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Potential Pollution Areas at Turkish Strait Systems

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Potential Pollution Areas at Turkish Strait Systems

  1. 1. Potential Oil Pollution Areas in Turkish Straits System Ocg. Cpt. A.Tuğsan İŞİAÇIK ÇOLAK¹- Istanbul Technicial University Maritime Faculty, Turkey,
  2. 2. CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Marine Pollution Sources of Marine Pollution Study Area:Turkish Strait Systems Marmara Sea Enviromental Problems ‘ Overview’ Oil Pollution Caused by Vessel Operations Why Ship Makes ILLEGAL Discharge??? Potential Oil Pollution Areas in Turkish Straits Systems Conclusion
  3. 3. 1.Marine Pollution  The term marine pollution was defined by United Nations working group called "Group of Experts on Scientific Aspects of Marine environmental Protection (GESAMP)". GESAMP defined it as "Pollution means introduction by man, directly or indirectly of substances or energy into the marine environment (including estuaries) resulting in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources, hazards to human health, hindrance to marine activities including fishing, impairment of quality for use of seawater and reduction of amenities".
  4. 4. 2.SOURCES OF MARINE POLLUTION Nutrients Primary Source Runoff approximately 50% sewage, 50% from forestry, farming, and other land use. Also airborne nitrogen oxides from power plants, cars etc. Effects Feed algal blooms in coastal waters. Decomposing algae depletes water of oxygen, killing other marine life. Can spur algal blooms (red tides), releasing toxins that can kill fish and poison people. (Ref:1)
  5. 5. …  Sediments Primary Source Erosion from mining, forestry, farming, and other landuse; coastal dredging and mining Effects Cloud water; impede photosynthesis below surface waters. Clog gills of fish. Smother and bury coastal ecosystems. Carry toxins and excess nutrients. (Ref:1)
  6. 6. Pathogens  Sewage, livestock. Effects  Contaminate coastal swiming areas and seafood, spreading cholera, typhoid and other diseases. (Ref:1)
  7. 7. Alien Species Several thousand per day transported in ballast water; also spread through canals linking bodies of water and fishery enhancement projects. Effects Outcompete native species and reduce biological diversity. Introduce new marine diceases. Associated with increased incidence of red tides and other algal blooms. Problem in major ports. 
  8. 8. Persistent Toxins (PCBs, Heavy metals, DDT etc.)Industrial discharge; wastewater discharge from cities; pesticides from farms, forests, home use etc.; seepage from landfills. Effects  poison or cause disease in coastal marine life, especially near major cities or industry. Contaminate seafood. Fatsoluble toxins that bio-accumulate in predators can cause disease and reproductive failure. 
  9. 9.  Oil 46% from cars, heavy machinery, industry, other landbased sources; 32% from oil tanker operations and other shipping; 13% from accidents at sea; also offshore oil drilling and natural seepage. Effects Low level contamination can kill larvae and cause disease in marine life. Oil slicks kill marine life, especially in coastal habitats. Tar balls from coagulated oil litter beaches and coastal habitat.
  10. 10. Plastics Fishing nets; cargo and cruise ships; beach litter; wastes from plastics industry and landfills. Effects Discard fishing gear continues to catch fish. Other plastic debris entangles marine life or is mistaken for food. Plastics litter beaches and coasts and may persist for 200 to 400 years. 
  11. 11. Radioactive substances  Discarded nuclear submarine and military waste; atmospheric fallout; also industrial wastes. Effects  Hot spots of radio activity. Can enter food chain and cause disease in marine life. Concentrate in top predators and shellfish, which are eaten by people.
  12. 12. Thermal  Cooling water from power plants and industrial sites  Kill off corals and other temperature sensitive sedentary species. Displace other marine life.
  13. 13. Noise  Supertankers, other large vessels and machinery  Can be heard thousands of kilometers away under water. May stress and disrupt marine life. (Ref:1)
  15. 15. The Turkish Straits System (TSS),consisting of the Marmara Sea, Strait of Istanbul and Strait of Canakkale
  16. 16. Marmara Sea
  17. 17. Istanbul Strait
  18. 18. Çanakkale Strait
  19. 19. The Turkish Straits, which consist of the Strait of Istanbul (Bosporus), the Strait of Çanakkale (the Dardanelles) and the Sea of Marmara, have for centuries been one of the world’s most strategic waterways due to their extreme narrowness, winding contours and densely populated shores. As the Black Sea's sole maritime link to the Mediterranean and the open ocean beyond, they are a vital passageway not just for trade but for the projection of military and political power. (Ref.2)
  20. 20. 4.Regional Environmental Problems for the Marmara Sea  It has been estimated that on a global scale, up to 70% of pollution in the seas originate from land-based sources <m. The marine environment of the Marmara Sea has become increasingly vulnerable; whose oceanographic features do not help much its selfpurification capacity. This inland sea is a semi-enclosed water body of 11111 km with an average depth of 260m. Domestic pollution load is generated mainly by the Istanbul Metropolis and its surroundings where 1/5 of Turkey's population live [3]. Furthermore large industrial facilities amounting to 60 % of the total, located on the bays and coastal areas constitute the most significant portion of local land-based input into the Marmara Sea.(Ref:3)
  21. 21. Sea Transportation is one of the most important regional enviromental problem due to Black Sea is connected to the World Oceans via the Mediterranean Sea through Turkish Straits System.
  22. 22.  The tanker traffic is very dense through the Straits to Black Sea. It is expected that increasing situation of tanker traffic in Black Sea and quantities of oil handled will be higher for the future. This high density of crude oil transportation by tankers and other ships cause major oil pollution. Observed 150 Envisat Satellite Pictures. May 2007-Jan2008 Source EMSA 100 possible Oil Slick Detected
  23. 23. 5.Oil Pollution Caused by Vessel Operations
  24. 24. Examples for Ship transportation that causes sea pollution       Oil Pollution Discharging Bilge Water and Sludge Ballast Water Exchange Operations Alien Species transported in ballast water Litters from Ships Anti- Fouling Paints Discharge of Sewage (Ref:4)
  25. 25. Major inputs of Petroleum to the Marine Environment  37% comes from industrial wastes, reach the sea, via storm water drain, creeks, sewage and rivers.  33% from oil vessels during transportation.  2% during explorations and   12% from accidents involving tankers. 7% comes from natural sources like fissures from sea bed.  9% absorbed from atmosphere. (Ref:4)
  26. 26. Oil Pollution can be Operationally or Accidentally
  27. 27. Loading / Discharging – Cargo Operations
  28. 28. Bunkering Operations
  29. 29. Any Accidents with Oil Pollution
  30. 30. Grounding
  31. 31. Collision
  32. 32. Illegal Discharges from Vessels
  33. 33. 6. Why Ship Makes ILLEGAL Discharge???  Ship generates oily waste products due to usage of consuming heavy fuel oil, marine oil and lubricating oil for all types power driven vessels. On the other hand routine tanker operations cause oily waste water.  Three categories of oily waste generally accumulate onboard especially on large vessels  Bilge water  Sludge  Oil cargo residue
  34. 34. Bilge Waste  Machinery spaces on large commercial vessels contain a wide array of complex engineering systems to propel and power the vessel. Not only purification also supporting systems; saltwater service, bilge and ballast, cooling systems, fire fighting and sewage generate oily waste products and leakage.
  35. 35. Sludge Waste  In order to prevent damage to engine systems and improve combustion, the fuel should be purified. After purifying the residues ( both the sludge and fluid contaminates ) drain to a sludge tank. Purifying method is also used for main and auxiliary engine lubricating oil.
  36. 36. Sludge in the Sludge Tank
  37. 37. Oil Cargo Residue Waste Tankers (product, chemical and crude) carry oil in bulk and generate oil cargo waste residues. Tankers have various tanks and may carry many different cargos at the same time. After each change of cargo type, cargo tanks should be cleaned.  Steam cleaning  Butterworth machine These systems use water for cleaning cargo tanks and they produce oily waste water after cleaning tank operation
  38. 38. The Reason of Illegal Discharges are   To load more cargo Too much cost to discharge bilge water-sludge and slop to the shore facilities
  39. 39. This bilge water line must be clean!!!! (directly open to the sea)
  40. 40. 7. Potential Oil Pollution Areas in Turkish Straits Systems
  41. 41. End of İstanbul Strait-Entrance to the Black Sea
  42. 42. Geographical Distribution of Main Ports in Turkey 42
  43. 43. İzmit- Gemlik and Port Entrance– Tuzla /Yalova Ship Yard Area
  44. 44. İstanbul Anchorage Area Kumkapı-Zeytinburnu-AmbarlıKartal
  45. 45. Anchored Vessels have potential for illegal discharge of bilge water and sewage water
  46. 46. RORO TRANSPORT has also play role for marine pollution Ro-Ro transportation between the Northern-Southern ports of the Sea of Marmara which is an inland sea of our country. 46
  47. 47. Güneyden Çanakkale Boğaz Çıkış- Marmara Adası
  48. 48. 8. Conclusion
  49. 49. (Ref1) Sources and Effects of Marine Pollution, Compiled by WorldWatch Institute. (Ref.2) RISK ANALYSIS OF TRANSIT VESSEL TRAFFIC IN THE STRAIT OF ISTANBUL 1Özgecan S. Ulusçu , Birnur Özbaş,Tayfur Altıok ,İlhan Or (Ref:3) Land Based And Shıp Orıgınated Pollutıon In The Turkısh Straıts System Selmin B. * Zeki S. , Demir V. and Dogan E. Lal, G., (2010), Disaster Management and Security ppt.