecan S. Ulusçu , Birnur Özbaş,Tayfur Altıok ,İlhan Or
(Ref:3) Land Based And Shıp Orıgınated Pollutıon In The Turkısh Straıts System
Selmin B. * Zeki S. , Demir V. and Dogan E.
Lal, G., (2010), Disaster Management and Security ppt.